Uolmsee lecture 001 power circuit breakers


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Uolmsee lecture 001 power circuit breakers

  1. 1. POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND SUBSTATIONS BY “Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi” "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 1
  2. 2. Power Circuit Breakers and Substations Classification of circuit Breaker and isolators, Terminology’ Circuit Breakers, Arcs, SF6 Switchgear & Circuit Breakers, Air Blast Circuit Breakers, oil Circuit Breaker, Special Purpose Circuit Breakers & Isolators, D.C Circuit Breakers, Breakers requirement, Testing, Switchgear Testing, Synthetic Testing, Substation Layout and Design, "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 2
  3. 3. Power Circuit Breakers and Substations BOOKS 1. "Advances in H.V insulation and Arc interruption'in SF6 and Vacuum", By V.N. Maller & M.S Naidu. 2. "Power Circuit Breakers Theory and Design", By C.H. Flurscheim. 3. "ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION", ENGINEERING AND PRACTICE, BY S RAO. "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 3
  4. 4. Contents 1. Classification of Circuit Breakers and Isolators a. b. Introduction Circuit Breakers, Switching Isolators, Isolator or Disconnectors "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 4
  5. 5. 2. Terminology: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. Contents Service Voltage Recovery Voltage Restriking Voltage (TRV) Interruption with Restrikes Prospective Current Prospective Breaking Current Breaking Capacity Symmetrical Breaking Capacity Asymmetrical Breaking Capacity Making Current Arcing Duration Make Time Operating Duty "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 5
  6. 6. Contents 2. Terminology: n. Load Current Interruption Interruption of Induction Current (Fault Currents, small, inductive current) Interruption of capacitive Currents Asynchronous switching Auto Reclosure Delayed Current Zero Fault Making Evolving faults. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 6
  7. 7. 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Contents Circuit Breaker Arcs Plasma and Thermal Ionisation (Substance i.e. solid liquid, Gas, Plasma) Ionisation Due to collision of Electrons Deionization Properties of the Arc Striking the Arc External Characteristics of the Arc Arc stability. Dynamic Arc characteristics The A.C Arc General Mathematical Arc Model The Mayr Arc equation The Cassie Arc equation "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 7
  8. 8. Contents 3. Circuit Breaker Arcs m. Application of Arc Models. m1. Pre-zero current (low Arc Resistance) m2. Post-zero current (High Arc Resistance) "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 8
  9. 9. Contents 4. SF6 Switchgear a. Arc Interruption is SF6 al . Physical & Chemical Properties a2. Arc Extinction is SF6 a3. a4. a5. Nozzle Design Arc Extinction Parameters. Throat Blocking) "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 9
  10. 10. Contents 4. SF6 Switchgear b. SF6 Circuit Breaker bl. b2. b3. c. Arc chamber; General Double pressure Arc chamber Circuit Breaker Type. (Live Tank & Dead) SF6 switching Isolators & other equipment. cl. c2. Switching Isolators. Current Transformers "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 10
  11. 11. Contents 5. Air Blast Circuit Breakers. a. b. Arc extension Pressurised Head- Atmospheric Head, Air Blast C.B b1. Constructions. b11. b12. b13. Auxiliary Chambers. Tripping/Closing resistors. Auxiliary Equipment. "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 11
  12. 12. Contents 6. Oil Circuit Breaker a. b. c. General Bulk-Oil circuit Breakers. Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker. 7. Special Purpose Circuit Breakers & Isolators. a. b. c. Air Blast Breakers with transverse air Jet Water circuit Breakers Pantograph Isolator "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 12
  13. 13. Contents 8. D.C Circuit Breakers. a. Producing of current zero (Four different methods) 9. Circuit Breakers requirement. a. b. c. d. Current Interruption Recovery voltage withstand. Recovery voltages calculation by current Injection Techniques c1. Current injection sequence. c2. Examples of current Injection Arc theory in short-line fault calculations "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 13
  14. 14. Contents 10. Switchqear Testinq a. b. High voltage TYPE TESTS (IEC-56-4) al. Lightning Impulse Tests a2. Switching Impulse test. a3. Power-Frequency voltage tests Short circuit current TYPE TESTS. b1. Short-time current b2. Breaking current b3. Transient Restriking b4. Load switching b5. Earthing Condition b6 Latching b7. Contact Condition b8. Critical current "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 14
  15. 15. Contents c. Type tests related to service conditions c1. Short line fault c2. c3. c4. Asynchronous switching Close loop switching Transformer magnetisting current switching c5. Capacitance current switching "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 15
  16. 16. Contents d. Miscellaneous TYPE tests. d1. Mechanical d2. d3. d4. Climatic Conditions Geographical Conditions Thermal "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 16
  17. 17. Contents e. Testing Equipment e1. Generators and Transformers e2. Part testing e2.1 e2.2 Single phase testing Unit testing "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 17
  18. 18. Contents 11. Synthetic Testing f1. Principles of synthetic testing f2. f3. f4. Skeats Circuit Parallel Injection test circuit Series Injection test circuit "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 18
  19. 19. Contents 12. Substation Layout and Design Introduction b. Basic Requirements a. b1. b2. b3. b4. b5. b6. System security Flexibility of operation Maintenance Facilities Protection Facilities Site-area & location Cost "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 19
  20. 20. Contents 12. Substation Layout and Design c. Busbar Configuration c1. Single busbar c2. Duplicate Busbar c3. Duplicate Back to Back c4. Transfer Busbar c5. 1&1/2 Circuit Breaker Arrangement c6. Mesh Arrangement c7. By Pass Facilities. c8. Location of current transformers c9. Indoor or Outdoor substation c10. Segregation e11. Phase-segregated & Insulated phase Busbar. "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 20
  21. 21. Contents 12. Substation Layout and Design d. Substation Earthing. d1. Earth Resistivity d2. Design of earth meshes. "Prof Dr. Suhail Aftab Qureshi" 21