History of Film
History of Mass
Communication
What is a Motion Picture
  Series

of still pictures rapidly projected on
a screen in such a way that the viewer
perceive...
Development of the Motion
Picture
  By

WW1 (July 1914), the motion picture
was a fully developed form of
entertainment w...
Technology for Film
  Photography

(Daguerreotype, Flexible Film, Box Camera)
  Illusion

of Motion
(Visual Persistence,...
Photography
  French

Artist & Inventor, Louis Daguerre
Chemist Joseph Niepce created best
method for photography
Daguerreotype
Louis Daguerre (1839)
  “Each

picture was made on a polished
copper plate that had been coated with
gleami...
Practiced Art to Hobby
  By

1880s, George Eastman developed
and marketed flexible celluloid film and a
simple box camera
Illusion of Motion
  Motion
  Series

pictures do not move!

of still pictures rapidly projected on
a screen in such a w...
Visual Persistence
(Dr. Peter Mark Roget 1824)
  The

brain will persist in seeing an object when
it is no longer visible...
Wheel of Life
(Phenakistoscope)
  Large

disk on which a series of drawings
showing a person or animal in
progressively d...
Motion Picture Camera
  William

Dickson (assistant to Thomas
Edison) developed the first practical
motion picture camera
Vitascope
  Thomas

Edison & Assistant Thomas Armat
developed in reliable projector system
and obtained US patent for the...
Kinetoscope
(Thomas Edison)
Moving pictures peep show device
  For a nickel, a single viewer could turn a crank,
look ins...
Thomas Edison
One to Two Reelers
  By

1903, both American and European
producers were making ‘one reelers’ that
lasted 10 to 12 minute...
The Nickelodeon
(Harry Davis & John Harris1905)
  The

Nickelodeon was the first type of indoor
exhibition space dedicate...
Movies for the Middle Class
  Nickelodeons

brought movies to the

urban poor.
  Attractive theatres were built in bette...
Making of the ‘Star’
  Films

were longer, more sophisticated and
gave prominent roles and media
attention to particular ...
Phonograph
(Thomas Edison 1877)
Talkies
  Since

the 1980s, inventors tried to
combine the phonograph and motion
pictures to produce movies with
synchron...
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
History of Mass Communication (Film)
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History of Mass Communication (Film)

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History of Mass Communication (Film)

  1. 1. History of Film History of Mass Communication
  2. 2. What is a Motion Picture   Series of still pictures rapidly projected on a screen in such a way that the viewer perceives smooth motion.
  3. 3. Development of the Motion Picture   By WW1 (July 1914), the motion picture was a fully developed form of entertainment with audiences in the millions, whereas television existed only crudely in early laboratory experiments
  4. 4. Technology for Film   Photography (Daguerreotype, Flexible Film, Box Camera)   Illusion of Motion (Visual Persistence, Wheel of Life)   Capturing and Projecting Motion with Film (Motion Picture Camera, Vitascope, Kinetoscope)
  5. 5. Photography   French Artist & Inventor, Louis Daguerre Chemist Joseph Niepce created best method for photography
  6. 6. Daguerreotype Louis Daguerre (1839)   “Each picture was made on a polished copper plate that had been coated with gleaming silver. In the total darkness, the silver coated plate was exposed to iodine fumes, which formed a thin coating of light sensitive iodine on its surface. When the well protected plate was placed in camera and then briefly exposed to a strongly lighted scene, the pattern of light and dark entering the lens of the camera altered the silver iodide. Chemical baths then fixed the image to the plate.” (DeFleur & Dennis. 1998)
  7. 7. Practiced Art to Hobby   By 1880s, George Eastman developed and marketed flexible celluloid film and a simple box camera
  8. 8. Illusion of Motion   Motion   Series pictures do not move! of still pictures rapidly projected on a screen in such a way that the viewer perceives smooth motion.
  9. 9. Visual Persistence (Dr. Peter Mark Roget 1824)   The brain will persist in seeing an object when it is no longer visible   We ‘see’ an image for a fraction of a second after the thing itself has changed or disappeared.   If we are presented with one image after the other, the visual persistence of the first image fills the time lag so they seem continuous
  10. 10. Wheel of Life (Phenakistoscope)   Large disk on which a series of drawings showing a person or animal in progressively different positions was mounted.   By rotating the disk and viewing the drawings through an aperture as the ‘wheel’ turned, a person could ‘see’ smooth motion.
  11. 11. Motion Picture Camera   William Dickson (assistant to Thomas Edison) developed the first practical motion picture camera
  12. 12. Vitascope   Thomas Edison & Assistant Thomas Armat developed in reliable projector system and obtained US patent for the ‘Vitascope’.   Wastefully projected forty eight frames per second whereas sixteen frames would provide the illusion of smooth motion
  13. 13. Kinetoscope (Thomas Edison) Moving pictures peep show device   For a nickel, a single viewer could turn a crank, look inside the machine and see a brief film on a small screen     Edison’s approach did not catch on , in the end the industry developed along the lines of the traditional theater model   By 1896, Edison was projecting motion pictures to the public for the first time in America
  14. 14. Thomas Edison
  15. 15. One to Two Reelers   By 1903, both American and European producers were making ‘one reelers’ that lasted 10 to 12 minutes and told a story.   By 1905, two reelers were becoming increasingly common, lasting up to 25 minutes
  16. 16. The Nickelodeon (Harry Davis & John Harris1905)   The Nickelodeon was the first type of indoor exhibition space dedicated to showing projected motion pictures   Usually set up in converted storefronts, these small, simple theatres charged five cents for admission and flourished from 1905 to 1915   ‘Nickelodeon’ was named from the nickle (US 5 cent coin and the Greek word odeion (roofed over theatre)
  17. 17. Movies for the Middle Class   Nickelodeons brought movies to the urban poor.   Attractive theatres were built in better neighbourhoods and movie ‘palaces; opened in business districts to attract middle class audiences
  18. 18. Making of the ‘Star’   Films were longer, more sophisticated and gave prominent roles and media attention to particular actors and actresses.   They hired press agents to publicize them as artists and important personalities.   Early PR specialists created masculine idols and love goddesses
  19. 19. Phonograph (Thomas Edison 1877)
  20. 20. Talkies   Since the 1980s, inventors tried to combine the phonograph and motion pictures to produce movies with synchronised sound.   In mid 1920 American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) produced a sound system based on optical recording of sound incorporated directly into the actual film
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