Knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, that behavior may be modeled. Further, media provide models for a vast array of people in many different environmental settings.
In some case modeling is not enough Social Cognitive Theorist turn to operant conditioning concepts of rewards/punishments in social learning contexts Reinforcement is central to social learning process Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behaviour may change in form, frequency, or strength
The effects are not dependent on actual rewards and punishments but on reinforcement According to Albert Bandura, vicarious reinforcement works because of the concepts of outcome expectations and outcome expectancies Vicarious reinforcement - Reinforcement that occurs when you imitate the behavior of someone who has been reinforced for that behavior, as when avoiding hot water having seen another person burned by it.
Communication Theory (Social Cognitive Theory)
Social Cognitive Theory
Tara Wilkinson-McClean. PhD. Candidate
Media & Communications Lecturer
When they are ‘models’
in an individual’s
can occur through the
observation of these
When we see models being rewarded and punished, we come to
expect the same outcomes if we perform the same behaviour
Value attached to these expectations
Expectancies consider the extent to which any particular
reinforcement is seen as a reward or punishment
Different things are rewarding to different people
Value of reward influence extent of social learning
If an individual feels a strong psychological
connection to a model, social learning is more likely to
Identification springs from wanting to be and trying to
be like the model with respect to some broader
Observer’s ability to perform a particular behaviour
and the confidence the individual has in performing
Practical prerequisite to behavioural change.
Learning occurs when an individual observes a model
performing a behaviour and being rewarded or
punished for that behaviour
From this observation, the learner develops
expectancies about what will happen when he or she
performs the behaviour and these expectancies will
influence learning and subsequent behaviour
Learning will be moderated by the extent to which the
individual identifies with the model and feels a sense of
self-efficacy about performing the task
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