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  • Big idea calm happy customers make those that are possibile criminals standout more easily
  • Understanding and mapping the ladder of cookstove technology and habits and practices
  • Complex behavior patterns… it is not unusual to see three or 4 of these stoves in peoples homes… the default is wood if the budget wont allow more expensive fuel. But it is often in the context of of a small amount of fuel… even daily.. Then wood and charcoal win out


  • 1. Finding Themes: introduction to making sense PAMF + IDEO Confidential
  • 2. How do we make meaning?
  • 3. It’s about finding patterns
  • 4. It’s also about creating context
  • 5. SYNTHESIS is finding meaning Synthesis is the process of making sense of field research by bringing patterns of information together in a meaningful way. Successful synthesis connects multiple layers together into compelling narrative.
  • 6. Developing a synthesis mindset Synthesis is: » More art than science » Painful yet satisfying » Magical, when it all comes together » Start with finding themes
  • 7. Developing a synthesis mindset Balancing new & existing knowledge During synthesis, it’s important to keep an open mind.
  • 8. This is what it looks like: 2 weeks of synthesis in 3 minutes
  • 9. ACTIVITY: FINDING THEMES This activity is about bringing visibility and clarity to human needs. Observation: Elizabeth labels all her ointments with the body part they are for. Quote: “I keep track of all her food intake and insulin needs in my head.” - Deirdre Theme: Patients seek support in managing medication.
  • 10. ACTIVITY: FINDING THEMES Observation: Sheila, Leslie and Rick all had trouble figuring out what a “portion” was when making a meal. Quote: “I went out and bought smaller dishes to make sure I was closer to the sizes that portions seemed to be” -Sean Theme: people need help in sticking to the right portions sizes-Sean had a work-around
  • 11. ACTIVITY: FINDING THEMES Observation: Dan and Mary had trouble remembering what their primary care physician told them. Observation: Celia had trouble recalling what her doctor told her so she asked if she could use a little digital recorder and record the visit. Theme: People need help remembering doctors instructions-Celia had a work-around
  • 12. TIP: Getting Unstuck Synthesis is challenging, messy and fluid, so it’s natural to feel unsettled and have emotional lows. Try to stay positive and follow these strategies when you’re stuck to get you back on track. Tell the story now. Imagine that the CEO has just walked into the room. Immediately tell them the top 5 things you learned. Tell it to a child. Imagine a 10-year-old asks you what you learned on the project. Explain it simply, without jargon. Bonus points for pictures! Spend your own money. Which insights do you think will lead to the big ideas? Where would you place your bet if it were your own money?
  • 13. Synthesis Guidelines Trust in stories: Focus on the individual and resist the urge to generalize or hypothesize. Don’t rush the process: It may take a while to find meaning, so give it some time to emerge. Listen actively: Engagement from the whole team is critical to the process. Go past the surface: Dig deeper by asking “why?” several times. Look for patterns: Build up to the big ideas by putting together patterns along the way. Edit and filter: Don’t be afraid to let go of superfluous information or patterns that don’t move the project ahead. Play with the data: Try out many ways of slicing and dicing the information, and don’t expect each try to be successful. Build on the ideas of others: Use what others say as sparks for new thoughts. Tell it through words and pictures: Experiment with words, charts, pictures and prototypes until you have a robust way to express your thinking. Own your point of view: Don’t give up too quickly if others don’t get it; keep working at it if you feel there’s a “there” there.
  • 14. Synthesis! What does what you are hearing and learning with your patients mean? What are patterns? How might this information be represented graphically? We call these Frameworks
  • 15. The 2 by 2 diagram See Think Do Feel
  • 16. The 2 by 2 diagram
  • 17. 2 by 2 Diagram
  • 18. 2 by 2 Diagram
  • 19. 2 by 2 Diagram
  • 20. Amtrak Acela Train
  • 21. Amtrak Acela Train
  • 22. Amtrak Acela Train Customer Journey
  • 23. Journey Diagram
  • 24. The From-To Diagram
  • 25. The From-To Diagram
  • 26. Let’s work in our groups and create either a: 2 by 2 Framework Patient Journey diagram From-To diagram For one or more of your volunteers