Chronic Myeloid Leukemia


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A look into the hows, whys and treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, otherwise known as CML

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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

  1. 1. October 25, 2009<br />Chronic Myeloid Leukemia(CML)<br />
  2. 2. What is CML ?<br />Chronic myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood system in which too many white blood cells (WBCs) are made in the bone marrow.<br />
  3. 3. Molecular Basis <br />This exchange brings together two genes: <br />The BCR gene on chromosome 22 and the proto-oncogene ABL on chromosome 9. <br /><ul><li>Leukemic white blood cells in CML contain a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome.
  4. 4. The Ph chromosome is the result of a translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22. </li></li></ul><li>Signs <br />and <br />Symptoms<br />Because many people with early CML have no symptoms, about half of CML cases are detected when a person visits a doctor for a routine checkup or blood test.<br />
  5. 5. CML dIAGnoSIS<br />Blood Test<br />Blood cell counts. With CML, the red cell count is lower than normal. The number of white cells is higher than normal and may be very high. <br />Blood cell examination. A person with CML has a small number of developing cells called "blast cells" in his or her blood. Blast cells are not found in the blood of healthy individuals. <br />Bone Marrow Test<br />Samples of marrow cells are examined under a microscope. This is called a cytogenetic analysis. The examiner looks at a map of the chromosomes in the cell. The map is called a "karyotype." The Ph chromosome in a CML cell can be detected on the karyotype. <br />
  6. 6. Phases of CML<br />
  7. 7. TREATMENTS<br />Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Bonemarrowtransplantation
  8. 8. Removal of the spleen
  9. 9. The newest treatment is Gleevec®, a therapy that is believed to interfere with the action of the abnormalities in CML white blood cells.</li></li></ul><li>Who gets cml?<br />The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2007 there will be about 4,570 new cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia in the United States. <br />With the average age of people with CML around 66 years, CML mostly affects adults<br /> 2 percent of CML patients are children.<br />
  10. 10. Survival Rates by Treatment<br />
  11. 11. Bibliography<br /><ul><li>Abeloff, D.A., Armitage, J.O., Niederhuber, J.E., Kastan, M.B., & McKenna,</li></ul> W.G. (2004). Abeloff: Clinical Oncology, 3rd ed. New, York: Elsevier Churchill. <br /><br /><ul><li>National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical Practice Guidelines in </li></ul> Oncology: Chronic myelogenous leukemia. Version 2, 2009. <br /> <br /><ul><li>Pui, C.-H., & Evans, W.E. (2006). Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.</li></ul> The New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 166-178.<br /><ul><li>Society of Spectacle. Dir. Guy Debord. 1973. Online video clip. </li></ul> 09 October 2007. <br /><br />