The MAIN(S) Causes of WW1     •Militarism     •Alliances     •Imperialism     •Nationalism     •Significant individuals
Militarism 1.• Germany was competing  with the UK to build  battleships.• The British feared an  attack on their Empire
Militarism 2.• Germany was  competing with  Russia and France to  expand their armies          1880   1914• Germany 1.3m 5...
Alliances• By 1914 all the major  powers were linked by  a system of alliances.• The alliances made it  more likely that a...
Pre and Post War Europe 1914             1920
Imperialism• All the great powers were competing for  colonies / territory.• The British feared Germany in Africa.• The Au...
Nationalism• This was an age when all nations wanted to  assert their power and independence.• In Europe Slavs, aided by S...
Significant Individuals 1.• Kaiser Wilhelm II            “Germany must have                               its place in the...
Significant Individuals 2• Count Berchtold• Austrian Prime  Minister.• During the July  Crisis, decided on a  very tough  ...
Significant Individuals 3• Bethmann Hollweg• German Prime Minister• Gave very strong support  to Austria during the July  ...
The Crisis 1.• 28 June 1914• Heir to Austrian  throne Franz  Ferdinand visits  Sarajevo.• Capital of Bosnia,  recently gra...
The Crisis 2.• “Black Hand” terrorists  attack the Arch Duke• Bomb attempt fails in  morning• Gavrilo Princip shoots  Arch...
The Crisis 3.• Austrians, supported by  Germany, send Serbia a tough     “Demands must be  ultimatum.                     ...
Why did Britain get involved?• Britain had Ententes with   Sir Edward Grey  France and Russia.          British Foreign Se...
The Schlieffen Plan• Germany’s military  plan to defeat France  and Russia.• “Knock out blow”  aimed at France first.• Avo...
Britain’s Reaction• 1838- UK had signed a  Treaty to protect  Belgium.• Britain also scared of  Germany controlling  Chann...
Reasons U.S entered War•   Economic ties     – The U.S. traded more with Britain and France. (U.S. was not       strictly ...
Zimmerman Telegram•   Germany’s foreign secretary    (Zimmermann) sent a secret    note to Mexico (February    1917)•   Ge...
Zimmerman telegram decoded
Russia•   Russian Revolution     – When war broke out (1914) Russian        people supported their Czar     – Heavy losses...
National Defense Act 1915             • By 1915, even though it was               the United States intention             ...
Summary for U.S. entrance:•   Why did the U.S. abandon neutrality and enter WWI?     – America had economic ties to the Br...
Standards addressed:•   c. events that led to the United States’    involvement in World War I; United States’    rational...
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Causesof wwi

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Causesof wwi

  1. 1. The MAIN(S) Causes of WW1 •Militarism •Alliances •Imperialism •Nationalism •Significant individuals
  2. 2. Militarism 1.• Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships.• The British feared an attack on their Empire
  3. 3. Militarism 2.• Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies 1880 1914• Germany 1.3m 5.0m• France 0.73m 4.0m• Russia 0.40m 1.2m
  4. 4. Alliances• By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.• The alliances made it more likely that a war would start.• Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.
  5. 5. Pre and Post War Europe 1914 1920
  6. 6. Imperialism• All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory.• The British feared Germany in Africa.• The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans
  7. 7. Nationalism• This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence.• In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. Serbia’s national flag
  8. 8. Significant Individuals 1.• Kaiser Wilhelm II “Germany must have its place in the sun”• Built up German army and “The world belongs to the strong.” navy• Aggressive foreign policy• Determined to make Germany a top nation.• Distrusted by other powers
  9. 9. Significant Individuals 2• Count Berchtold• Austrian Prime Minister.• During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia “Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking”
  10. 10. Significant Individuals 3• Bethmann Hollweg• German Prime Minister• Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht “The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences”
  11. 11. The Crisis 1.• 28 June 1914• Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo.• Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. Seal of the• Hotbed of Slav Black Hand nationalism group
  12. 12. The Crisis 2.• “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke• Bomb attempt fails in morning• Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon.• Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.
  13. 13. The Crisis 3.• Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough “Demands must be ultimatum. put to Serbia that• Serbia agrees to all but two would be wholly impossible for them terms of the ultimatum. to accept …”• Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia• Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down.• Germany declares war on Russia
  14. 14. Why did Britain get involved?• Britain had Ententes with Sir Edward Grey France and Russia. British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry• Only “friendly going on in Berlin” agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight.• The Schlieffen Plan
  15. 15. The Schlieffen Plan• Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia.• “Knock out blow” aimed at France first.• Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium.• Germans thought Britain would not intervene.
  16. 16. Britain’s Reaction• 1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.• Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports.• Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next?• UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August 4 1914
  17. 17. Reasons U.S entered War• Economic ties – The U.S. traded more with Britain and France. (U.S. was not strictly neutral) Many sympathized w/Br. & Fr.• Submarine warfare – German U-boats attack ships in British ports – U.S. protested unrestricted submarine warfare – Wilson vows to hold Germany responsible for loss of American life or property• Germany sinks the Lusitania (British ship) – 128 Americans are killed – At this point, Germany did not want war with the U.S. and agreed to stop attacking neutral ships. – Later, Germany continued unrestricted submarine warfare in British waters
  18. 18. Zimmerman Telegram• Germany’s foreign secretary (Zimmermann) sent a secret note to Mexico (February 1917)• Germany urged Mexico to attack the U.S. and in return, Mexico would gain back territory previously lost to the U.S.• Americans and Wilson are outraged by the Zimmermann telegram
  19. 19. Zimmerman telegram decoded
  20. 20. Russia• Russian Revolution – When war broke out (1914) Russian people supported their Czar – Heavy losses and economic hardship caused discontent – In March 1917, the Czar was forced to step down (eventually executed) – Wilson believed that the revolution would end Russian monarchy and bring democracy – Without a Czar, it was easier for Wilson to support the allies (keeping the world safe for democracy)
  21. 21. National Defense Act 1915 • By 1915, even though it was the United States intention to remain out of the war in Europe, it became evident that we would have to prepare for war anyways. In 1916, even though Wilson was re-elected on the slogan “he kept us out of the war” the United States would enter “the war to end all wars.”
  22. 22. Summary for U.S. entrance:• Why did the U.S. abandon neutrality and enter WWI? – America had economic ties to the British & French • Sold millions in war materials to both/sympathy for Br. & Fr. – Fear of German power • Possible threat to US security – Unrestricted submarine warfare • German interference with US shipping • Sinking of the Lusitania – The Zimmerman Telegram • Americans were outraged when details of the telegram were published in newspapers – The Russian Revolution • With the Czar gone, it was easier to support the allies (Democracy)
  23. 23. Standards addressed:• c. events that led to the United States’ involvement in World War I; United States’ rationale for entry into World War I and impact on military process,• public opinion and policy;• d. United States’ mobilization in World War I (e.g., its impact on politics, economics and society);• e. United States’ impact on the outcome of World War I; United States’ role in settling the peace (e.g., Woodrow Wilson, treaty of Versailles, league of• nations, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.);

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