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# Chapter 2 metric scientific notation-accuracy

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### Chapter 2 metric scientific notation-accuracy

1. 1. Data Analysis<br />Chapter 2<br />
2. 2. What’s wrong with this sign?<br />
3. 3. Temperature<br /> 30°C 30°F<br />
4. 4. SystèmeInternationale d’ Unités<br /> SI unit<br />
5. 5. Prefixes used with SI units<br />
6. 6. 1 mile<br />1.6 kilometers<br />1 yard = 0.9444 meters<br />1 inch = 2.54 centimeters<br />English vs. Metric Units<br />Which is longer? <br />A. 1 mile or 1 kilometer<br />B. 1 yard or 1 meter<br />C. 1 inch or 1 centimeter<br />Left Image: http://webapps.lsa.umich.edu/physics/demolab/controls/imagedemosm.aspx?picid=1167Right Image: http://share.lancealan.com/N800%20ruler.jpg<br />
7. 7. A. 1 meter or 105 centimeters<br />B. 4 kilometers or 4400 meters<br />C. 12 centimeters or 102 millimeters<br />D. 1200 millimeters or 1 meter<br />m<br />km<br />Metric Units of Length<br />mm<br />cm<br />The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m.<br />Metric Units<br />1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters<br />1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm) <br />1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm)<br />Which is larger?<br />
8. 8. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters<br />What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cm<br />What is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mm<br />Measuring Length<br />How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter? <br />What is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cm<br />
9. 9. 1 pound = 453.6 grams<br />1 ounce of gold = 28,349.5 milligrams<br />1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds<br />English vs. Metric Units<br />Which is larger? <br />1. 1 Pound or 100 Grams<br />2. 1 Kilogram or 1 Pound<br />3. 1 Ounce or 1000 Milligrams<br />
10. 10. A. 1 kilogram or 1500 grams<br />B. 1200 milligrams or 1 gram<br />C. 12 milligrams or 12 kilograms<br />D. 4 kilograms or 4500 grams<br />kg<br />Metric Units of mass<br />mg<br />g<br />Mass refers to the amount of matter in an object.<br />The base unit of mass in the metric system in the kilogram and is represented by kg.<br />Metric Units<br />1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g)<br />1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)<br />Which is larger?<br />Kilogram Prototype Image - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilogram<br />
11. 11. 1 fl oz = 29.573 ml<br />1 12-oz can of soda would equal approximately 355 ml.<br />1 quart = 0.946 liters<br />1 gallon = 3.79 liters<br />It would take approximately 3 ¾ 1-liter bottles to equal a gallon.<br />English vs. Metric Units<br />Which is larger? <br />A. 1 liter or 1 gallon<br />B. 1 liter or 1 quart<br />C. 1 milliliter or 1 fluid ounce<br />
12. 12. kL<br />Metric Units<br />cL<br />mL<br />L<br />Volume is the amount of space an object takes up. <br />The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l.<br />Metric Units<br />1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)<br />1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram*<br />Which is larger?<br />A. 1 liter or 1500 milliliters<br />B. 200 milliliters or 1.2 liters<br />C. 12 cm3 or 1.2 milliliters*<br />
13. 13. What causes the meniscus?<br />A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides.<br />Measuring Volume<br />We will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects.<br />Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water.<br />What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL<br />
14. 14. Measuring Liquid Volume<br />What is the volume of water in each cylinder? <br />Images created at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework/downloads/SWF/measuring_cylinder.swf<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Pay attention to the scales for each cylinder.<br />
15. 15. 9 cm<br />8 cm<br />10 cm<br />We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement. <br />Amount of H2O with object = ______About of H2O without object = ______Difference = Volume = ______<br />http://resources.edb.gov.hk/~s1sci/R_S1Science/sp/en/syllabus/unit14/new/testingmain1.htm<br />Measuring Solid Volume<br />We can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height.<br />_____ X _____ X _____ = _____<br />
16. 16. Temperature Scales<br />How hot? How cold?<br />direction of Heat Transfer<br />Celsius – 0 0C Freezing Point of Water<br /> 100 0C Boiling Point of Water<br />Kelvin = C° + 273<br />No degree signs are used<br />O Kelvin = -273.150 C <br />coldest possible temperature<br />
17. 17. What is the metric unit for…?<br />Length – size <br />meter (m)<br />Mass – amount of matter<br />Kilogram (kg) or gram (g)<br />Volume – space something takes up<br />Liter (l) or centimeters cubed (cm3)<br />Temperature – amount of heat<br />Kelvin (K) = celsius + 273<br />
18. 18. Density<br />Measure of how much matter is squeezed into a given space<br />density = mass<br /> volume<br />
19. 19. Which one is more dense?<br />A block of wood and a block of steel have the same volume<br />
20. 20. What do you think?<br />What happens to the density of an object if it is cut into pieces?<br />Which has the greater density, a single uranium atom or Earth?<br />
21. 21. Scientific Notation<br />coefficient x 10 raised to a power<br />Single gram of hydrogen<br />602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules =<br />6.02 x 1023 molecules<br />Mass of an atom of gold<br />0.000000000000000000000327 grams = <br />3.27 x 10-22 grams<br />
22. 22. Practice<br />36,000<br />3.6 x 104 <br />503,000,000<br />5.03 x 108<br />0.00076<br />7.6 x 10-4<br />
23. 23. Significant Figures<br />The valid digits of a number  <br />In measurement: includes all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated <br />
24. 24. Significant Figures<br />Significant:<br />nonzero digits<br />final zeros after the decimal points<br />zeros between two other significant digits<br />Not significant<br />zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are not significant. <br />
25. 25. Examples<br />each have only two sig figs<br />0.0071 meter<br />0.42 meter<br />0.000099 meter<br />7.1 x 10-3 meter<br />4.2 x 10-1 meter<br />9.9 x 10-5 meter<br />
26. 26. Significant Figures<br />
27. 27. Rounding<br />If the digit immediately to the right of the last significant digit is less than 5, it is dropped<br />5 or greater - last significant digit increased by 1<br />41.58 square meters  41.6 square meters<br />
28. 28. Practice<br />Round 65.145 meters to 4 sig figs<br />65.15m<br />Round 100.1°C to 1 sig fig<br />100°C <br />Round 154 cm to 2 sig figs<br />150<br />Round 0.000718 kilograms to 2 sig figs<br />0.00072<br />
29. 29. Measurements with an Unlimited Number of Significant Digits <br />Counting<br />Example: 23 people in the classroom <br />(Not 22.9 or 23.1) 23.00000000……………….<br />Exactly defined quantities<br />Example: 60 minutes = 1 hour<br />60.00000000……………………..<br />
30. 30. Calculation Rules<br />calculated answer cannot be too precise<br />not more precise than the least precise measurement<br />Multiplication and Division <br />same number of sig figs as the measurement with the least number of sig figs<br />Addition and Subtraction <br />same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places<br />
31. 31. Accuracy and Precision <br /><ul><li>Accuracy
32. 32. How close a measurement comes to the actual value of what is being measured
33. 33. Precision
34. 34. How close a series of measurements are to one another</li></li></ul><li>Error<br />Difference between accepted value and experimental value<br />error = experimental value – accepted value<br />% error = x 100%<br /> error<br /> accepted value<br />
35. 35. Error<br /><ul><li>% error = x 100%</li></ul> 99.1°C – 100.0°C x 100%<br /> 100.0°C<br /> 0.9°C x 100%<br /> 100.0°C<br /> 0.9%<br /> error<br /> accepted value<br />=<br />=<br />=<br />