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Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
Chapter 2  metric scientific notation-accuracy
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Chapter 2 metric scientific notation-accuracy

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  • 1. Data Analysis
    Chapter 2
  • 2. What’s wrong with this sign?
  • 3. Temperature
    30°C 30°F
  • 4. SystèmeInternationale d’ Unités
    SI unit
  • 5. Prefixes used with SI units
  • 6. 1 mile
    1.6 kilometers
    1 yard = 0.9444 meters
    1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
    English vs. Metric Units
    Which is longer?
    A. 1 mile or 1 kilometer
    B. 1 yard or 1 meter
    C. 1 inch or 1 centimeter
    Left Image: http://webapps.lsa.umich.edu/physics/demolab/controls/imagedemosm.aspx?picid=1167Right Image: http://share.lancealan.com/N800%20ruler.jpg
  • 7. A. 1 meter or 105 centimeters
    B. 4 kilometers or 4400 meters
    C. 12 centimeters or 102 millimeters
    D. 1200 millimeters or 1 meter
    m
    km
    Metric Units of Length
    mm
    cm
    The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m.
    Metric Units
    1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters
    1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm)
    1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm)
    Which is larger?
  • 8. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
    What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cm
    What is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mm
    Measuring Length
    How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter?
    What is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cm
  • 9. 1 pound = 453.6 grams
    1 ounce of gold = 28,349.5 milligrams
    1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds
    English vs. Metric Units
    Which is larger?
    1. 1 Pound or 100 Grams
    2. 1 Kilogram or 1 Pound
    3. 1 Ounce or 1000 Milligrams
  • 10. A. 1 kilogram or 1500 grams
    B. 1200 milligrams or 1 gram
    C. 12 milligrams or 12 kilograms
    D. 4 kilograms or 4500 grams
    kg
    Metric Units of mass
    mg
    g
    Mass refers to the amount of matter in an object.
    The base unit of mass in the metric system in the kilogram and is represented by kg.
    Metric Units
    1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g)
    1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)
    Which is larger?
    Kilogram Prototype Image - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilogram
  • 11. 1 fl oz = 29.573 ml
    1 12-oz can of soda would equal approximately 355 ml.
    1 quart = 0.946 liters
    1 gallon = 3.79 liters
    It would take approximately 3 ¾ 1-liter bottles to equal a gallon.
    English vs. Metric Units
    Which is larger?
    A. 1 liter or 1 gallon
    B. 1 liter or 1 quart
    C. 1 milliliter or 1 fluid ounce
  • 12. kL
    Metric Units
    cL
    mL
    L
    Volume is the amount of space an object takes up.
    The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l.
    Metric Units
    1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)
    1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram*
    Which is larger?
    A. 1 liter or 1500 milliliters
    B. 200 milliliters or 1.2 liters
    C. 12 cm3 or 1.2 milliliters*
  • 13. What causes the meniscus?
    A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides.
    Measuring Volume
    We will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects.
    Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water.
    What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL
  • 14. Measuring Liquid Volume
    What is the volume of water in each cylinder?
    Images created at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework/downloads/SWF/measuring_cylinder.swf
    A
    B
    C
    Pay attention to the scales for each cylinder.
  • 15. 9 cm
    8 cm
    10 cm
    We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement.
    Amount of H2O with object = ______About of H2O without object = ______Difference = Volume = ______
    http://resources.edb.gov.hk/~s1sci/R_S1Science/sp/en/syllabus/unit14/new/testingmain1.htm
    Measuring Solid Volume
    We can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height.
    _____ X _____ X _____ = _____
  • 16. Temperature Scales
    How hot? How cold?
    direction of Heat Transfer
    Celsius – 0 0C Freezing Point of Water
    100 0C Boiling Point of Water
    Kelvin = C° + 273
    No degree signs are used
    O Kelvin = -273.150 C
    coldest possible temperature
  • 17. What is the metric unit for…?
    Length – size
    meter (m)
    Mass – amount of matter
    Kilogram (kg) or gram (g)
    Volume – space something takes up
    Liter (l) or centimeters cubed (cm3)
    Temperature – amount of heat
    Kelvin (K) = celsius + 273
  • 18. Density
    Measure of how much matter is squeezed into a given space
    density = mass
    volume
  • 19. Which one is more dense?
    A block of wood and a block of steel have the same volume
  • 20. What do you think?
    What happens to the density of an object if it is cut into pieces?
    Which has the greater density, a single uranium atom or Earth?
  • 21. Scientific Notation
    coefficient x 10 raised to a power
    Single gram of hydrogen
    602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules =
    6.02 x 1023 molecules
    Mass of an atom of gold
    0.000000000000000000000327 grams =
    3.27 x 10-22 grams
  • 22. Practice
    36,000
    3.6 x 104
    503,000,000
    5.03 x 108
    0.00076
    7.6 x 10-4
  • 23. Significant Figures
    The valid digits of a number  
    In measurement: includes all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated
  • 24. Significant Figures
    Significant:
    nonzero digits
    final zeros after the decimal points
    zeros between two other significant digits
    Not significant
    zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are not significant.
  • 25. Examples
    each have only two sig figs
    0.0071 meter
    0.42 meter
    0.000099 meter
    7.1 x 10-3 meter
    4.2 x 10-1 meter
    9.9 x 10-5 meter
  • 26. Significant Figures
  • 27. Rounding
    If the digit immediately to the right of the last significant digit is less than 5, it is dropped
    5 or greater - last significant digit increased by 1
    41.58 square meters  41.6 square meters
  • 28. Practice
    Round 65.145 meters to 4 sig figs
    65.15m
    Round 100.1°C to 1 sig fig
    100°C
    Round 154 cm to 2 sig figs
    150
    Round 0.000718 kilograms to 2 sig figs
    0.00072
  • 29. Measurements with an Unlimited Number of Significant Digits
    Counting
    Example: 23 people in the classroom
    (Not 22.9 or 23.1) 23.00000000……………….
    Exactly defined quantities
    Example: 60 minutes = 1 hour
    60.00000000……………………..
  • 30. Calculation Rules
    calculated answer cannot be too precise
    not more precise than the least precise measurement
    Multiplication and Division
    same number of sig figs as the measurement with the least number of sig figs
    Addition and Subtraction
    same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places
  • 31. Accuracy and Precision
    • Accuracy
    • 32. How close a measurement comes to the actual value of what is being measured
    • 33. Precision
    • 34. How close a series of measurements are to one another
  • Error
    Difference between accepted value and experimental value
    error = experimental value – accepted value
    % error = x 100%
    error
    accepted value
  • 35. Error
    • % error = x 100%
    99.1°C – 100.0°C x 100%
    100.0°C
    0.9°C x 100%
    100.0°C
    0.9%
    error
    accepted value
    =
    =
    =

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