1. NOORUL ISLAM UNIVERSITY, KUMARACOIL DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CV 213 – TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II RAILWAY ENGINEERING , DOCKS AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING AND AIRPORT ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK 2010-2011Prepared by:TanzeelHabeebullaS5 ,CIVILNIU Sumitted by: Jean Molly Simon Asst. Professor Civil, NIU
2. UNIT I – RAILWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN1. Mention some advantages of railways. The various advantages of railways may be as follows: a) It aids in the mass migration of people. b) Trade development has increased ten folds after the growth of railways. c) Land values have increased due to increased industrial growth. d) Speedy distribution of finished product is achieved through railways.2. What is meant by zonal railways? The entire railway station has been divided into nine zonal railways having different territorial jurisdictions which are responsible for all management and planning of works.3. What is COFMOW and what are its responsibilities? The Central Organization for Modernization of Workshop (COFMOW) is a specialized agency to implement the various workshop modernization programs of Indian Railways. They are responsible for the modernization of these workshops with the assistance of World Bank.4. What do you mean by TACV or MAGLEV? All advances in the development of railways have been to achieve the speed of Airways and safety of railways at its best. This objective could be achieved by the usage of Track Air Cushion Vehicles (TACV) or Magnetic Levitation Vehicles (MAGLEV) on purpose made special Railway tracks using special locomotives and coaches to achieve a maximum speed of 250 km/hr.5. What do you understand by the term “Buckling of rails”? The railway track gets out of the original position due to the buckling if the expansion of rails is prevented during hot weather. Such an action is known as “buckling of rails”.6. What do you understand by the term “Ballast”? Ballast is the granular material packed under and around the sleeper to transfer loads from sleeper to ballast. It helps in providing elasticity to the truck.7. What are the different types of gauges? The different types of gauges are as follows: a) Broad Gauge (B.G.) – 1.67 mtrs. b) Meter Gauge (M.G.) – 1.00 mtrs. c) Narrow Gauge (N.G.) – 0.762 mtrs. d) Light Gauge or Freeder Track Gauge –0.610 mtrs.8. Enumerate the various factors that govern the selection of various types of gauges. There are numerous factors that are dependant in the selection of different gauges. However, few of them are mentioned below: a) Cost of Construction b) Volume and nature of traffic c) Development of the areas d) Physical features of the country
3. e) Speed of movement9. What are the advantages of “Coning of wheels”? The various advantages of coning of wheels are: a) To reduce the wear and tear of the wheel flanges and rails due to rubbing action of flanges with the inside faces of the rail head. b) To provide a possibility of lateral movement of axil to the wheels. c) To restrict the wheels from slipping.10. Define “Track modulus”. Track modulus is an index for stiffness of track. It is defined as load per unit length of the rail required to produce a unit depression in the track.11. List down the various causes of “Track stresses”. Stresses in the railway track are produced due to many causes as listed below: a) Wheel loads b) Dynamic effect of wheel loads c) Hammer blow d) Horizontal thrust12. What do you understand by the term “Grade compensation”? The reduction in the grading provided at an intersection of curve and gradiant is known as grade compensation on curves.13. What is a “Sleeper”? A sleeper is a member laid transversely under the rails which are meant to support the rails over them and transfer the load from rails to ballast.14. What are the functions of a “sleeper”? Sleepers perform the following functions: a) To distribute the load from the rails to the index area of ballast underlying it or to the girders in case of bridges. b) They add to the lateral and longitudinal stability of the permanent track to support the rails at a proper level in straight tracks and at proper super elevation on curves. c) To hold the rails to correct gauge. d) To act as an elastic medium in between the ballast and rails to absorb the vibrations of moving loads.15. What are the different types of sleepers? Sleepers are classified into the following categories: i. Wooden sleepers ii. Metal sleepers
4. a) Cast Iron Sleepers b) Steel sleepers iii. Concrete Sleepers a) Reinforced Concrete sleepers b) Pre-stressed Concrete Sleepers16. What do you understand by the term “Fish Plates” and what are its uses? Fish plates are used in rail joints to maintain the continuity of rails and to permit any expansion or contraction of the rail due to thermal variations. They maintain the correct alignment of the line both horizontally and vertically.17. What are the different types of “Ballast”? The different materials that are used vary from broken stone to sometimes earth. A few commonly used types of ballast are the following: a) Broken stone b) Gravel or shingles c) Ashes or cinders d) Moorum e) Blast furnace slag f) Kankar18. What are the objectives of “Reconnaissance Survey”? The objectives of Reconnaissance Survey are as follows: a) To decide maximum grading and curvature for proposed alignment b) To locate various control points for getting an idea from where the alignment should pass and where the alignment should not. c) To have an idea about possible alternative alignments d) To prepare rough estimates for different proposed alignment to know most economical, efficient and safe alignment.19. What are the instruments used in preliminary survey? The various instruments used in preliminary survey are: a) Theodolite - for traversing b) Tacheometer – for plotting main features c) Dumpy level – for drawing the longitudinal cross-sections d) Plain Table – for plotting interior details e) Prismatic Compass – for magnetic bearings of routes and main points.20. What do you mean by “Transitional Curve”?
5. Transitional curve is defined as a curve of parabolic nature which is introduced between a straight and circular curve to provide an easy change from tangent to the radius selected for a particular curve. UNIT II RAILWAY TRACK CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION1. What is the necessity of points and crossings? The knowledge of points and crossings are important in the following ways: a) Points and crossings provide flexibility of movement by connecting one line to another. b) They help in imposing restrictions over turn outs which necessarily retard the movements. c) In regard of safety aspects, points and crossings are weak kinks or points in the track which are susceptible to derailments.2. List down the different types of crossings. Crossings may be classified as below: a) V-Crossing b) Diamond Crossing c) Square Crossing d) Spring Crossing e) Ramped Crossing3. What are the component parts of crossing? a) Chairs at crossing toe and heel b) Wing Rails c) Check Rails d) Pointed Splice Rails e) Vee Piece4. List down the characteristics of Crossing. a) The assembly of crossing has to be rigid to stand against severe vibrations. b) The vear on parts of wing rails opposite the nose and also of nose itself must be protected.5. What is flange way depth?
6. Flange way depth is the vertical distance between the top surface of the stock rail to the top surface of the heel-block used between the stock rail and check rail.6. List down the necessities of points and crossings? a) Points and crossings provide flexibility of movement by connecting one line to another. b) They also help for imposing restrictions over turnouts which necessarily retard the movements.7. List down the different types of track junctions. The important track junctions commonly employed are: a) Symmetrical split b) Tandem c) Diamond Crossing d) Single Slip and Double Slip e) Scissor Cross over f) Ladder tracks8. Define Platform. Raised level surface from where either passengers board and alight from trains or loading and unloading of goods is done is commonly known as platform. They are of two types, namely, passenger platforms and goods platforms.9. What do you understand by the term Stations yards? Yard is defined as a system of tracks laid usually on a level within defined limits for receiving, storing, sorting, making up new trains and dispatch of vehicles.10. Classify the types of yards. a) Passenger Bogie yards b) Goods yards c) Marshalling yards d) Locomotive yards11. What are the objectives of signaling? The various objectives of providing and operating signals are as below: a) To ensure safety between two or more trains which cross of approach each other’s path. b) To provide facilities for maximum utitlity of the tracks. c) To guide the trains movements during maintenance and rpair of tracks. d) To safeguard the trains at converging junctions and give directional indications at diverging junctions.12. What are the types of signals based on the various categories?
7. i. Operating characteristics a) Fog or audible signals b) Visual indication signals ii. Functional characteristics a) Shunting signals b) Warner signals c) Semaphore type signals iii. Locational characteristics a) Quoter signals (reception) b) Advanced Starter (departure) iv. Special characteristics a) Point indicators b) Modified lower quadrant semaphore signals13. What are the various sources of moisture in a railway track? The various sources of moisture affecting a railway track are: a) Surface water due to rain, dew or snow. b) Hydroscopic water or Held water. c) Seepage water d) Moisture by capillary action in sub grade14. What are the requirements of a track drainage system? a) The track alignment should be made to rest on pervious naturally drained soils. b) The highest level of water table should be much below the level of sub grade. c) Sub surface water should be efficiently drained off by the sub surface drainage system. d) The surface water from adjoining land could be prevented from entering the track formation.15. What are the advantages of good maintenance of railway track? The life of both track and rolling stock increases by proper maintenance. A well maintained track imparts smooth quality riding surface for vehicles which results in comfort to passengers and safety to goods.16. What is meant by “Packing”? Packing is the method of forcing stone ballast below the sleepers by ramming with a beater cum pick-axe.17. Define “Loops”. When a branch line terminates from a previously terminated main line, it is called loop. They are of three types: Split turnout, Trailing turnout, Straight and loop.18. Enumerate the necessities of “Curves”.
8. a) To bypass natural or artificial obstacles b) To provide easier gradiants by diversions from the straight route.19. What are the three methods by which safe speed can be calculated? a) Martin’s formula b) Super elevation formula c) Cant formula20. What do you understand by the term “Ruling gradiant”? Ruling gradiant is defined as the gradiant which determines maximum load that the engine can haul on the section. UNIT III AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN1. What are the advantages of Air transport? The advantages of air transport are: a) It reduces travel time considerably. b) It aims in the comfortable travel of passengers from point to point.2. What are the limitations of Air transport? The limitations of air transport are: a) They are quite expensive b) They cause considerable amount of environmental damage3. What do you mean by “Air Traffic Potential”? Air traffic potential refers to the maximum amount on aircrafts that the specified air space can hold within its boundaries.4. What do you understand by “Wind Rose Diagram”? Wind Rose Diagram refers to the descriptive illustrative realization of the directional attitude of wind flow with respect to the geographical position at a specified time frame.5. What do you understand by the term “Minimum Separation Distance”? Minimum Separation distance refers to the least distance that is to be maintained by two successive aircrafts during their taxing along the apron or along the taxi way.6. What do you understand by the term “Design Speed”?
9. Design speed is the speed estimated by the planning and design engineers for a specified airport runway based on the type of airports and the aircrafts landing and taking off from them.7. Define “Airport Zoning”. Airport zoning is the process of dividing the whole airport into several zones as clear zone, approach zone, buffer zone, turning zone for easy navigation and control and administration activities including maintenance.8. Define “Approach Zone”. Approach Zone is defined as the specific zone in the airport which provides indication to the pilot of the approach of the landing strip.9. What do you understand by the term “Airport Drainage”? Airport Drainage is the process of keeping the runway dry and accessible for aircrafts for the safe landing and takeoff of aircrafts to and from the airports.10. What is meant by “clearance over highways and railways”? The minimum distance to be maintained vertically above the closest railway and highway zones to eradicate disturbance that maybe caused by the jet explosion during the flight of an aircraft is called its clearance over highways and railways. Unit IV – AIRPORT LAYOUTS, VISUAL AIDS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL1. What are the objectives of master plan according to FAA? The objectives according to FAA are: a) To provide an effective graphical presentation of the ultimate development of the airport b) To describe various concepts and alternatives which were considered in the establishment of the proposed plan. c) To present the backup of information and data which were essential to the development of the master plan. d) To establish a schedule of priorities and phasing for the various improvements proposed in the plan.2. What does the term ‘ Terminal area” mean? The terminal area refers to the portion of an airport other than the landing area. It serves as the focal point for activities on the airport which includes terminal and operational buildings, vehicle parking area and aircraft service hangars.3. List out the purpose of a building area in an airport. The purpose for building area are: a) To provide shelter and space for surface activities.
10. b) To accommodate the basic facilities as toilet, telephone and medical services. c) To establish space for cargo handling and processing. d) To provide an enquiry counter to reach to the needs of passengers.4. Enumerate the requirements of site selection or the factors affecting site selection. The suitability of site selection for terminal building is processed in accordance to the following: a) Sufficient area for roadways b) Central location with respect to runway c) Proximity and ease of installation of utilities d) Convenient access to the main highway.5. List out the factors upon which the size of an apron is decided. The paved area for parking of aircrafts, loading and unloading of passengers and cargo is an apron and its size is dependent on: a) Aircraft parking systems b) Size of the loading are required for a type of aircraft or the gate position. c) Number of gate positions6. What are the different types of aircraft parking systems? Aircrafts are grouped adjacent to terminal buildings in various patters as mentioned below: a) Frontal system b) Open apron system c) Finger system d) Satellite system7. What do you mean by Blast Fences? Blast fences are used to deflect and dissipate the energy of high velocity jet exhaust so as to protect the passengers from the discomfort caused by the heat.8. Classify the various types of runway markingbased on their utility. The various markings are divided as follows: a) Runway marking Taxiway marking Runway and taxiway shoulder marking d) Apron marking e) Wind direction indicator f) Landing direction indicator9. What are different types of airport lighting available? a) Boundary lighting b) Code beacon c) Rotating beacon d) Apron and hangar lighting e) Approach lighting f) Threshold lighting
11. 10. Why is threshold lighting so important in respect to landing? The identification of runway threshold lighting has an important bearing on the pilot’s decision whether to land or not. Thereby the area near the runway threshold is given special lighting considerations.11. Bring out the need of air traffic control. The Air traffic Control (ATC) is primarily established to ensure a safe, economic and convenient movement of the aircraft flight from one airport to another during the actions of takeoff till landing at the desired port.12. How is the wind indicator helpful in air traffic? The wind indicator is a wind cone placed at the center of the segmented circle (airport) marker which aids the pilot in locating the airport and the direction of wind.13. What is a hangar and what is the main function of the same? Hangar is an enclosure for servicing, overhauling and performing repairs of the aircrafts located within the vicinity of a building area. These are usually constructed of steel frames and covered with galvanized iron sheets.14. State the requirements of selecting a hangar site. The requirements of suitable hangar site are: a) The site should be such that there is a convenient road access to it from the site to the aprons and terminal building. b) Favorable topography providing good natural drainage. c) Reasonable proximity to the loading apron. d) Sufficient area to provide car parking facilities for working personnel.15. What are the typical airport layouts that are practiced nowadays? The following are the basic airport layouts : a) Two intersecting Runway layout b) Non-intersecting runways layout c) Three intersecting runways layout d) Tangential runway layout16. Enumerate the basic characteristics that a good airfield should possess. a) Sufficient terminal building facilities b) Lowest possible cost of construction c) Landing, taxiing and taking off a independent operations without interference. d) Excellent control tower visibility,17. Write down the design considerations applied to taxiway lighting. The design considerations that applies to taxiway lighting are mentioned below: a) Crossing of taxiway and the runway should be clearly identified. b) Effective and simple presentation of guidance elements to permit rapid aircraft movement between runway and apron should be preferred. c) There should be adequate guidance along the taxiway.
12. d) Taxiway should be clearly identified so that they cannot be confused with the runways.18. Define runway capacity and feature the factors affecting them. Runway capacity is the ability of a runway system to accommodate aircraft landings and take- offs. The factors affecting them are: a) Air traffic control b) Characteristics of demand c) Environmental factors d) Layout and design of the runway system19. List out the points to be remembered for an efficient airport vehicular circulation and parkingsystem. a) Ease of passenger loading and unloading at the terminal building b) One way traffic wherever possible c) A minimum of driveway intersection d) Adequate driveway width to permit overtaking e) Sufficient and clearly defined parking and circulation routes.20. Mention the various parking configurations of Aircrafts. The various parking configurations that are used in the present days are as follows: a) Nose-in b) Angle nose-in c) Nose-out d) Angle Nose-out e) Parallel UNIT V HARBOUR ENGINEERING AND OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORT1. Define 12arbor. Harbour is a sheltered area of sea where facilities for loading and unloading of cargo and passengers are provided.2. Classify the different types of harbors. a) Natural harbor b) Semi-natural harbor c) Artificial harbor3. What are the constituents of harbor? a) Entrance channel b) Approach channel c) Birthing Basin d) Breakwater
13. 4. What are the requirements of a good port? a) It should be a place of defence and for resisting the sea borne invasion. b) It should command extensive and valuable trade c) The hinterland should be fertile with a good density of population. d) It should provide maximum facilities to all visiting ships.5. What do you understand by the term “Breakwater”? Breakwaters are structures constructed to enclose the harbors to protect them from the effect of wind generated waves by reflecting and dissipating their force or energy.6. What are the types of breakwaters? a) Vertical wall breakwater b) Heap breakwater c) Mound with super structure7. Define dock. Docks are defined as enclosed areas for berthing the ships to keep them afloat at uniform level to facilitate loading and unloading of cargo.8. What are the types of docks? a) Wet docks – used for berthing of vessels to facilitate loading and unloading of passengers and cargoes. b) Dry or repair docks – are used for repair of ships9. What is a cable? A cable is a floating buoy consisting of a pendant which consists of a link chain (open) fitted with a swivel in the upper half.10. What is apron? Apron is an open space used to expedite the unloading and loading of cargoes in vessels immediately in front of the berth.11. What are warehouses? At times the port users need storage facilities for much longer periods than that provided by transit sheds. This has brought to the construction of storage facilities known as storage go downs or warehouses.12. List out the types of dredging devices. a) Dipper dredger b) Grapple dredger c) Continuous bucket elevator or ladder dredger
14. 13. What are locks and provide their components? Locks are a device used to connect a dock with the sea or river at different levels. The components of these are: a) Steel lock gates b) Granite sills c) Culverts d) Heavy masonry retaining walls e) Heavy plumbing plant14. What are wharves? The platforms or loading places in the form of walls built near shores to berth are known as wharves. In other words they may be defined as a wall erected along a shore or bank to berth vessels for loading and unloading cargo.15. What do you understand by the term ‘Dolphin’? A structure constructed at the entrance of a locked basin or alongside a pier or wharf to absorb the impact force of the vessel or to provide mooring facility is termed as dolphin due to their form of a cluster of spaced piles.16. Site the difference between transit sheds and apron. Transit sheds are a temporary storage facility for goods in transit from vessel to consignee or vice-versa. Apron is an open space left immediately in front of the berth for utilization in the installation of mechanical devices as cranes.17. What are the requirements of a signal? The basic requirements of a marine signal are: a) It should be positively recognizable and should not vary in character. b) It should be simple to identify and should make its meaning clear at a glance. c) It should permit time for easy response. d) It should be clearly visible from a long distance.18. List out the purpose of construction of shore protection works. Shore protection works are usually provided to protect exposed beach line.However the following purposes are also intended: a) To stabilize the existing beach. b) To restore the eroded beach. c) To create and stabilize the artificial beaches. d) To protect an exposed beach line.19. Mention the various shore protection works. The following shore protection works are usually adopted: a) Sea walls, Bulk heads and revetments
15. b) Protective beaches c) Sand dunes d) Groynes e) Off shore break waters20. What are moorings? These are devices which are provided where anchorage water is limited. It is absolutely necessary to have some moorings n all harbours for vessels to discharge its passengers and cargo to barges for taking the same right upto coast. 6 MARKS UNIT I – RAILWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN1. Write a short note on the engineering surveys for track alignment. Railway project consists four different surveys – Traffic survey – Reconnaissance survey – Preliminary survey – Detailed survey – objects of each of them – factors to be considered2. Define a permanent way and site the various requirements of an ideal permanent way. Definition of permanent way – requirements of an ideal permanent way ( any 6) – the typical cross section of the permanent way on embankment to be drawn.3. What are the different gauge types used by the Indian Railways and write down the selection ofgauge factors. Definition of gauge – different types of gauge with their specific dimensions ( BG, MG, NG, LG) – factors affecting the selection of a particular gauge ( any 4 )4. The wheels are coned to keep it in the central position. Comment on the statement. Definition of coning – advantage of coning – theory of coning – include a figure to depict the process.5. What is meant by creep? Discuss on the theories propounded to explain probable effects ofcreep. The longitudinal movement of rails with respect to sleepers in track – theories of creep ( Wave theory, Percussion theory and Drag Theory) – (any 4) effects of creep6. What are the function of sleepers and the requirements of a good one? Sleepers are members laid transverse to rails on which rails are supported to transfer loads to the ballast – function of sleepers ( any 6) – requirements ( Any 6)7. Shed some light on the functions and requirements of a good ballast. Ballast – granular material packed below and around sleepers to transmit load from sleepers to formation to allow drainage of track – function of ballast (Any 4) – requirements of ballast (Any 4)
16. 8. Write a short note on the types of ballast. Ballast materials used – explain in brief any 6 of the following – Broken stones – Gravel , River Pebbles or Shingle – Ashes or Cinders – Sand – Moorum – Kankar – Brick Ballast – Blast Furnace Slag – Selected Earth9. What are formations and enumerate the various function of subgrade or formation. Subgrade is the naturally occurring soil which is prepared to receive the ballast and other railway structures for the track – Formation is a prepares surface for the purpose of laying track – Function of sub grade or formation ( Any 4 )10. Define the terms : (i) Super-elevation (ii) Negative super elevation (iii) Cant deficiency The raised elevation of the outer rail with respect to the inner rail – The variation of the elevation of the branch line to the main line –the difference between actual cant provided to the equilibrium cant ( all the definitions to be elaborately explained with suitable values to be offered wherever seemed necessary)11. What are curves? Shed some light on the necessity and the effects of the curvature. The curvature provided at certain geographical conditions to enable a smooth transfer of trains – necessities to be furnished with the factors( any 4) - effects ( lateral bending of rails due to rigid wheel base , extra vertical load on the inner or outer rail based on the superelevation and speed of vehicle)12. Write a short note on the widening of gauge on curves. Provision to avoid the striking of outer wheel against outer rail and the inner wheel to the inner is called widening of gauge. – lateral play may lead to derailment – extra gauge width formula and explain the terms.UNIT II – RAILWAY TRACK CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION1. Define points and crossings with their necessity to be adopted. These are used to direct trains to different routes either parallel or diverging to make way for movement from one route to another but also helps in marshaling and shunting work at station yards – necessity of points and crossings ( Any 4 )2. Write a short note on the various types of crossings. Crossings are classified on two categories - Basis of shape of crossing – basis of assembly of crossing – briefly explain about all with suitable sketches wherever necessary.3. What are track junctions and briefly mention the various types of track junctions? Track junctions are combinations of points and crossings with curves and straights to transfer thetrains from one track to another or to enable trains to cross over other tracks – mention the types oftrack junctions ( Any 5 ) with suitable sketches.4. Describe the factors that influence the selection of site for a railway station. How the railwaystations are classified? Factors affecting the site selection (explain any 4 from following Acquisition of land , Proximity totown or village, Nature of land area, Approach roads to station site, station site alignment, Site
17. drainage, Station amenities, type of station and yard, role of authorities) – operational classification– functional classification5. Explain briefly about the tractive resistances.The resistance to movement of trains on the track is known as resistance or track resistance – fourcategories ( Train resistance , Resistance due to profile, resistances due to starting and acceleration,wind resistance). UNIT III – AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN1. Point out the important parts of an aero plane and discuss it in brief. With the help of a figure explaining the component parts of an aeroplane – Engine –Flaps –Fuselage – Propeller – Three controls – Tricycle undercarriage – Wings2. What are the factors that influence the selection of a location for an airport? Necessary data regarding the airport is collected from previous surveys conducted – factors onwhich site selection is performed ( Any 8) – explain any 6 of them in detail.3. What are zoning laws and briefly put your understanding of the same? Definition of zoning laws ( Height zoning , land-use zoning) – factors – legal interests – Nature ofordinance – zoning map4. What is meant by basic runway length and the three cases associated with them? Assumptions in runway length ( Any 4) – Three cases ( Normal landing, Normal Take off, Steppingin emergency) – explain briefly each case with suitable sketches.5. What are the corrections to basic runway length? Corrections are applied to get the actual length of runway – following corrections are considered– correction for elevation – correction for gradient – correction for temperature – Airport referencetemperature formula – explain the three briefly with sufficient examples. UNIT IV – AIRPORT LAYOUTS, VISUAL AIDS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL1. Discuss briefly on the design objectives and space requirements in an airport. Design objectives – classified into four categories ( airline objectives – airport managementobjectives – community objectives – Passengers’ objectives ) – space requirements as per FAA – allthe points to be discussed in brief with suitable examples wherever possible.2. The type of aircraft parking is very crucial in the planning of an airport. Substantiate thestatement with suitable patterns of aircraft parking. The types of aircraft parking – five categories – nose in – nose out – angle nose in – angle noseout – parallel (explain the types of parking configurations with neat sketches).3. Explain on the systems of aircraft parking practiced these days in the airports of the world. Based on the horizontal terminal concept – various groupings of aircraft can be parked adjacentto the terminal building – known as parking systems – frontal or linear system – open-apron ortransporter system –pier or finger system – satellite system – explain all with neat sketches
18. 4. List out the aims of airport drainage and the function of airport drainage. Adequate drainage required – any 4 points on the aims – any 2 functions of drainage – any 5special characteristics of airport drainage.5. Write a short note on the various airport markings. Airport markings – guide pilots to the runways – marked with lines and numbers – to recognizevarious airport elements – six groups – apron marking – landing direction indicator – runwaymarking – shoulder marking – taxiway marking – wind direction indicator. UNIT V – HARBOUR ENGINEERING AND OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORT1. What is a breakwater and explain in brief the various types of breakwaters? Protective barrier to enclose harbours to keep the waters undisturbed by the effect of heavy andstrong seas – types – Heap or mound breakwater – mound with superstructure or compositebreakwater – Upright wall breakwater – special breakwater – explain them briefly with their mainconstituents and advantage over one another.2. Pen down the major facilities to be available at a port. Facilities to be categorized into two groups – facilities to be provided at land – facilitiesconnected with basin water ( Entrance facilities, Loading unloading platforms, Turning facilities,Repairing facilities)3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of enclosed wet docks? Advantages ( uniform water level to be maintained – prevents rubbing of sides of ships againstquays – prevents the constant attention to alternating mooring – effect of storms in outer seadoesn’t affect the dock) – disadvantages – costly arrangement – locks and lock gates to be provided– more time for entry and exit of ships.4. What are the various types of dredging devices available in modern marine engineering? Dipper dredge – Grapple dredge – ladder dredge – suction dredge – explain them in brief withtheir working principles.5. What are the moorings? Mention the accessories of fixed and floating types of moorings. Moorings are provided at regions where water is insufficient for anchorage – accessories – fixed –mooring part – bollard – capstan – floating type – buoys – cables – anchors 10 MARKS UNIT I – RAILWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN1. Railways are the significant and potential means of transporting men and materials over longdistances. Shed some light on the axiom. Advantage of railways – political – social – economic – Techno-economical – various types oftrains in India – its influence in the masses of India – modern trends in Indian railways(GIS, GPS,Remote Sensing).
19. 2. Discuss the various factors concerning the selection of rails. Mention the major defects seen inrails. A rail is designated by its weight per unit length – factors – speed of train – gauge of track – axleload and nature of traffic - type of rails – spacing of sleepers – maximum permissible wear on top orrails – corrugated rails – hogged rails – kinks in rails – buckling of rails – damaged rails.3. Explain in detail the various types of rail joints with neat sketches. Rail joints are necessary to hold together the adjoining ends of the rails in the correct position,both in horizontal and vertical planes – Supported rail joints – Suspended rail joints – Bridge joint –Base joint – Welded rail joints – Staggered or broken joint – Square or even joint – compromise joint– Insulated joint – expansion joint- explain each of these with suitable sketches wherever necessary4. Explain in detail the effects , measurement and prevention of creep. Effects of creep – sleepers move out of position – stresses exerted on fish plates and bolts tocause breaking – points and crossings distorted – difficulty to re-align or fix the removed track –kinks at joints – forging of ballast – Measurement of creep – creep indicator – diagram – chisel mark– IR practice – intervals of 3 months – not more than 150mm – prevention of creep – pulling backthe rails – provision of anchors – use steel sleepers.5. a)Explain the factors that the speed of train isdependent upon. Derive the equations to determinethe safe speeds of trains in the presence and absence of transition curves. M.G. track, the average speed ofdifferent trains is 50 kph and allowable cant deficiency is half that of maximum cant deficiency.Speed of trains – strength of rails – power of locomotive – safe speed dependent – gauge of track –radius of curve – distance of resultant of weight of vehicle – amount of superelevation provided –presence or absence of transition curve.Martin’s formula – super elevation – length of transition curve – problem – i) for MG track 0.8V2 = 9.3 cm Rii) Max e = 1/10 of gauge = 10cmiii) Max theoretical cant = Max cant + cant deficiency = 5.1cmiv) Max speed = 52 kph.UNIT II – RAILWAY TRACK CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION1. What are crossings? What are the characteristics of crossings and various types of crossings? Crossings – device through which two flange ways allow the wheels of the flanges to move duringan intersection – requirements- assembly to be rigid – wear or parts of wing rails, opposite nose andthe nose must be protected - crossing body should be long and rigid – nose of crossing should havesome thickness – explain any 2 from both the classifications with neat sketches – Based on shape –acute angle – obtuse angle – square crossing – based on assembly – spring or movable wing –ramped crossing2. Explain in detail the classification and various typed of signals. Operating characteristics – detonating – hand signals – fixed signals – functional characteristics –semaphore type signals – warner signals – shunting signals – colored light signals – locational
20. characteristics – reception signals – quoter signals – home signals – departure signals – starter –advance starter – special characteristics – repeater signals – routing signals – calling on signals –point indicators – modified lower quadrant semaphore signals – miscellaneous signals.3. Define interlocking and explain the principle of interlocking. Describe the various mechanicaldevices used for interlocking. Interlocking – technique to ensure that the signal is taken to OFF for route which the signalcontrols, is properly set – interlocking principles ( 4 points ) – mechanical devices – Detectors –stretcher bar – lock plunger – lock bar – tappet locking – slotting of signals – connecting devices suchas rods – cranks – temperature compensators.4. What is the necessity of relaying a track? Describe the standard method of relaying the track inIndia. Discuss the various considerations to be made for replacing a track. Necessity – track materials are worn-out – heavier track replacement due to increased traffic –old materials to be serviced and to be replaced by new materials for mail line – standard method ofrelaying track – preliminary work – actual relaying of track – consolidation of relayed track andremoval of released materials – Considerations – traffic to be least affected - length of track to beeasily completed within working hours of a day – rails , sleepers and ballast to be replacessimultaneously to be economical – super elevation and alignment to be checked on curves –atpoints and crossing the set of them are arranged on an elevated platform5. Explain in detail the tractive resistances. What is hauling capacity? Find out the hauling capacity ofa locomotive with 3 pairs of driving wheels and an axle load of 20 tons. Use 0.2 as coefficient offrictions. Track resistances – train resistances – resistances dependent of speed – resistance independentof speed – atmospheric resistances – resistance due to track profile – resistance due to gradients –resistance due to curves – Resistance de to starting and accelerating – Wind resistances – haulingcapacity – product of coeffie=cient of friction and weight on driving wheels – problem – H.C. = coeff0f friction x weight on driving wheels = 12000kg – hauling capacity should exceed the tractive powerin excess. UNIT III – AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN1. Explain in detail the airport site selection process and the survey conducted for the same. Survey – Traffic survey – approach zone survey – drainage survey – meteorological survey –natural resources survey – soil survey – topographical survey – any 5 from them – availability of landfor expansion – availability of utilities – development of surrounding areas – economy ofconstruction – ground accessibility – presence of other airports – regional plan – soil characteristics– surrounding obstruction – topography – use of airport – any 5 of them .2. Explain about the zoning laws. Shed some light on clear and turning zones. Mention theparticulars in regional planning. Zoning laws – height zoning – land use zoning – legal interests – nature of ordinance – zoningmap – clear zone – innermost portion of approach zone – provided at ends of runways – sketch upthe clear zone – turning zone – area of airport other than the runway – intended for turningoperations of the aircraft – sketch up the turning zone – regional planning – advantages – ( Any 4 ) –air traffic – existing airports – population – topographical features.
21. 3. Mention the preliminary information required for runway orientation. Describe the procedureadopted to construct the wind rose. Preliminary info – maps of area - records of direction – head wind – during landing – during take-off – wind rose – cross wind component – Wind coverage – chart representation of wind graphically– wind rose diagram.4. Enumerate the factors on which the location of the exit taxiways depends. Why are holdingaprons provided and pen down the points to be taken care during its planning? Location of exit taxiways – air traffic control – exit speed – location of runways – number of exits– pilot variability – topographical features – types of aircraft – weather conditions – holding aprons –for checking the engine operation prior to take off – points to be noted – configuration – entry ofrunway – facility of bypass – holding bays – location – peak demands.5. What are the principles that govern the design of the exit taxiway connecting runway and paralleltaxiway? Also mention the geometric standards for taxiway. Principles – angle of turn – compound curve – exit speed – length L1 and L2 – occupancy time –shape of taxiway – stopping distance – explain the points in detail – geometric standards – eightelements – length of taxiway – longitudinal gradient – rate of change of longitudinal gradient – sightdistance – transverse gradient – turning radius – width of safety area – width of taxiway UNIT IV – AIRPORT LAYOUTS, VISUAL AIDS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL1. What are the design objectives of terminal building? Explain the two concepts of planning aterminal building. Suggest the reasonable requirements for terminal building having peak hourtraffic of 100 passengers. Objectives – Airline objectives – airport management objectives – community objectives –passengers’ objectives – two concepts - Centralized system – Decentralized system – explain withneat sketches –reasonable requirements to be noted in area needs for 100 passengers peak hour orin percentage of area occupied by each service.2. Sketch up the following: a) Parallel parking b) Open-apron system c) Satellite system d) Nose hangar e) Plan of grouped T-hangars3. Explain the methods adopted to grant protection from the jet blast. Protection from jet blasts – inconvenience to passengers boarding aircraft – airport personnel –damage to airport equipment – effects to components of airports – holding aprons – taxiways –runway ends – terminal area – methods – blast fences – erosion control – explain with sketches.4. Discuss some of the broad principles to be observed with respect to passenger flow in the designof layout of terminal building. Principles – arrival gates – departure gates – baggage delivery – information – movement – to beexplained in view of passenger – an explanation of passenger activities may also be mentioned.
22. 5. Explain in detail the factors affecting the type and intensity of airport lighting. Also mention theelements of airport lighting. Airport lighting – factors – airport classification – amount of traffic – availability of power –nature of aircraft using the airport – type of night operations planned – type of landing surfacesprovided – weather condition – nine elements – airport beacon – approach lighting – apron andhangar lighting – boundary lighting – lighting of landing direction indicator – lighting of winddirection indicator – runway lighting – taxiway lighting – threshold lighting – explain all in brief. UNIT V – HARBOUR ENGINEERING AND OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORT1. How is the classification of harbor done on this basis of location? What are the factors consideredfor the design of a harbor. Layout of harbor – greatly influenced by location – classification – canal harbor – Lake Harbor –river or estuary harbor – sea or ocean harbor – factors – site selection – shape of harbor – harbordepth – marine surveys – hydrographic surveys – topographic surveys – harbor planning.2. What is a breakwater? How is its alignment decided? Describe design information andconsiderations. Mention the forces that act on a breakwater. Breakwater – protective barrier constructed to enclose harbors and to keep the harbor watersundisturbed by strong seas – alignment – straight converging arms – intersection angle should notexceed 60 degrees – design information – character of coast – coat and availability of materials –direction and force of winds – nature of foundation – height, force and intensity of waves –considerations – design to be based on the extreme phenomena – material in foundation should notscour – forces – hydrostatic force – external force – solvent action of sea water – sea insects .3. Critically comment on jetties. Describe the several standard types of quay walls and theirconstruction. Jetties – structures in the form of piled projections – built form shore to deep water – commenton the forces acting – traffic on them – designed standards for the same – natural condition andconstituents –types of quay walls - solid quay walls – dwarf quay walls – timber lattice work – timbercrib quay walls – rubble mound quay walls – explain them with neat sketches4. Describe the various types of harbor signals. What is a lighthouse and how is it constructed? Whatare the basic requirements of a marine signal? Types of signals – three categories – light signals ( Light ships, beacons, Buoys) – fog signals(ordinary bells struck by hand, ordinary bells operated by mechanism, submarine bells struck bymechanism, whistles or sirens blown by compressed air or stream) – audible signals – Light house –lofty structure – built from masonry or concrete – constructional practice – requirements –visibilityfrom long distance – positively recognizable – simple for identification – permit time for easyresponse.5. What are the essential differences between a transit shed and warehouse as regards: a) their use b) their construction? Transit shed – one or two storeys – handling and distribution – incoming and outgoingcargo requiring protection – sorting of cargo to different consignees – free period to removeconsignment – compensation to be paid for detention –construction requirement – doors to be
23. provided for ready and rapid opening – construction to be light and fire-resistance – ample lightingswith long skylights – should have modern firefighting arrangements – warehouses – permanentstructures – provided on shore or directly behind transit sheds for longer storage periods – storagegodowns