How did Singapore Achieve Independence?<br />Detailed Chapter 9 Lesson<br />Copyright © Tan Yang Jie 2011. All Rights Rese...
The Federation of Malaya<br />A federation is a group of states united with one central government.However,<br />each stat...
Why did Singapore favour a merger with Malaya?<br />The PAP government felt that Singapore’s survival as an independent st...
Furthermore, the Malayan government introduces import and export tariffs on goods<br />traded between the two countries. <...
Why were the British reluctant to grant full independence to Singapore?<br />The source below tells us why:<br />Adopted f...
Malayan Government’s reaction to Merger<br />Before 1961, the PAP government tried with little success to<br />persuade th...
However, by early 1961, the Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman felt that the idea of<br />merger should be consider...
Was Singapore’s Merger with Malaya smooth?<br />Lee Kuan Yew and most of the PAP leaders welcomed the Tunku’s proposal and...
Problems Faced<br />Though both Malaya and Singapore had agreed on the general terms,<br />negotiations over economic issu...
Eventually, the two sides came to an agreement.<br />
Other Countries’ Reactions<br />Singapore <br />- Agreed to join Malaysia after 1962 Referendum<br />Indonesia <br />– Ref...
Malaysia, Finally<br />On 16 September, Malaysia came into existence. It<br />was made up of 14 states.<br /><ul><li>Perlis
Kedah
Penang
Perak
Kelantan
Terengganu
Selangor
Pahang
Negri Sembilan
Malacca
Johor
Singapore
Sabah
Sawarak</li></li></ul><li>What led to separation?<br />
Reasons for Separation<br />
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How did singapore achieve independence?

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Learn about Chapter 9 of the History textbook.
How did singapore achieve independence?
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Done by Tan Yang Jie for his school project

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How did singapore achieve independence?

  1. 1. How did Singapore Achieve Independence?<br />Detailed Chapter 9 Lesson<br />Copyright © Tan Yang Jie 2011. All Rights Reserved.<br />
  2. 2. The Federation of Malaya<br />A federation is a group of states united with one central government.However,<br />each state has its own state government to deal with local matters.<br />The Federation of Malaya included the 11 states in the Malay Peninsula. Malaya<br />had gain independence from the British on 31 August 1957.<br />After Singapore had achieved self-government from the British in 1959, the next<br />constitutional step for the newly-elected PAP government was independence. At<br />that time, the issue of independence was closely associated with the idea of<br />merger with the Federation of Malaya.<br />
  3. 3. Why did Singapore favour a merger with Malaya?<br />The PAP government felt that Singapore’s survival as an independent state would be difficult. This was because Singapore lacked natural resources and faced a declining entrepot trade and a growing<br />population which required jobs.<br />
  4. 4. Furthermore, the Malayan government introduces import and export tariffs on goods<br />traded between the two countries. <br />The PAP government felt that a merger with Malaysia would bring about rapid<br />economic growth. With this merger, Singapore had hoped that a Common Market<br />would be set up to support Singapore’s new industries.<br />Within this Common Market, goods could be brought and sold freely without being<br />taxed. This would increase trade, expand industries and create more jobs.<br />Also, the PAP government saw that Singapore’s best hope for complete freedom was<br />through a merger with Malaya. While internal self- government was previously granted<br />in 1959. the British still controlled some areas such as defence and internal security.<br />
  5. 5. Why were the British reluctant to grant full independence to Singapore?<br />The source below tells us why:<br />Adopted from The Straits Times, 19 June 2005.<br />When the PAP was formed in 1954, it included moderates and radicals.<br />Radicals, in this context, refer to party members who supported the communists<br />and their actions.<br />
  6. 6. Malayan Government’s reaction to Merger<br />Before 1961, the PAP government tried with little success to<br />persuade the government to agree with merger. <br />Why was Malaya not interested in the idea?<br />
  7. 7. However, by early 1961, the Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman felt that the idea of<br />merger should be considered.<br />Why?<br />Tunku was afraid that the split would allow the radicals to gain control of PAP then form a<br />Communist government in Singapore and use Singapore as a base to spread communism in<br />Malaya.<br />In a speech he made, Tunku suggested the possibility of a merger between Malaya and<br />Singapore and the creation of a new federation including other British colonies such as<br />Brunei, Sabah and Sawarak. <br />The inclusion of these colonies would thus overcome the fear of possible Chinese<br />dominance in the new federation.<br />
  8. 8. Was Singapore’s Merger with Malaya smooth?<br />Lee Kuan Yew and most of the PAP leaders welcomed the Tunku’s proposal and<br />held talks with the Tunku to discuss general terms for Singapore’s entry into<br />Malaysia. However, the radicals within the PAP opposed the idea. The issue of<br />merger thus led to a split between the moderates and radicals.<br />To convince the people that a merger with Malaya was necessary for<br />Singapore’s stability and survival, the PAP government mounted a year-long<br />campaign to build up support for the proposal.<br />A referendum was conducted on 1 September 1962 to find out what the people<br />wanted.<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Problems Faced<br />Though both Malaya and Singapore had agreed on the general terms,<br />negotiations over economic issues proved difficult.<br />Frustrated by the disagreements, the Tunku threatened to call off the negotiations of merger.<br />
  11. 11. Eventually, the two sides came to an agreement.<br />
  12. 12. Other Countries’ Reactions<br />Singapore <br />- Agreed to join Malaysia after 1962 Referendum<br />Indonesia <br />– Refused to recognise Malaysia and argued that Sabah and Sawarak should join Indonesia<br />- Broke off diplomatic and trade relations with Malaysia in 1963<br />- Launched a policy of Konfrantasi (Confrontation) against the formation of Malaysia on 20 January 1963. Armed raids<br />Indonesia agents were carried out in Sabah and Sarawak. These agents also attempted to disrupt life in Singapore by<br />setting off bombs in public places.<br />Brunei<br />- Did not join Malaysia because of disagreement over economic issues<br />The Philippines<br />- Refused to recognise Malaysia as it claimed that Sabah rightfully belonged to the Philippines<br />- Broke off relations with Malaysia in 1963<br />Sabah and Sarawak<br />-Agreed to join Malaysia after the Cobbold Commission<br />
  13. 13. Malaysia, Finally<br />On 16 September, Malaysia came into existence. It<br />was made up of 14 states.<br /><ul><li>Perlis
  14. 14. Kedah
  15. 15. Penang
  16. 16. Perak
  17. 17. Kelantan
  18. 18. Terengganu
  19. 19. Selangor
  20. 20. Pahang
  21. 21. Negri Sembilan
  22. 22. Malacca
  23. 23. Johor
  24. 24. Singapore
  25. 25. Sabah
  26. 26. Sawarak</li></li></ul><li>What led to separation?<br />
  27. 27. Reasons for Separation<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. 3. Another difference between Singapore and mainland Malaya had to do with the treatment of the difference races. <br />Hence the difference views on Malaysia between the Alliance party and the PAP led to the political rivalry of both parties.<br />
  30. 30. Parties Involved<br />Alliance Party<br />Ruling Party in Kuala Lumpur<br />Formed by three communal parties<br /> - United Malays National Organisation ( UMNO)<br /> - Malayan Chinese Association (MCA)<br /> - Malayan Indian Congress (MIC)<br />Singapore Alliance Party<br /><ul><li>Made up of Singapore Branches of UMNO, MCA and MIC</li></ul>PAP<br /><ul><li>Ruling Party in Singapore</li></li></ul><li>Political Event : State Election 1963<br />In September 1963, a state election was held in Singapore. The alliance leaders in Kuala<br />Lumpur wanted the Singapore Alliance to win more seats in the Singapore Legislative<br />Assembly.<br />However, the PAP won 37 out of 51 seats contested.<br />This cause d unhappiness among UMNO as it had expected its candidates to retain their<br />seats in GeylangSerai, Kampong Kembangan and the Southern Islands, all of which had a<br />malay majority. However, they lost all three seats to PAP.<br />After the election, the Alliance leaders in Kuala Lumpur vowed to reorganise the Singapore<br />Alliance so as to defeat the PAP in the next election. Such comments affected the<br />Relationship between the PAP and the Alliance. This relationship was further strained when<br />the PAP decided to take part in the 1964 Federal Election.<br />
  31. 31. Political Event : Federal Election 1964<br />During its election campaign, the PAP declared that one of its goals was to help<br />build a Malaysia that would not think along racial lines.<br />Even though the PAP attracted large crowds to its rallies, the party only won one<br />seat. The Alliance, however won 89 seats in the 104 seat Parliament. Despite its<br />victory, the Alliance <br />Leaders in Kuala Lumpur were upset with the PAP for contesting in the federal<br />election.<br />
  32. 32. Political Event : Anti – PAP Campaign<br />After the Alliance’s victory in the Federal election, UMNO felt that it was time to win back the<br />Malay vote in Singapore.<br />However, the UtusanMelayu kept printing articles accusing the PAP government of ill-treating the Malays in Singapore which resulted in 2 racial riots.<br />
  33. 33. Racial Riot 1<br />On 21 July 1964, over 25 000 Malays gathered at the Padang to celebrate Prophet<br />Mohammed’s birthday. However, the celebrations soon turned into a race riot. 23 people lost<br />their lives and 454 people were injured in the riots. To restore order, an island-wide curfew<br />was imposed until 2 August 1964. During this period, the curfew was only lifted for short<br />periods of time for people to buy food.<br />After the riots, Goodwill Committees were set up. They were made up of community leaders<br />from the various racial groups. Their job was to help restore harmony among the various races<br />by addressing their concerns.<br />Lee Kuan Yew toured the island urging the people not to be influenced by those attempting<br />to cause dignity among the various races. TunRazak, the Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister,<br />also visited the affected areas to help calm things down.<br />
  34. 34. Racial Riot 2<br />After six weeks of calm, another race riot took place in September 1964. A curfew was imposed. By the time the curfew was lifted, 13 people lost their lives and 106 others were injured.<br />After the riots in September 1964, the Alliance and PAP agreed not to raise any matters that were racial in nature. Toh Chin Chye also announced publicly that the Alliance and the PAP had agreed not to challenge each other politically for the next two years.<br />However this agreement did not last long.<br />
  35. 35. Malaysian Malaysia Campaign<br />In May 1965, the PAP bought together four other Malaysian<br />opposition parties to form the Malaysian Solidarity party. The<br />main aim of the party was to campaign for a “Malaysian<br />Malaysia” . This campaign upset the Alliance leaders because it<br />seemed to question the special rights of Malays. Some UMNO<br />leaders were so annoyed that they called Lee KuanYew’s arrest.<br />
  36. 36. Days to Separation<br /><ul><li>The Tunku was afraid that racial clashes were likely to happen again if the differences</li></ul>between the Alliance and the PAP were not resolved. He realized that all these <br />disagreements could not be settled.<br /><ul><li>After some discussion, both the PAP leaders and the Tunku agreed to separation.
  37. 37. On Monday, 9 August 1965, before television cameras at Caldecott Hill, Lee Kuan Yew</li></ul>personally announced that Singapore was no longer part of Malaysia. It was an emotional<br />moment for him as he always believed in merger and the unity of the two territories.<br />
  38. 38. Independence Finally<br />Singapore became an independent nation. With independence, Singapore became a republic with Yusof Bin Ishak as the first president. The Singapore had its own government which was now responsible for every aspect of its administration. Also, the national anthem and the pledge were unveiled.<br />Later after independence, Singapore became a member of the United Nations and also the Association of Southeast Asia Nations.<br />
  39. 39. Thank You<br />
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