Chapter 7 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter

29,436 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
1 Comment
61 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
29,436
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
65
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3,438
Comments
1
Likes
61
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 7 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter

  1. 1. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–1 Foundations ofFoundations of PlanningPlanning ChapterChapter 77 Management Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter tenth edition
  2. 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–2 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and studyFollow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.this chapter. 7.1 The What And Why Of Planning • Define planning.Define planning. • Describe the purposes of planning.Describe the purposes of planning. • Explain what studies have shown about the relationship betweenExplain what studies have shown about the relationship between planning and performanceplanning and performance. 7.2 Goals And Plans7.2 Goals And Plans • Define goals and plans.Define goals and plans. • Describe the types of goals organizations might have.Describe the types of goals organizations might have. • Describe each of the different types of plans.Describe each of the different types of plans.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–3 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 7.3 Setting Goals and Developing Plans7.3 Setting Goals and Developing Plans • Discuss how traditional goal setting and MBO work.Discuss how traditional goal setting and MBO work. • Describe well written goals and explain hw to set them.Describe well written goals and explain hw to set them. • Discuss the contingency factors that affect planning.Discuss the contingency factors that affect planning. • Describe the approaches to planning.Describe the approaches to planning. 7.4 Contemporary Issues in Planning7.4 Contemporary Issues in Planning • Explain the criticisms of planning.Explain the criticisms of planning. • Describe how managers can effectively plan in today’s dynamicDescribe how managers can effectively plan in today’s dynamic environment.environment.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–4 What Is Planning?What Is Planning? • PlanningPlanning  A primary managerial activity that involves:A primary managerial activity that involves:  Defining the organization’s goalsDefining the organization’s goals  Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goalsEstablishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals  Developing plans for organizational work activitiesDeveloping plans for organizational work activities  Formal planningFormal planning  Specific goals covering a specific time periodSpecific goals covering a specific time period  Written and shared with organizational membersWritten and shared with organizational members
  5. 5. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–5 Why Do Managers Plan?Why Do Managers Plan? • Purposes of PlanningPurposes of Planning  Provides directionProvides direction  Reduces uncertaintyReduces uncertainty  Minimizes waste and redundancyMinimizes waste and redundancy  Sets the standards for controllingSets the standards for controlling
  6. 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–6 Planning and PerformancePlanning and Performance • The Relationship Between Planning andThe Relationship Between Planning and PerformancePerformance  Formal planning is associated with:Formal planning is associated with:  Higher profits and returns on assets.Higher profits and returns on assets.  Positive financial results.Positive financial results.  The quality of planning and implementation affectsThe quality of planning and implementation affects performance more than the extent of planning.performance more than the extent of planning.  The external environment can reduce the impact ofThe external environment can reduce the impact of planning on performance.planning on performance.  Formal planning must be used for several yearsFormal planning must be used for several years before planning begins to affect performance.before planning begins to affect performance.
  7. 7. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–7 How Do Managers Plan?How Do Managers Plan? • Elements of PlanningElements of Planning  Goals (also Objectives)Goals (also Objectives)  Desired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entireDesired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entire organizationsorganizations  Provide direction and evaluation performance criteriaProvide direction and evaluation performance criteria  PlansPlans  Documents that outline how goals are to be accomplishedDocuments that outline how goals are to be accomplished  Describe how resources are to be allocated and establishDescribe how resources are to be allocated and establish activity schedulesactivity schedules
  8. 8. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–8 Types of GoalsTypes of Goals • Financial GoalsFinancial Goals  Are related to the expected internal financialAre related to the expected internal financial performance of the organization.performance of the organization. • Strategic GoalsStrategic Goals  Are related to the performance of the firm relative toAre related to the performance of the firm relative to factors in its external environment (e.g., competitors).factors in its external environment (e.g., competitors). • Stated Goals versus Real GoalsStated Goals versus Real Goals  Broadly-worded official statements of the organizationBroadly-worded official statements of the organization (intended for public consumption) that may be(intended for public consumption) that may be irrelevant to its real goals (what actually goes on inirrelevant to its real goals (what actually goes on in the organization).the organization).
  9. 9. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–9 Exhibit 7–1Exhibit 7–1 Types of PlansTypes of Plans
  10. 10. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–10 Types of PlansTypes of Plans • Strategic PlansStrategic Plans  Apply to the entire organization.Apply to the entire organization.  Establish the organization’s overall goals.Establish the organization’s overall goals.  Seek to position the organization in terms of itsSeek to position the organization in terms of its environment.environment.  Cover extended periods of time.Cover extended periods of time. • Operational PlansOperational Plans  Specify the details of how the overall goals are to beSpecify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved.achieved.  Cover a short time period.Cover a short time period.
  11. 11. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–11 Types of PlansTypes of Plans • Long-Term PlansLong-Term Plans  Plans with time frames extending beyond three yearsPlans with time frames extending beyond three years • Short-Term PlansShort-Term Plans  Plans with time frames of one year or lessPlans with time frames of one year or less • Specific PlansSpecific Plans  Plans that are clearly defined and leave no room forPlans that are clearly defined and leave no room for interpretationinterpretation • Directional PlansDirectional Plans  Flexible plans that set out general guidelines andFlexible plans that set out general guidelines and provide focus, yet allow discretion in implementationprovide focus, yet allow discretion in implementation
  12. 12. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–12 Types of PlansTypes of Plans • Single-Use PlanSingle-Use Plan  A one-time plan specifically designed to meet theA one-time plan specifically designed to meet the need of a unique situation.need of a unique situation. • Standing PlansStanding Plans  Ongoing plans that provide guidance for activitiesOngoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly.performed repeatedly.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–13 Setting Goals and Developing PlansSetting Goals and Developing Plans • Traditional Goal SettingTraditional Goal Setting  Broad goals are set at the top of the organization.Broad goals are set at the top of the organization.  Goals are then broken into sub-goals for eachGoals are then broken into sub-goals for each organizational level.organizational level.  Assumes that top management knows best becauseAssumes that top management knows best because they can see the “big picture.”they can see the “big picture.”  Goals are intended to direct, guide, and constrainGoals are intended to direct, guide, and constrain from above.from above.  Goals lose clarity and focus as lower-level managersGoals lose clarity and focus as lower-level managers attempt to interpret and define the goals for theirattempt to interpret and define the goals for their areas of responsibility.areas of responsibility.
  14. 14. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–14 Exhibit 7–2Exhibit 7–2 The Downside of Traditional Goal SettingThe Downside of Traditional Goal Setting
  15. 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–15 • Maintaining the Hierarchy of GoalsMaintaining the Hierarchy of Goals  Means–Ends ChainMeans–Ends Chain  The integrated network of goals that results from establishingThe integrated network of goals that results from establishing a clearly-defined hierarchy of organizational goals.a clearly-defined hierarchy of organizational goals.  Achievement of lower-level goals is the means by which toAchievement of lower-level goals is the means by which to reach higher-level goals (ends).reach higher-level goals (ends). Setting Goals and Developing PlansSetting Goals and Developing Plans
  16. 16. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–16 • Management By Objectives (MBO)Management By Objectives (MBO)  Specific performance goals are jointly determined bySpecific performance goals are jointly determined by employees and managers.employees and managers.  Progress toward accomplishing goals is periodicallyProgress toward accomplishing goals is periodically reviewed.reviewed.  Rewards are allocated on the basis of progressRewards are allocated on the basis of progress towards the goals.towards the goals.  Key elements of MBO:Key elements of MBO:  Goal specificity, participative decision making, an explicitGoal specificity, participative decision making, an explicit performance/evaluation period, feedbackperformance/evaluation period, feedback Setting Goals and Developing PlansSetting Goals and Developing Plans
  17. 17. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–17 Exhibit 7–3Exhibit 7–3 Steps in a Typical MBO ProgramSteps in a Typical MBO Program 1. The organization’s overall objectives and strategies are formulated. 2. Major objectives are allocated among divisional and departmental units. 3. Unit managers collaboratively set specific objectives for their units with their managers. 4. Specific objectives are collaboratively set with all department members. 5. Action plans, defining how objectives are to be achieved, are specified and agreed upon by managers and employees. 6. The action plans are implemented. 7. Progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and feedback is provided. 8. Successful achievement of objectives is reinforced by performance-based rewards.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–18 Does MBO Work?Does MBO Work? • Reason for MBO SuccessReason for MBO Success  Top management commitment and involvementTop management commitment and involvement • Potential Problems with MBO ProgramsPotential Problems with MBO Programs  Not as effective in dynamic environments that requireNot as effective in dynamic environments that require constant resetting of goals.constant resetting of goals.  Overemphasis on individual accomplishment mayOveremphasis on individual accomplishment may create problems with teamwork.create problems with teamwork.  Allowing the MBO program to become an annualAllowing the MBO program to become an annual paperwork shuffle.paperwork shuffle.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–19 Exhibit 7–4Exhibit 7–4 Well-Written GoalsWell-Written Goals • Written in terms ofWritten in terms of outcomes, not actionsoutcomes, not actions  Focuses on the ends, notFocuses on the ends, not the means.the means. • Measurable andMeasurable and quantifiablequantifiable  Specifically defines how theSpecifically defines how the outcome is to be measuredoutcome is to be measured and how much is expected.and how much is expected. • Clear as to time frameClear as to time frame  How long before measuringHow long before measuring accomplishment.accomplishment. • Challenging yet attainableChallenging yet attainable  Low goals do not motivate.Low goals do not motivate.  High goals motivate if theyHigh goals motivate if they can be achieved.can be achieved. • Written downWritten down  Focuses, defines, andFocuses, defines, and makes goals visible.makes goals visible. • Communicated to allCommunicated to all necessary organizationalnecessary organizational membersmembers  Puts everybody “on thePuts everybody “on the same page.”same page.”
  20. 20. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–20 Steps in Goal SettingSteps in Goal Setting 1.1. Review the organization’s mission statement.Review the organization’s mission statement. Do goals reflect the mission?Do goals reflect the mission? 2.2. Evaluate available resources.Evaluate available resources. Are resources sufficient to accomplish the mission?Are resources sufficient to accomplish the mission? 3.3. Determine goals individually or with others.Determine goals individually or with others. Are goals specific, measurable, and timely?Are goals specific, measurable, and timely? 4.4. Write down the goals and communicate them.Write down the goals and communicate them. Is everybody on the same page?Is everybody on the same page? 5.5. Review results and whether goals are being met.Review results and whether goals are being met. What changes are needed in mission, resources, or goals?What changes are needed in mission, resources, or goals?
  21. 21. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–21 Developing PlansDeveloping Plans • Contingency Factors in a Manager’s PlanningContingency Factors in a Manager’s Planning  Manager’s level in the organizationManager’s level in the organization  Strategic plans at higher levelsStrategic plans at higher levels  Operational plans at lower levelsOperational plans at lower levels  Degree of environmental uncertaintyDegree of environmental uncertainty  Stable environment: specific plansStable environment: specific plans  Dynamic environment: specific but flexible plansDynamic environment: specific but flexible plans  Length of future commitmentsLength of future commitments  Commitment Concept:Commitment Concept: current plans affecting futurecurrent plans affecting future commitments must be sufficiently long-term to meet thosecommitments must be sufficiently long-term to meet those commitments.commitments.
  22. 22. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–22 Exhibit 7–5Exhibit 7–5 Planning in the Hierarchy ofPlanning in the Hierarchy of OrganizationsOrganizations
  23. 23. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–23 Approaches to PlanningApproaches to Planning • Establishing a formal planning departmentEstablishing a formal planning department  A group of planning specialists whoA group of planning specialists who helphelp managersmanagers write organizational plans.write organizational plans.  Planning is a function of management; it should neverPlanning is a function of management; it should never become the sole responsibility of planners.become the sole responsibility of planners. • Involving organizational members in the processInvolving organizational members in the process  Plans are developed by members of organizationalPlans are developed by members of organizational units at various levels and then coordinated with otherunits at various levels and then coordinated with other units across the organization.units across the organization.
  24. 24. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–24 Contemporary Issues inContemporary Issues in PlanningPlanning • Criticisms of PlanningCriticisms of Planning  Planning may create rigidity.Planning may create rigidity.  Plans cannot be developed for dynamicPlans cannot be developed for dynamic environments.environments.  Formal plans cannot replace intuition and creativity.Formal plans cannot replace intuition and creativity.  Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’sPlanning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition not tomorrow’s survival.competition not tomorrow’s survival.  Formal planning reinforces today’s success, whichFormal planning reinforces today’s success, which may lead to tomorrow’s failure.may lead to tomorrow’s failure.  Just planning isn’t enough.Just planning isn’t enough.
  25. 25. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–25 Contemporary Issues inContemporary Issues in Planning (cont’d)Planning (cont’d) • Effective Planning in Dynamic EnvironmentsEffective Planning in Dynamic Environments  Develop plans that are specific but flexible.Develop plans that are specific but flexible.  Understand that planning is an ongoing process.Understand that planning is an ongoing process.  Change plans when conditions warrant.Change plans when conditions warrant.  Persistence in planning eventually pay off.Persistence in planning eventually pay off.  Flatten the organizational hierarchy to foster theFlatten the organizational hierarchy to foster the development of planning skills at all organizationaldevelopment of planning skills at all organizational levels.levels.
  26. 26. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–26 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • planningplanning • goalsgoals • plansplans • stated goalsstated goals • real goalsreal goals • framingframing • strategic plansstrategic plans • operational plansoperational plans • long-term planslong-term plans • short-term plansshort-term plans • specific plansspecific plans • directional plansdirectional plans • single-use plansingle-use plan • standing plansstanding plans • traditional goal settingtraditional goal setting • means-ends chainmeans-ends chain • management bymanagement by objectives (MBO)objectives (MBO) • missionmission • commitment conceptcommitment concept • formal planningformal planning departmentdepartment
  27. 27. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7–27 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or bystored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Printed in the United States of America.

×