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Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter
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Chapter 16 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter

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  • 1. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–1 Managers AsManagers As LeadersLeaders ChapterChapter 1616 Management Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter tenth edition
  • 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–2 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and studyFollow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.this chapter. 16.116.1 Who Are Leaders and What Is LeadershipWho Are Leaders and What Is Leadership • Define leaders and leadership.Define leaders and leadership. • Explain why managers should be leaders.Explain why managers should be leaders. 16.2 Early Leadership Theories16.2 Early Leadership Theories • Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits.Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits. • Contrast the findings of the four behavioral leadership theories.Contrast the findings of the four behavioral leadership theories. • Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior.Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior.
  • 3. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–3 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 16.316.3 Contingency Theories of LeadershipContingency Theories of Leadership • Explain Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership.Explain Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership. • Describe situational leadership theory.Describe situational leadership theory. • Discuss how path-goal theory explains leadership.Discuss how path-goal theory explains leadership. 16.4 Contemporary Views of Leadership16.4 Contemporary Views of Leadership • Differentiate between transactional andDifferentiate between transactional and transformational leaders.transformational leaders. • Describe charismatic and visionary leadership.Describe charismatic and visionary leadership. • Discuss what team leadership involves.Discuss what team leadership involves.
  • 4. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–4 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 16.516.5 Leadership Issues in the Twenty-FirstLeadership Issues in the Twenty-First CenturyCentury • Describe the five sources of a leader’s power.Describe the five sources of a leader’s power. • Discuss the issues today’s leaders face.Discuss the issues today’s leaders face.
  • 5. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–5 Who Are Leaders and What IsWho Are Leaders and What Is LeadershipLeadership • Leader – Someone who can influence others and who hasLeader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authoritymanagerial authority • Leadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing aLeadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goalsgroup to achieve goals • Ideally, all managersIdeally, all managers should beshould be leadersleaders • Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge,Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge, those are not the leaders we’re studyingthose are not the leaders we’re studying Leadership research has tried to answer:Leadership research has tried to answer: What is an effectiveWhat is an effective leader?leader?
  • 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–6 Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Trait Theories (1920s -1930s)Trait Theories (1920s -1930s)  Research focused on identifying personalResearch focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non-characteristics that differentiated leaders from non- leaders was unsuccessful.leaders was unsuccessful.  Later research on the leadership process identifiedLater research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership:seven traits associated with successful leadership:  Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self- confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, andconfidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.extraversion.
  • 7. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–7 Exhibit 16–1Exhibit 16–1 Seven Traits Associated with LeadershipSeven Traits Associated with Leadership Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765–780.
  • 8. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–8 Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories (cont’d)(cont’d) • Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories  University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)  Identified three leadership styles:Identified three leadership styles: – Autocratic style:Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participationcentralized authority, low participation – Democratic style:Democratic style: involvement, high participation,involvement, high participation, feedbackfeedback – Laissez faire style:Laissez faire style: hands-off managementhands-off management  Research findings: mixed resultsResearch findings: mixed results – No specific style was consistently better for producingNo specific style was consistently better for producing better performance.better performance. – Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leaderEmployees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.than an autocratic leader.
  • 9. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–9 Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Behavioral Theories (cont’d)Behavioral Theories (cont’d)  Ohio State StudiesOhio State Studies  Identified two dimensions of leader behavior:Identified two dimensions of leader behavior: – Initiating structure:Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining histhe role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members.or her role and the roles of group members. – Consideration:Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect forthe leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.group members’ ideas and feelings.  Research findings: mixed resultsResearch findings: mixed results – High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved highHigh-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group task performance and satisfaction.group task performance and satisfaction. – Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared toEvidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness.strongly influence leadership effectiveness.
  • 10. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–10 Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Behavioral Theories (cont’d)Behavioral Theories (cont’d)  University of Michigan StudiesUniversity of Michigan Studies  Identified two dimensions of leader behavior:Identified two dimensions of leader behavior: – Employee oriented:Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationshipsemphasizing personal relationships – Production oriented:Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishmentemphasizing task accomplishment  Research findings:Research findings: – Leaders who are employee oriented are stronglyLeaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high jobassociated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.satisfaction.
  • 11. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–11 The Managerial GridThe Managerial Grid • Managerial GridManagerial Grid  Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:  Concern for peopleConcern for people  Concern for productionConcern for production  Places managerial styles in five categories:Places managerial styles in five categories:  Impoverished managementImpoverished management  Task managementTask management  Middle-of-the-road managementMiddle-of-the-road management  Country club managementCountry club management  Team managementTeam management
  • 12. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–12 Exhibit 16–3Exhibit 16–3 TheThe ManagerialManagerial GridGrid Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from “Breakthrough in Organization Development” by Robert R. Blake, Jane S. Mouton, Louis B. Barnes, and Larry E. Greiner, November–December 1964, p. 136. Copyright © 1964 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–13 Exhibit 16–2Exhibit 16–2 Behavioral Theories of LeadershipBehavioral Theories of Leadership
  • 14. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–14 Exhibit 16–2 (cont’d) Behavioral Theories ofExhibit 16–2 (cont’d) Behavioral Theories of LeadershipLeadership
  • 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–15 Contingency Theories ofContingency Theories of LeadershipLeadership • The Fiedler ModelThe Fiedler Model  Proposes that effective group performance dependsProposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style ofupon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which theinteracting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.situation allows the leader to control and influence.  Assumptions:Assumptions:  A certain leadership style should be most effective in differentA certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.types of situations.  Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.Leaders do not readily change leadership styles. – Matching the leader to the situation or changing theMatching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
  • 16. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–16 Contingency Theories ofContingency Theories of LeadershipLeadership • The Fiedler Model (cont’d)The Fiedler Model (cont’d)  Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaireLeast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire  Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives.pairs of contrasting adjectives. – High score: a relationship-oriented leadershipHigh score: a relationship-oriented leadership stylestyle – Low score: a task-oriented leadership styleLow score: a task-oriented leadership style  Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:  Leader-member relationsLeader-member relations  Task structureTask structure  Position powerPosition power
  • 17. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–17 Exhibit 16–4Exhibit 16–4 Findings of the Fiedler ModelFindings of the Fiedler Model
  • 18. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–18 Contingency Theories ofContingency Theories of LeadershipLeadership • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Argues that successful leadership is achieved byArgues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingentselecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness.on the level of the followers’ readiness.  Acceptance:Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whetherleadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.followers accept or reject a leader.  Readiness:Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability andthe extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.willingness to accomplish a specific task.  Leaders must relinquish control over and contact withLeaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent.followers as they become more competent.
  • 19. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–19 Contingency Theories ofContingency Theories of LeadershipLeadership • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d.)Theory (SLT) (cont’d.)  Creates four specific leadership styles incorporatingCreates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:  Telling:Telling: high task-low relationship leadershiphigh task-low relationship leadership  Selling:Selling: high task-high relationship leadershiphigh task-high relationship leadership  Participating:Participating: low task-high relationship leadershiplow task-high relationship leadership  Delegating:Delegating: low task-low relationship leadershiplow task-low relationship leadership
  • 20. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–20 Contingency Theories ofContingency Theories of LeadershipLeadership • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d)Theory (SLT) (cont’d)  Posits four stages follower readiness:Posits four stages follower readiness:  R1:R1: followers are unable and unwillingfollowers are unable and unwilling  R2:R2: followers are unable but willingfollowers are unable but willing  R3:R3: followers are able but unwillingfollowers are able but unwilling  R4:R4: followers are able and willingfollowers are able and willing
  • 21. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–21 Contingency Theories ofContingency Theories of LeadershipLeadership • Path-Goal ModelPath-Goal Model  States that the leader’s job is to assist his or herStates that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to providefollowers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals aredirection or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals.compatible with organizational goals.  Leaders assume different leadership styles atLeaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation:different times depending on the situation:  Directive leaderDirective leader  Supportive leaderSupportive leader  Participative leaderParticipative leader  Achievement oriented leaderAchievement oriented leader
  • 22. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–22 Exhibit 16–5Exhibit 16–5 Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal Theory
  • 23. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–23 Contemporary Views ofContemporary Views of LeadershipLeadership • Transactional LeadershipTransactional Leadership  Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in theLeaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role anddirection of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.task requirements. • Transformational LeadershipTransformational Leadership  Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their ownLeaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization byself-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements.clarifying role and task requirements.
  • 24. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–24 Contemporary Views ofContemporary Views of LeadershipLeadership • Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership  An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whoseAn enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave inpersonality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.certain ways.  Characteristics of charismatic leaders:Characteristics of charismatic leaders:  Have a vision.Have a vision.  Are able to articulate the vision.Are able to articulate the vision.  Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.  Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.  Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
  • 25. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–25 Contemporary Views ofContemporary Views of LeadershipLeadership • Visionary LeadershipVisionary Leadership  A leader who creates and articulates a realistic,A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future thatcredible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.improves upon the present situation. • Visionary leaders have the ability to:Visionary leaders have the ability to:  Explain the vision to others.Explain the vision to others.  Express the vision not just verbally but throughExpress the vision not just verbally but through behavior.behavior.  Extend or apply the vision to different leadershipExtend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.contexts.
  • 26. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–26 Contemporary Views ofContemporary Views of LeadershipLeadership • Team Leadership CharacteristicsTeam Leadership Characteristics  Having patience to share informationHaving patience to share information  Being able to trust others and to give up authorityBeing able to trust others and to give up authority  Understanding when to interveneUnderstanding when to intervene • Team Leader’s JobTeam Leader’s Job  Managing the team’s external boundaryManaging the team’s external boundary  Facilitating the team processFacilitating the team process  Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems,Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, andreviewing team and individual performance, training, and communicationcommunication
  • 27. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–27 Exhibit 16–6Exhibit 16–6 Specific Team Leadership RolesSpecific Team Leadership Roles
  • 28. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–28 Leadership Issues in the 21Leadership Issues in the 21stst CenturyCentury • Managing PowerManaging Power  Legitimate powerLegitimate power  The power a leader hasThe power a leader has as a result of his or heras a result of his or her position.position.  Coercive powerCoercive power  The power a leader has toThe power a leader has to punish or control.punish or control.  Reward powerReward power  The power to giveThe power to give positive benefits orpositive benefits or rewards.rewards.  Expert powerExpert power  The influence a leaderThe influence a leader can exert as a result ofcan exert as a result of his or her expertise,his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.skills, or knowledge.  Referent powerReferent power  The power of a leaderThe power of a leader that arise because of athat arise because of a person’s desirableperson’s desirable resources or admiredresources or admired personal traits.personal traits.
  • 29. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–29 Developing TrustDeveloping Trust • Credibility (of a Leader)Credibility (of a Leader)  The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence,The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire by his or her followersand ability to inspire by his or her followers • TrustTrust  Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity,Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leadercharacter, and ability of a leader  Dimensions of trust:Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence, consistency,integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and opennessloyalty, and openness  Is related to increases in job performance,Is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction,organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction, and organization commitmentand organization commitment
  • 30. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–30 Exhibit 16–7Exhibit 16–7 Suggestions for Building TrustSuggestions for Building Trust Practice openness.Practice openness. Be fair.Be fair. Speak your feelings.Speak your feelings. Tell the truth.Tell the truth. Show consistency.Show consistency. Fulfill your promises.Fulfill your promises. Maintain confidences.Maintain confidences. Demonstrate competence.Demonstrate competence.
  • 31. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–31 Empowering EmployeesEmpowering Employees • EmpowermentEmpowerment  Involves increasing the decision-making discretion ofInvolves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers such that teams can make key operatingworkers such that teams can make key operating decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads,decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads, controlling inventories, and solving quality problemscontrolling inventories, and solving quality problems  Why empower employees?Why empower employees?  Quicker responses problems and faster decisionsQuicker responses problems and faster decisions  Addresses the problem of increased spans of control inAddresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving managers to work on other problemsrelieving managers to work on other problems
  • 32. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–32 Cross-Cultural LeadershipCross-Cultural Leadership • Universal Elements ofUniversal Elements of Effective LeadershipEffective Leadership  VisionVision  ForesightForesight  Providing encouragementProviding encouragement  TrustworthinessTrustworthiness  DynamismDynamism  PositivenessPositiveness  ProactivenessProactiveness
  • 33. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–33 Exhibit 16–8Exhibit 16–8 Selected Cross-Cultural LeadershipSelected Cross-Cultural Leadership FindingsFindings • Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. • Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. • Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. • Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. • Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. • Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation. Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15–16; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16–29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “International Perspectives on International Leadership,” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203–31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “Leadership in the Twenty-First Century,” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442.
  • 34. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–34 Gender Differences andGender Differences and LeadershipLeadership • Research FindingsResearch Findings  Males and females use different styles:Males and females use different styles:  Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative styleWomen tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.unless in a male-dominated job.  Women tend to use transformational leadership.Women tend to use transformational leadership.  Men tend to use transactional leadership.Men tend to use transactional leadership.
  • 35. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–35 Exhibit 16–9Exhibit 16–9 Where Female Managers Do Better: AWhere Female Managers Do Better: A ScorecardScorecard Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75.
  • 36. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–36 Leader TrainingLeader Training  More likely to be successful with individuals who areMore likely to be successful with individuals who are high self-monitors than with low self-monitors.high self-monitors than with low self-monitors.  Individuals with higher levels of motivation to lead areIndividuals with higher levels of motivation to lead are more receptive to leadership developmentmore receptive to leadership development opportunitiesopportunities • Can teach:Can teach:  Implementation skillsImplementation skills  Trust-buildingTrust-building  MentoringMentoring  Situational analysisSituational analysis
  • 37. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–37 Substitutes for LeadershipSubstitutes for Leadership • Follower characteristicsFollower characteristics  Experience, training, professional orientation, or theExperience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independenceneed for independence • Job characteristicsJob characteristics  Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobsRoutine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs • Organization characteristicsOrganization characteristics  Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures,Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groupsor cohesive work groups
  • 38. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–38 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • leaderleader • leadershipleadership • behavioral theoriesbehavioral theories • autocratic styleautocratic style • democratic styledemocratic style • laissez-faire stylelaissez-faire style • initiating structureinitiating structure • considerationconsideration • high-high leaderhigh-high leader • managerial gridmanagerial grid • Fiedler contingencyFiedler contingency modelmodel • least-preferred co-workerleast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire(LPC) questionnaire • leader-member relationsleader-member relations • task structuretask structure • position powerposition power • situational leadership theorysituational leadership theory (SLT)(SLT) • readinessreadiness • leader participation modelleader participation model • path-goal theorypath-goal theory • transactional leaderstransactional leaders
  • 39. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–39 Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d) • transformational leaderstransformational leaders • charismatic leadercharismatic leader • visionary leadershipvisionary leadership • legitimate powerlegitimate power • coercive powercoercive power • reward powerreward power • expert powerexpert power • referent powerreferent power • credibilitycredibility • trusttrust • empowermentempowerment
  • 40. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16–40 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or bystored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Printed in the United States of America.

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