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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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UnderstandingUnderstanding
IndividualIndividual
...
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13–2
Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes
Follow this L...
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Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes
13.313.3 Pers...
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Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes
13.513.5 Cont...
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13–5
Exhibit 13.1Exhibit 13.1 The Organization as an ...
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13–6
The Focus and Goals ofThe Focus and Goals of
Ind...
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Goals of Organizational BehaviorGoals of Organiz...
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Important Employee BehaviorsImportant Employee B...
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Important Employee BehaviorsImportant Employee B...
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Psychological Factors AffectingPsychological Fa...
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Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological ...
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• Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction
 Job satisf...
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• Job Satisfaction and AbsenteeismJob Satisfact...
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• Job Satisfaction and Customer SatisfactionJob...
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• Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizensh...
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• Job InvolvementJob Involvement
 The degree t...
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• Organizational CommitmentOrganizational Commi...
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• Perceived Organizational SupportPerceived Org...
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Exhibit 13–2 Key Employee Engagement Factors
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Attitudes and ConsistencyAttitudes and Consiste...
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13–21
Cognitive Dissonance TheoryCognitive Dissonance...
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Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys
• Attitude Sur...
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Exhibit 13–3 Sample Employee Survey
• To measur...
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13–24
The Importance of AttitudesThe Importance of At...
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• PersonalityPersonality
 The unique combinati...
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Classifying Personality TraitsClassifying Perso...
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Exhibit 13.4Exhibit 13.4 Examples of MBTIExampl...
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The Big-Five ModelThe Big-Five Model
• Extraver...
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13–29
Additional Personality InsightsAdditional Perso...
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13–30
• Self-Esteem (SE)Self-Esteem (SE)
 The degree...
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13–31
• Self-MonitoringSelf-Monitoring
 An individua...
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13–32
• Risk TakingRisk Taking
 The propensity (or w...
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Personality Types in DifferentPersonality Types...
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EmotionsEmotions
• EmotionsEmotions
 Intense f...
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Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence
• ...
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Implications for ManagersImplications for Manag...
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Understanding PersonalityUnderstanding Personal...
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Exhibit 13.5Exhibit 13.5 Holland’s Typology of ...
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• PerceptionPerception
 A process by which ind...
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Exhibit 13.6Exhibit 13.6 Perception Challenges:...
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How We Perceive PeopleHow We Perceive People
• ...
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Exhibit 13.7Exhibit 13.7 Attribution TheoryAttr...
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How We Perceive PeopleHow We Perceive People
(c...
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Shortcuts Used in JudgingShortcuts Used in Judg...
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Implications for ManagersImplications for Manag...
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• LearningLearning
 Any relatively permanent c...
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Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d)
• Operant Co...
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Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d)
• Social Lea...
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Shaping: A Managerial ToolShaping: A Managerial...
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Implications for ManagersImplications for Manag...
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Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in...
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Exhibit 13.8Exhibit 13.8 Gen Y WorkersGen Y Wor...
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Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in...
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Terms to KnowTerms to Know
• behaviorbehavior
•...
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Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d)
• ...
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All rights reserved. No part of this publicatio...
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Chapter 13 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter

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Transcript of "Chapter 13 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter"

  1. 1. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–1 UnderstandingUnderstanding IndividualIndividual BehaviorBehavior ChapterChapter 1313 Management Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter tenth edition
  2. 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–2 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and studyFollow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.this chapter. 13.1 Focus and Goals of Individual Behavior13.1 Focus and Goals of Individual Behavior • Explain why the concept of an organization as an iceberg isExplain why the concept of an organization as an iceberg is important to understanding organizational behavior.important to understanding organizational behavior. • Describe the focus and the goals of organizational behavior.Describe the focus and the goals of organizational behavior. • Define the six important employee behaviors that managersDefine the six important employee behaviors that managers want to explain, predict, and influence.want to explain, predict, and influence. 13.213.2 Attitudes and PerformanceAttitudes and Performance • Describe the three components of an attitude.Describe the three components of an attitude. • Explain the four job-related attitudes.Explain the four job-related attitudes. • Describe the impact job satisfaction has on employee behaviorDescribe the impact job satisfaction has on employee behavior..
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–3 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 13.313.3 PersonalityPersonality • Contrast the MBTIContrast the MBTI®® and the big five model ofand the big five model of personality.personality. • Describe the five personality traits that have proved toDescribe the five personality traits that have proved to be most powerful in explaining individual behavior inbe most powerful in explaining individual behavior in organizations.organizations. • Explain how emotions and emotional intelligenceExplain how emotions and emotional intelligence impact behavior.impact behavior. 13.413.4 LearningLearning • Explain how operant conditioning helps managers.Explain how operant conditioning helps managers. •• Describe the implications of social learning theory.Describe the implications of social learning theory. • Discuss how managers can shape behavior.Discuss how managers can shape behavior.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–4 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 13.513.5 Contemporary OB IssuesContemporary OB Issues • Describe the challenges managers face in managingDescribe the challenges managers face in managing Gen Y workers.Gen Y workers. • Explain what managers can do to deal with workplaceExplain what managers can do to deal with workplace misbehavior.misbehavior.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–5 Exhibit 13.1Exhibit 13.1 The Organization as an IcebergThe Organization as an Iceberg
  6. 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–6 The Focus and Goals ofThe Focus and Goals of Individual BehaviorIndividual Behavior • Organizational Behavior (OB)Organizational Behavior (OB)  The actions of people at workThe actions of people at work • Focus of Organizational BehaviorFocus of Organizational Behavior  Individual behaviorIndividual behavior  Attitudes, personality, perception, learning, and motivationAttitudes, personality, perception, learning, and motivation  Group behaviorGroup behavior  Norms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflictNorms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflict  OrganizationalOrganizational  Structure, culture, and human resource policies and practicesStructure, culture, and human resource policies and practices
  7. 7. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–7 Goals of Organizational BehaviorGoals of Organizational Behavior  To explain, predict and influence behavior.To explain, predict and influence behavior. • Employee ProductivityEmployee Productivity  A performance measure of both efficiency andA performance measure of both efficiency and effectivenesseffectiveness • AbsenteeismAbsenteeism  The failure to report to work when expectedThe failure to report to work when expected • TurnoverTurnover  The voluntary and involuntaryThe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal frompermanent withdrawal from an organizationan organization
  8. 8. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–8 Important Employee BehaviorsImportant Employee Behaviors (cont’d)(cont’d) • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)  Discretionary behavior that is not a part of anDiscretionary behavior that is not a part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but whichemployee’s formal job requirements, but which promotes the effective functioning of the organization.promotes the effective functioning of the organization. • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction  The individual’s general attitudeThe individual’s general attitude toward his or her jobtoward his or her job
  9. 9. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–9 Important Employee BehaviorsImportant Employee Behaviors (cont’d)(cont’d) • Workplace MisbehaviorWorkplace Misbehavior  Any intentional employee behavior that has negativeAny intentional employee behavior that has negative consequences for the organization or individualsconsequences for the organization or individuals within the organization.within the organization.  Types of MisbehaviorTypes of Misbehavior  DevianceDeviance  AggressionAggression  Antisocial behaviorAntisocial behavior  ViolenceViolence
  10. 10. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–10 Psychological Factors AffectingPsychological Factors Affecting Employee BehaviorEmployee Behavior • AttitudesAttitudes • PersonalityPersonality • PerceptionPerception • LearningLearning • AttitudesAttitudes • PersonalityPersonality • PerceptionPerception • LearningLearning • EmployeeEmployee ProductivityProductivity • AbsenteeismAbsenteeism • TurnoverTurnover • OrganizationalOrganizational CitizenshipCitizenship • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction • WorkplaceWorkplace MisbehaviorMisbehavior • EmployeeEmployee ProductivityProductivity • AbsenteeismAbsenteeism • TurnoverTurnover • OrganizationalOrganizational CitizenshipCitizenship • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction • WorkplaceWorkplace MisbehaviorMisbehavior
  11. 11. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–11 Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes • AttitudesAttitudes  Evaluative statementsEvaluative statements—either favorable or—either favorable or unfavorable—concerning objects, people, or events.unfavorable—concerning objects, people, or events. • Components of an AttitudeComponents of an Attitude  Cognitive component:Cognitive component: the beliefs, opinions,the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person.knowledge, or information held by a person.  Affective component:Affective component: the emotional or feeling partthe emotional or feeling part of an attitude.of an attitude.  Behavioral component:Behavioral component: the intention to behave in athe intention to behave in a certain way.certain way.
  12. 12. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–12 • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction  Job satisfaction is affected by level of income earnedJob satisfaction is affected by level of income earned and by the type of job a worker does.and by the type of job a worker does. • Job Satisfaction and ProductivityJob Satisfaction and Productivity  The correlation between satisfaction and productivityThe correlation between satisfaction and productivity is fairly strong.is fairly strong.  Organizations with more satisfied employees areOrganizations with more satisfied employees are more effective than those with fewer satisfiedmore effective than those with fewer satisfied employees.employees. Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  13. 13. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–13 • Job Satisfaction and AbsenteeismJob Satisfaction and Absenteeism  Satisfied employees tend to have lower levels ofSatisfied employees tend to have lower levels of absenteeism, although satisfied employees are boundabsenteeism, although satisfied employees are bound to take company approved days off (e.g. sick days)to take company approved days off (e.g. sick days) • Job Satisfaction and TurnoverJob Satisfaction and Turnover  Satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover;Satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover; dissatisfied employees have higher levels of turnover.dissatisfied employees have higher levels of turnover.  Turnover is affected by the level of employeeTurnover is affected by the level of employee performance.performance.  The preferential treatment afforded superior employeesThe preferential treatment afforded superior employees makes satisfaction less important in predicting their turnovermakes satisfaction less important in predicting their turnover decisions.decisions. Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  14. 14. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–14 • Job Satisfaction and Customer SatisfactionJob Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction  The level of job satisfaction for frontline employees isThe level of job satisfaction for frontline employees is related to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.related to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.  Interaction with dissatisfied customers can increaseInteraction with dissatisfied customers can increase an employee’s job dissatisfaction.an employee’s job dissatisfaction.  Actions to increase job satisfaction for customerActions to increase job satisfaction for customer service workers:service workers:  Hire upbeat and friendly employees.Hire upbeat and friendly employees.  Reward superior customer service.Reward superior customer service.  Provide a positive work climate.Provide a positive work climate.  Use attitude surveys to track employee satisfaction.Use attitude surveys to track employee satisfaction. Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  15. 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–15 • Job Satisfaction and Organizational CitizenshipJob Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)Behavior (OCB)  Relationship between job satisfaction and OCB isRelationship between job satisfaction and OCB is tempered by perceptions of fairnesstempered by perceptions of fairness  Individual OCB is influenced by work group OCBIndividual OCB is influenced by work group OCB • Job Satisfaction and Workplace MisbehaviorJob Satisfaction and Workplace Misbehavior  Dissatisfied employees will respond somehowDissatisfied employees will respond somehow  Not easy to predict exactly how they’ll respondNot easy to predict exactly how they’ll respond Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  16. 16. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–16 • Job InvolvementJob Involvement  The degree to which an employee identifies with hisThe degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers hisor her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance to be important to his or her self-or her performance to be important to his or her self- worth.worth.  High levels of commitment are related to fewer absences andHigh levels of commitment are related to fewer absences and lower resignation rates.lower resignation rates. Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  17. 17. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–17 • Organizational CommitmentOrganizational Commitment  Is the degree to which an employee identifies with aIs the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes toparticular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.maintain membership in the organization.  Leads to lower levels of both absenteeism andLeads to lower levels of both absenteeism and turnover.turnover.  Could be becoming an outmoded measure as theCould be becoming an outmoded measure as the number of workers who change employers increases.number of workers who change employers increases. Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  18. 18. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–18 • Perceived Organizational SupportPerceived Organizational Support  Is the general belief of employees that theirIs the general belief of employees that their organization values their contribution and cares aboutorganization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.their well-being.  Represents the commitment of the organization to theRepresents the commitment of the organization to the employee.employee.  Providing high levels of support increases jobProviding high levels of support increases job satisfaction and lower turnover.satisfaction and lower turnover. Psychological Factors – AttitudesPsychological Factors – Attitudes
  19. 19. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–19 Exhibit 13–2 Key Employee Engagement Factors
  20. 20. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–20 Attitudes and ConsistencyAttitudes and Consistency • People seek consistency in two ways:People seek consistency in two ways:  Consistency among their attitudes.Consistency among their attitudes.  Consistency between their attitudes and behaviors.Consistency between their attitudes and behaviors. • If an inconsistency arises, individuals:If an inconsistency arises, individuals:  Alter their attitudesAlter their attitudes oror  Alter their behaviorAlter their behavior oror  Develop a rationalization for the inconsistencyDevelop a rationalization for the inconsistency
  21. 21. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–21 Cognitive Dissonance TheoryCognitive Dissonance Theory • Cognitive DissonanceCognitive Dissonance  Any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudesAny incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.or between behavior and attitudes.  Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individualsAny form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will try to reduce the dissonance.will try to reduce the dissonance.  The intensity of the desire to reduce the dissonance isThe intensity of the desire to reduce the dissonance is influenced by:influenced by:  The importance of the factors creating the dissonance.The importance of the factors creating the dissonance.  The degree to which an individual believes that the factorsThe degree to which an individual believes that the factors causing the dissonance are controllable.causing the dissonance are controllable.  Rewards available to compensate for the dissonance.Rewards available to compensate for the dissonance.
  22. 22. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–22 Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys • Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys  A instrument/document that presents employees withA instrument/document that presents employees with a set of statements or questions eliciting how theya set of statements or questions eliciting how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, orfeel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or their organization.their organization.  Provide management with feedback on employeeProvide management with feedback on employee perceptions of the organization and their jobs.perceptions of the organization and their jobs.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–23 Exhibit 13–3 Sample Employee Survey • To measure employee attitudes, some KFC and Long John Silver’s restaurants ask employees to react to statements such as: • My restaurant is a great place to work. • People on my team help out, even if it is not their job. • I am told whether I am doing good work or not. • I understand the employee benefits that are available to me.
  24. 24. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–24 The Importance of AttitudesThe Importance of Attitudes • Implication for ManagersImplication for Managers  Attitudes warn of potential behavioral problems:Attitudes warn of potential behavioral problems:  Managers should do things that generate the positiveManagers should do things that generate the positive attitudes that reduce absenteeism and turnover.attitudes that reduce absenteeism and turnover.  Attitudes influence behaviors of employees:Attitudes influence behaviors of employees:  Managers should focus on helping employees become moreManagers should focus on helping employees become more productive to increase job satisfaction.productive to increase job satisfaction.  Employees will try to reduce dissonance unless:Employees will try to reduce dissonance unless:  Managers identify the external sources of dissonance.Managers identify the external sources of dissonance.  Managers provide rewards compensating for the dissonance.Managers provide rewards compensating for the dissonance.
  25. 25. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–25 • PersonalityPersonality  The unique combination of emotional, thought andThe unique combination of emotional, thought and behavioral patterns that affect how a person reactsbehavioral patterns that affect how a person reacts and interacts with others.and interacts with others. Psychological Factors –Psychological Factors – PersonalityPersonality
  26. 26. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–26 Classifying Personality TraitsClassifying Personality Traits • Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTIMyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®® ))  A general personality assessment tool thatA general personality assessment tool that measures the personality of an individual using fourmeasures the personality of an individual using four categories:categories:  Social interaction: Extrovert or Introvert (E or I)Social interaction: Extrovert or Introvert (E or I)  Preference for gathering data: Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)Preference for gathering data: Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)  Preference for decision making: Feeling or Thinking (F or T)Preference for decision making: Feeling or Thinking (F or T)  Style of decision making: Perceptive or Judgmental (P or J)Style of decision making: Perceptive or Judgmental (P or J)
  27. 27. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–27 Exhibit 13.4Exhibit 13.4 Examples of MBTIExamples of MBTI®® TypesTypes TypeType DescriptionDescription INFJ (introvert, intuitive,INFJ (introvert, intuitive, feeling, judgmental)feeling, judgmental) Quietly forceful, conscientious, and concerned for others. SuchQuietly forceful, conscientious, and concerned for others. Such people succeed by perseverance, originality, and the desire topeople succeed by perseverance, originality, and the desire to do whatever is needed or wanted. They are often highlydo whatever is needed or wanted. They are often highly respected for their uncompromising principles.respected for their uncompromising principles. ESTP (extrovert,ESTP (extrovert, sensing, thinking,sensing, thinking, perceptive)perceptive) Blunt and sometimes insensitive. Such people are matter-of-factBlunt and sometimes insensitive. Such people are matter-of-fact and do not run back, worry or hurry. They enjoy whateverand do not run back, worry or hurry. They enjoy whatever comes along. They work best with real things that can becomes along. They work best with real things that can be assembled or disassembled.assembled or disassembled. ISFP (introvert, sensing,ISFP (introvert, sensing, feeling, perceptive)feeling, perceptive) Sensitive, kind, modest, shy, and quietly friendly. Such peopleSensitive, kind, modest, shy, and quietly friendly. Such people strongly dislike run back disagreements and will avoid them.strongly dislike run back disagreements and will avoid them. They are loyal followers and quite often are relaxed aboutThey are loyal followers and quite often are relaxed about getting things done.getting things done. ENTJ (extrovert,ENTJ (extrovert, intuitive, thinking,intuitive, thinking, judgmental)judgmental) Warm, friendly, candid, and decisive; also usually skilled inWarm, friendly, candid, and decisive; also usually skilled in anything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, but mayanything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, but may sometimes overestimate what they are capable of doing.sometimes overestimate what they are capable of doing. Source: Based on I. Briggs-Myers, Introduction to Type (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980), pp. 7–8.
  28. 28. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–28 The Big-Five ModelThe Big-Five Model • ExtraversionExtraversion  Sociable, talkative, andSociable, talkative, and assertiveassertive • AgreeablenessAgreeableness  Good-natured,Good-natured, cooperative, and trustingcooperative, and trusting • ConscientiousnessConscientiousness  Responsible, dependable,Responsible, dependable, persistent, andpersistent, and achievement orientedachievement oriented • Emotional StabilityEmotional Stability  Calm, enthusiastic, andCalm, enthusiastic, and secure or tense, nervous,secure or tense, nervous, and insecureand insecure • Openness to ExperienceOpenness to Experience  Imaginative, artisticallyImaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectualsensitive, and intellectual
  29. 29. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–29 Additional Personality InsightsAdditional Personality Insights • Locus of ControlLocus of Control  Internal locus:Internal locus: persons who believe that they controlpersons who believe that they control their own destiny.their own destiny.  External locus:External locus: persons who believe that whatpersons who believe that what happens to them is due to luck or chance (thehappens to them is due to luck or chance (the uncontrollable effects of outside forces).uncontrollable effects of outside forces). • Machiavellianism (Mach)Machiavellianism (Mach)  The degree to which an individual is pragmatic,The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and seeks to gain andmaintains emotional distance, and seeks to gain and manipulate powermanipulate power—ends can justify means.—ends can justify means.
  30. 30. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–30 • Self-Esteem (SE)Self-Esteem (SE)  The degree to which people like or dislike themselvesThe degree to which people like or dislike themselves  High SEsHigh SEs  Believe in themselves and expect success.Believe in themselves and expect success.  Take more risks and use unconventional approaches.Take more risks and use unconventional approaches.  Are more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs.Are more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs.  Low SEsLow SEs  Are more susceptible to external influences.Are more susceptible to external influences.  Depend on positive evaluations from others.Depend on positive evaluations from others.  Are more prone to conform than high SEs.Are more prone to conform than high SEs. Additional Personality InsightsAdditional Personality Insights
  31. 31. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–31 • Self-MonitoringSelf-Monitoring  An individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior toAn individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.external, situational factors.  High self-monitors:High self-monitors:  Are sensitive to external cues and behave differently inAre sensitive to external cues and behave differently in different situations.different situations.  Can present contradictory public persona and private selvesCan present contradictory public persona and private selves —impression management.—impression management.  Low self-monitorsLow self-monitors  Do not adjust their behavior to the situation.Do not adjust their behavior to the situation.  Are behaviorally consistent in public and private.Are behaviorally consistent in public and private. Additional Personality InsightsAdditional Personality Insights
  32. 32. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–32 • Risk TakingRisk Taking  The propensity (or willingness) to take risks.The propensity (or willingness) to take risks.  High risk-takers take less time and require less informationHigh risk-takers take less time and require less information than low risk-takers when making a decision.than low risk-takers when making a decision.  Organizational effectiveness is maximized when theOrganizational effectiveness is maximized when the risk-taking propensity of a manager is aligned withrisk-taking propensity of a manager is aligned with the specific demands of the job assigned to thethe specific demands of the job assigned to the manager.manager. Additional Personality InsightsAdditional Personality Insights
  33. 33. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–33 Personality Types in DifferentPersonality Types in Different CulturesCultures • The Big Five model is used in cross-culturalThe Big Five model is used in cross-cultural studies.studies.  Differences are found in theDifferences are found in the emphasisemphasis of dimensions.of dimensions. • No common personality types for a givenNo common personality types for a given countrycountry  A country’s culture influences theA country’s culture influences the dominantdominant personality characteristics of its people.personality characteristics of its people. • Global managers need to understandGlobal managers need to understand personality trait differences from the perspectivepersonality trait differences from the perspective of each culture.of each culture.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–34 EmotionsEmotions • EmotionsEmotions  Intense feelings (reactions) that are directed atIntense feelings (reactions) that are directed at specific objects (someone or something)specific objects (someone or something)  Universal emotions:Universal emotions:  AngerAnger  FearFear  SadnessSadness  HappinessHappiness  DisgustDisgust  SurpriseSurprise
  35. 35. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–35 Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence • Emotional Intelligence (EI)Emotional Intelligence (EI)  The ability to notice and to manage emotional cuesThe ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information.and information.  Dimensions of EI:Dimensions of EI:  Self-awareness: knowing what you’re feelingSelf-awareness: knowing what you’re feeling  Self-management: managing emotions and impulsesSelf-management: managing emotions and impulses  Self-motivation: persisting despite setbacks and failuresSelf-motivation: persisting despite setbacks and failures  Empathy: sensing how others are feelingEmpathy: sensing how others are feeling  Social skills: handling the emotions of othersSocial skills: handling the emotions of others
  36. 36. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–36 Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers • Employee selectionEmployee selection  Holland’s Personality-Job Fit TheoryHolland’s Personality-Job Fit Theory • Helps in understanding employee behavior(s)Helps in understanding employee behavior(s) • By understanding others’ behavior(s), can workBy understanding others’ behavior(s), can work better with thembetter with them
  37. 37. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–37 Understanding PersonalityUnderstanding Personality DifferencesDifferences • Personality Job Fit Theory (Holland)Personality Job Fit Theory (Holland)  An employee’s job satisfaction and likelihood ofAn employee’s job satisfaction and likelihood of turnover depends on the compatibility of theturnover depends on the compatibility of the employee’s personality and occupation.employee’s personality and occupation.  Key points of the theory:Key points of the theory:  There are differences in personalities.There are differences in personalities.  There are different types of jobs.There are different types of jobs.  Job satisfaction and turnover are related to the matchJob satisfaction and turnover are related to the match between personality and job for an individual.between personality and job for an individual.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–38 Exhibit 13.5Exhibit 13.5 Holland’s Typology of Personality andHolland’s Typology of Personality and Sample OccupationsSample Occupations Source: Based on J. L. Holland, Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments (Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1997).
  39. 39. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–39 • PerceptionPerception  A process by which individuals give meaning (reality)A process by which individuals give meaning (reality) to their environment by organizing and interpretingto their environment by organizing and interpreting their sensory impressions.their sensory impressions. • Factors influencing perception:Factors influencing perception:  The perceiver’s personal characteristicsThe perceiver’s personal characteristics—interests,—interests, biases and expectationsbiases and expectations  The target’s characteristicsThe target’s characteristics——distinctiveness, contrast,distinctiveness, contrast, and similarityand similarity  The situation (context) factorsThe situation (context) factors——place, time, locationplace, time, location ——draw attention or distract from the targetdraw attention or distract from the target Psychological Factors – PerceptionPsychological Factors – Perception
  40. 40. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–40 Exhibit 13.6Exhibit 13.6 Perception Challenges: What Do YouPerception Challenges: What Do You See?See?
  41. 41. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–41 How We Perceive PeopleHow We Perceive People • Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory  How the actions of individuals are perceived by othersHow the actions of individuals are perceived by others depends on what meaning (causation) we attribute todepends on what meaning (causation) we attribute to a given behavior.a given behavior.  Internally caused behavior: under the individual’s controlInternally caused behavior: under the individual’s control  Externally caused behavior: due to outside factorsExternally caused behavior: due to outside factors  Determining the source of behaviors:Determining the source of behaviors:  Distinctiveness: different behaviors in different situationsDistinctiveness: different behaviors in different situations  Consensus: behaviors similar to others in same situationConsensus: behaviors similar to others in same situation  Consistency: regularity of the same behavior over timeConsistency: regularity of the same behavior over time
  42. 42. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–42 Exhibit 13.7Exhibit 13.7 Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory
  43. 43. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–43 How We Perceive PeopleHow We Perceive People (cont’d)(cont’d) • Attribution Theory – errors and biases (cont’d)Attribution Theory – errors and biases (cont’d)  Fundamental attribution errorFundamental attribution error  The tendency to underestimate the influence of externalThe tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and to overestimate the influence of internal orfactors and to overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors.personal factors.  Self-serving biasSelf-serving bias  The tendency of individuals to attribute their successes toThe tendency of individuals to attribute their successes to internal factors while blaming personal failures on externalinternal factors while blaming personal failures on external factors.factors.
  44. 44. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–44 Shortcuts Used in JudgingShortcuts Used in Judging OthersOthers • Assumed SimilarityAssumed Similarity  Assuming that others are more like us than theyAssuming that others are more like us than they actually are.actually are. • StereotypingStereotyping  Judging someone on the basis of our perception of aJudging someone on the basis of our perception of a group he or she is a part of.group he or she is a part of. • Halo EffectHalo Effect  Forming a general impression of a person on theForming a general impression of a person on the basis of a single characteristic of that person.basis of a single characteristic of that person.
  45. 45. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–45 Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers • Employees react to perceptionsEmployees react to perceptions • Pay close attention to how employees perceivePay close attention to how employees perceive their jobs and management actionstheir jobs and management actions
  46. 46. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–46 • LearningLearning  Any relatively permanent change in behavior thatAny relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.occurs as a result of experience.  Almost all complex behavior is learned.Almost all complex behavior is learned.  Learning is a continuous, life-long process.Learning is a continuous, life-long process.  The principles of learning can be used to shape behavior.The principles of learning can be used to shape behavior. • Theories of learning:Theories of learning:  Operant conditioningOperant conditioning  Social learningSocial learning Psychological Factors – LearningPsychological Factors – Learning
  47. 47. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–47 Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d) • Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)  The theory that behavior is a function of itsThe theory that behavior is a function of its consequences and is learned through experience.consequences and is learned through experience.  Operant behavior: voluntary or learned behaviorsOperant behavior: voluntary or learned behaviors  Behaviors are learned by making rewards contingent toBehaviors are learned by making rewards contingent to behaviors.behaviors.  Behavior that is rewarded (positively reinforced) is likely to beBehavior that is rewarded (positively reinforced) is likely to be repeated.repeated.  Behavior that is punished or ignored is less likely to beBehavior that is punished or ignored is less likely to be repeated.repeated.
  48. 48. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–48 Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d) • Social LearningSocial Learning  The theory that individuals learn through theirThe theory that individuals learn through their observations of others and through their directobservations of others and through their direct experiences.experiences.  Attributes of models that influence learning:Attributes of models that influence learning:  Attentional:Attentional: the attractiveness or similarity of the modelthe attractiveness or similarity of the model  Retention:Retention: how well the model can be recalledhow well the model can be recalled  Motor reproduction:Motor reproduction: the reproducibility of the model’sthe reproducibility of the model’s actionsactions  Reinforcement:Reinforcement: the rewards associated with learning thethe rewards associated with learning the model behaviormodel behavior
  49. 49. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–49 Shaping: A Managerial ToolShaping: A Managerial Tool • Shaping BehaviorShaping Behavior  Attempting to “mold” individuals by guiding theirAttempting to “mold” individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps such that they learn tolearning in graduated steps such that they learn to behave in ways that most benefit the organization.behave in ways that most benefit the organization.  Shaping methods:Shaping methods:  Positive reinforcement:Positive reinforcement: rewarding desired behaviors.rewarding desired behaviors.  Negative reinforcement:Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasantremoving an unpleasant consequence once the desired behavior is exhibited.consequence once the desired behavior is exhibited.  Punishment:Punishment: penalizing an undesired behavior.penalizing an undesired behavior.  Extinction:Extinction: eliminating a reinforcement for an undesiredeliminating a reinforcement for an undesired behavior.behavior.
  50. 50. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–50 Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers • If managers want behavior A but rewardIf managers want behavior A but reward behavior B, employees will engage in behaviorbehavior B, employees will engage in behavior B.B. • Employees will look to managers as models.Employees will look to managers as models. Good manager behavior will promote goodGood manager behavior will promote good employee behavior.employee behavior.
  51. 51. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–51 Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in OB • Managing Generational Differences in theManaging Generational Differences in the WorkplaceWorkplace  Gen Y: individuals born after 1978Gen Y: individuals born after 1978  Bring new attitudes to the workplace that reflect wide arraysBring new attitudes to the workplace that reflect wide arrays of experiences and opportunitiesof experiences and opportunities  Want to work, but don’t want work to be their lifeWant to work, but don’t want work to be their life  Challenge the status quoChallenge the status quo  Have grown up with technologyHave grown up with technology
  52. 52. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–52 Exhibit 13.8Exhibit 13.8 Gen Y WorkersGen Y Workers Source: Bruce Tulgan of Rainmaker Thinking. Used with permission.
  53. 53. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–53 Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in OB • Managing Negative Behavior in the WorkplaceManaging Negative Behavior in the Workplace  Tolerating negative behavior sends the wrongTolerating negative behavior sends the wrong message to other employeesmessage to other employees  Both preventive and responsive actions to negativeBoth preventive and responsive actions to negative behaviors are needed:behaviors are needed:  Screening potential employeesScreening potential employees  Responding immediately and decisively to unacceptableResponding immediately and decisively to unacceptable behaviorbehavior  Paying attention to employee attitudesPaying attention to employee attitudes
  54. 54. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–54 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • behaviorbehavior • organizational behaviororganizational behavior • employee productivityemployee productivity • absenteeismabsenteeism • turnoverturnover • organizational citizenshiporganizational citizenship behaviorbehavior • job satisfactionjob satisfaction • workplace misbehaviorworkplace misbehavior • attitudesattitudes • cognitive componentcognitive component • affective componentaffective component • behavioral componentbehavioral component • job involvementjob involvement • organizationalorganizational commitmentcommitment • perceived organizationalperceived organizational supportsupport • cognitive dissonancecognitive dissonance • attitude surveysattitude surveys • personalitypersonality • Big Five ModelBig Five Model • locus of controllocus of control • MachiavellianismMachiavellianism
  55. 55. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–55 Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d) • self-esteemself-esteem • self-monitoringself-monitoring • impression managementimpression management • emotionsemotions • emotional intelligence (EI)emotional intelligence (EI) • perceptionperception • attribution theoryattribution theory • fundamental attributionfundamental attribution errorerror • self-serving biasself-serving bias • assumed similarityassumed similarity • stereotypingstereotyping • halo effecthalo effect • learninglearning • operant conditioningoperant conditioning • social learning theorysocial learning theory • shaping behaviorshaping behavior
  56. 56. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13–56 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or bystored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Printed in the United States of America.
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