Chapter 11 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter

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Chapter 11 management (10 th edition) by robbins and coulter

  1. 1. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–1 ManagingManaging TeamsTeams ChapterChapter 1111 Management Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter tenth edition
  2. 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–2 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and studyFollow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.this chapter. 11.1 Groups and Group Development11.1 Groups and Group Development • Define the different types of groups.Define the different types of groups. • Describe the five stages of group development.Describe the five stages of group development. 11.2 Work Group Performance and Satisfaction11.2 Work Group Performance and Satisfaction • List the major components that determine group performanceList the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction.and satisfaction. • Describe how external conditions and group member resourcesDescribe how external conditions and group member resources affect group performance and satisfaction.affect group performance and satisfaction. • Discuss how group structure influences group performance andDiscuss how group structure influences group performance and satisfaction.satisfaction. • Describe how group processes and group tasks influence groupDescribe how group processes and group tasks influence group performance and satisfaction.performance and satisfaction.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–3 Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes 11.3 Turning Groups Into Effective Teams11.3 Turning Groups Into Effective Teams • Compare groups and teams.Compare groups and teams. • Describe the four most common types of teams.Describe the four most common types of teams. • List the characteristics of effective teams.List the characteristics of effective teams. 11.4 Current Challenges In Managing Teams11.4 Current Challenges In Managing Teams • Discuss the challenges of managing global teamsDiscuss the challenges of managing global teams • Explain the role of informal (social) networks inExplain the role of informal (social) networks in managing teamsmanaging teams
  4. 4. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–4 Groups and Group DevelopmentGroups and Group Development • GroupGroup  Two or more interacting and interdependentTwo or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specificindividuals who come together to achieve specific goals.goals.  Formal groupsFormal groups  Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that haveWork groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks.designated work assignments and tasks. – Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed towardAppropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals.organizational goals.  Informal groupsInformal groups  Groups that are independently formed to meet the socialGroups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.needs of their members.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–5 Exhibit 11–1Exhibit 11–1 Examples of Formal GroupsExamples of Formal Groups • Command GroupsCommand Groups  Groups that are determined by the organization chartGroups that are determined by the organization chart and composed of individuals who report directly to aand composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager.given manager. • Task GroupsTask Groups  Groups composed of individuals brought together toGroups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is oftencomplete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because once the task is completed, thetemporary because once the task is completed, the group disbands.group disbands.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–6 Exhibit 11–1Exhibit 11–1 Examples of Formal Groups (cont’d)Examples of Formal Groups (cont’d) • Cross-Functional TeamsCross-Functional Teams  Groups that bring together the knowledge and skills ofGroups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whoseindividuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each others’ jobs.members have been trained to do each others’ jobs. • Self-Managed TeamsSelf-Managed Teams  Groups that are essentially independent and inGroups that are essentially independent and in addition to their own tasks, take on traditionaladdition to their own tasks, take on traditional responsibilities such as hiring, planning andresponsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling, and performance evaluations.scheduling, and performance evaluations.
  7. 7. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–7 Stages in Group DevelopmentStages in Group Development • FormingForming  Members join and begin theMembers join and begin the process of defining theprocess of defining the group’s purpose, structure,group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.and leadership. • StormingStorming  Intragroup conflict occurs asIntragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control byindividuals resist control by the group and disagree overthe group and disagree over leadership.leadership. • NormingNorming  Close relationships developClose relationships develop as the group becomesas the group becomes cohesive and establishes itscohesive and establishes its norms for acceptablenorms for acceptable behavior.behavior. • PerformingPerforming  A fully functional groupA fully functional group structure allows the group tostructure allows the group to focus on performing the taskfocus on performing the task at hand.at hand. • AdjourningAdjourning  The group prepares toThe group prepares to disband and is no longerdisband and is no longer concerned with high levelsconcerned with high levels of performance.of performance.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–8 Exhibit 11–2Exhibit 11–2 Stages of Group DevelopmentStages of Group Development
  9. 9. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–9 Exhibit 11–3Exhibit 11–3 Group Performance Satisfaction ModelGroup Performance Satisfaction Model
  10. 10. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–10 External Conditions Imposed onExternal Conditions Imposed on the Groupthe Group  Organization’s strategyOrganization’s strategy  Authority relationshipsAuthority relationships  Formal regulationsFormal regulations  Available organizational resourcesAvailable organizational resources  Employee selection criteriaEmployee selection criteria  Performance management (appraisal) systemPerformance management (appraisal) system  Organizational cultureOrganizational culture  General physical layout of work spaceGeneral physical layout of work space
  11. 11. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–11 Group Member ResourcesGroup Member Resources • KnowledgeKnowledge • SkillsSkills  Interpersonal skills such as conflict management and resolution,Interpersonal skills such as conflict management and resolution, collaborative problem solving, and communication determinecollaborative problem solving, and communication determine how effectively members perform in a grouphow effectively members perform in a group • AbilitiesAbilities  Determine what members can doDetermine what members can do • Personality traitsPersonality traits  Positive traits tend to be positively related to group productivityPositive traits tend to be positively related to group productivity and moraleand morale
  12. 12. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–12 Group StructureGroup Structure • RoleRole  The set of expected behavior patterns attributed toThe set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a socialsomeone who occupies a given position in a social unit that assists the group in task accomplishment orunit that assists the group in task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction.maintaining group member satisfaction.  Role conflict: experiencing differing role expectationsRole conflict: experiencing differing role expectations  Role ambiguity: uncertainty about role expectationsRole ambiguity: uncertainty about role expectations
  13. 13. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–13 Group Structure (cont’d)Group Structure (cont’d) • NormsNorms  Acceptable standards or expectations that are sharedAcceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group’s members.by the group’s members. • Common types of normsCommon types of norms  Effort and performanceEffort and performance  Output levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializingOutput levels, absenteeism, promptness, socializing  DressDress  LoyaltyLoyalty
  14. 14. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–14 Group Structure (cont’d)Group Structure (cont’d) • ConformityConformity  Individuals conform in order to be accepted byIndividuals conform in order to be accepted by groups.groups.  Group pressures can have an effect on an individualGroup pressures can have an effect on an individual member’s judgment and attitudes.member’s judgment and attitudes.  The effect of conformity is not as strong as it onceThe effect of conformity is not as strong as it once was, although still a powerful force.was, although still a powerful force.  GroupthinkGroupthink  The extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive orThe extensive pressure of others in a strongly cohesive or threatened group that causes individual members to changethreatened group that causes individual members to change their opinions to conform to that of the group.their opinions to conform to that of the group.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–15 Exhibit 11–4Exhibit 11–4 Examples of Cards Used in the AschExamples of Cards Used in the Asch StudyStudy
  16. 16. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–16 Group Structure (cont’d)Group Structure (cont’d) • Status SystemStatus System  The formal or informal prestige grading, position, orThe formal or informal prestige grading, position, or ranking system for members of a group that servesranking system for members of a group that serves as recognition for individual contributions to theas recognition for individual contributions to the group and as a behavioral motivator.group and as a behavioral motivator.  Formal status systems are effective when the perceivedFormal status systems are effective when the perceived ranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded thatranking of an individual and the status symbols accorded that individual are congruent.individual are congruent.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–17 Group Structure: Group SizeGroup Structure: Group Size • Small groupsSmall groups  Complete tasks fasterComplete tasks faster than larger groups.than larger groups.  Make more effective useMake more effective use of facts.of facts. • Large groupsLarge groups  Solve problems betterSolve problems better than small groups.than small groups.  Are good for gettingAre good for getting diverse input.diverse input.  Are more effective in fact-Are more effective in fact- finding.finding. • Social LoafingSocial Loafing  The tendency forThe tendency for individuals to expend lessindividuals to expend less effort when workingeffort when working collectively than whencollectively than when working individually.working individually.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–18 Group Structure (cont’d)Group Structure (cont’d) • Group CohesivenessGroup Cohesiveness  The degree to which members are attracted to aThe degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals.group and share the group’s goals.  Highly cohesive groups are more effective and productiveHighly cohesive groups are more effective and productive than less cohesive groups when their goals aligned withthan less cohesive groups when their goals aligned with organizational goals.organizational goals.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–19 Exhibit 11–5Exhibit 11–5 The Relationship Between CohesivenessThe Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivityand Productivity
  20. 20. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–20 Group Processes: Group DecisionGroup Processes: Group Decision MakingMaking • AdvantagesAdvantages  Generates more completeGenerates more complete information andinformation and knowledge.knowledge.  Generates more diverseGenerates more diverse alternatives.alternatives.  Increases acceptance of aIncreases acceptance of a solution.solution.  Increases legitimacy ofIncreases legitimacy of decision.decision. • DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Time consumingTime consuming  Minority dominationMinority domination  Pressures to conformPressures to conform  Ambiguous responsibilityAmbiguous responsibility
  21. 21. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–21 Exhibit 11–6Exhibit 11–6 Techniques for Making More CreativeTechniques for Making More Creative Group DecisionsGroup Decisions
  22. 22. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–22 Group Processes: ConflictGroup Processes: Conflict ManagementManagement • ConflictConflict  The perceived incompatible differences in a groupThe perceived incompatible differences in a group resulting in some form of interference with orresulting in some form of interference with or opposition to its assigned tasks.opposition to its assigned tasks.  Traditional view:Traditional view: conflict must be avoided.conflict must be avoided.  Human relations view:Human relations view: conflict is a natural and inevitableconflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.outcome in any group.  Interactionist view:Interactionist view: conflict can be a positive force and isconflict can be a positive force and is absolutely necessary for effective group performance.absolutely necessary for effective group performance.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–23 Group Processes: ConflictGroup Processes: Conflict Management (cont’d)Management (cont’d) • Categories of ConflictCategories of Conflict  Functional conflicts are constructive.Functional conflicts are constructive.  Dysfunctional conflicts are destructive.Dysfunctional conflicts are destructive. • Types of ConflictTypes of Conflict  Task conflict: content and goals of the workTask conflict: content and goals of the work  Relationship conflict: interpersonal relationshipsRelationship conflict: interpersonal relationships  Process conflict: how the work gets doneProcess conflict: how the work gets done
  24. 24. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–24 Exhibit 11–7Exhibit 11–7 Conflict and Group PerformanceConflict and Group Performance
  25. 25. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–25 Group Processes: ConflictGroup Processes: Conflict Management (cont’d)Management (cont’d) • Techniques to Manage Conflict:Techniques to Manage Conflict:  AvoidanceAvoidance  AccommodationAccommodation  ForcingForcing  CompromiseCompromise  CollaborationCollaboration
  26. 26. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–26 Exhibit 11–8Exhibit 11–8 Conflict-Management TechniquesConflict-Management Techniques Source: Adapted from K.W. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol. 3, 2d ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. With permission
  27. 27. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–27 Group Tasks and GroupGroup Tasks and Group EffectivenessEffectiveness • Highly complex and interdependent tasksHighly complex and interdependent tasks require:require:  Effective communications: discussion among groupEffective communications: discussion among group members.members.  Controlled conflict: More interaction among groupControlled conflict: More interaction among group members.members.
  28. 28. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–28 Advantages of Using TeamsAdvantages of Using Teams • Teams outperform individuals.Teams outperform individuals. • Teams provide a way to better use employeeTeams provide a way to better use employee talents.talents. • Teams are more flexible and responsive.Teams are more flexible and responsive. • Teams can be quicklyTeams can be quickly assembled, deployed,assembled, deployed, refocused, and disbanded.refocused, and disbanded.
  29. 29. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–29 What Is a Work Team?What Is a Work Team? • Work TeamWork Team  A group whose members work intensely on a specificA group whose members work intensely on a specific common goal using their positive synergy, individualcommon goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.and mutual accountability, and complementary skills. • Types of TeamsTypes of Teams  Problem-solving teamsProblem-solving teams  Self-managed work teamsSelf-managed work teams  Cross-functional teamsCross-functional teams  Virtual teamsVirtual teams
  30. 30. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–30 Exhibit 11–9 Groups versus TeamsExhibit 11–9 Groups versus Teams
  31. 31. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–31 Exhibit 11–9 Groups Versus TeamsExhibit 11–9 Groups Versus Teams
  32. 32. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–32 Types of TeamsTypes of Teams • Problem-Solving TeamsProblem-Solving Teams  Employees from the same department and functionalEmployees from the same department and functional area who are involved in efforts to improve workarea who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems.activities or to solve specific problems. • Self-Managed Work TeamsSelf-Managed Work Teams  A formal group of employees who operate without aA formal group of employees who operate without a manager and responsible for a complete workmanager and responsible for a complete work process or segment.process or segment.
  33. 33. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–33 Types of Teams (cont’d)Types of Teams (cont’d) • Cross-Functional TeamsCross-Functional Teams  A hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts inA hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on variousvarious specialties and who work together on various tasks.tasks. • Virtual TeamsVirtual Teams  Teams that use computer technology to link physicallyTeams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a commondispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.goal.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–34 Exhibit 11–10 Characteristics of Effective TeamsExhibit 11–10 Characteristics of Effective Teams
  35. 35. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–35 Characteristics of EffectiveCharacteristics of Effective TeamsTeams • Have a clearHave a clear understanding of theirunderstanding of their goals.goals. • Have competentHave competent members with relevantmembers with relevant technical andtechnical and interpersonal skills.interpersonal skills. • Exhibit high mutual trustExhibit high mutual trust in the character andin the character and integrity of theirintegrity of their members.members. • Are unified in theirAre unified in their commitment to team goals.commitment to team goals. • Have good communicationHave good communication systems.systems. • Possess effectivePossess effective negotiating skills.negotiating skills. • Have appropriateHave appropriate leadership.leadership. • Have both internally andHave both internally and externally supportiveexternally supportive environments.environments.
  36. 36. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–36 Current Challenges in ManagingCurrent Challenges in Managing TeamsTeams • Getting employees to:Getting employees to:  Cooperate with othersCooperate with others  Share informationShare information  Confront differencesConfront differences  Sublimate personalSublimate personal interest for the greaterinterest for the greater good of the teamgood of the team
  37. 37. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–37 Managing Global TeamsManaging Global Teams • Group Member ResourcesGroup Member Resources  Unique cultural characteristics of team membersUnique cultural characteristics of team members  Avoiding stereotypingAvoiding stereotyping • Group StructureGroup Structure  ConformityConformity—less groupthink—less groupthink  StatusStatus—varies in importance among cultures—varies in importance among cultures  Social loafingSocial loafing—predominately a Western bias—predominately a Western bias  CohesivenessCohesiveness—more difficult to achieve—more difficult to achieve • Group processes—capitalize on diverse ideas.Group processes—capitalize on diverse ideas. • Manager’s role—a communicator sensitive to the type ofManager’s role—a communicator sensitive to the type of global team to use.global team to use.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–38 Exhibit 11–11 Drawbacks and Benefits of GlobalExhibit 11–11 Drawbacks and Benefits of Global TeamsTeams Source: Based on N. Adler, International Dimensions in Organizational Behavior, 4th ed. (Cincinnati, OH: South-western Publishing, 2002), pp. 141–147
  39. 39. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–39 Understanding Social NetworksUnderstanding Social Networks • Social NetworkSocial Network  The patterns of informal connections amongThe patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups.individuals within groups. • The Importance of Social NetworksThe Importance of Social Networks  Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness.Relationships can help or hinder team effectiveness.  Relationships improve team goal attainment andRelationships improve team goal attainment and increase member commitment to the team.increase member commitment to the team.
  40. 40. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–40 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • groupgroup • forming stageforming stage • storming stagestorming stage • norming stagenorming stage • performing stageperforming stage • adjourning stageadjourning stage • rolerole • normsnorms • groupthinkgroupthink • statusstatus • social loafingsocial loafing • group cohesivenessgroup cohesiveness • conflictconflict • traditional view of conflicttraditional view of conflict • human relations view of conflicthuman relations view of conflict • interactionist view of conflictinteractionist view of conflict • functional conflictsfunctional conflicts • dysfunctional conflictsdysfunctional conflicts • task conflicttask conflict • relationship conflictrelationship conflict • process conflictprocess conflict • work teamswork teams • problem-solving teamproblem-solving team • self-managed work teamself-managed work team • cross-functional teamcross-functional team • virtual teamvirtual team • social network structuresocial network structure
  41. 41. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11–41 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or bystored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Printed in the United States of America.

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