Transcript of "Environmental impact assessement patrind hydropower project"
Tanveer Abbas 2012-MS-EHY-03
Muhammad Ahmed 2012-MS-WRE-02
Reehan Mazher 2012-MS-WRE-18
Muhammad Waseem Boota 2012-MS-EHY-04
Muhammad Faisal 2012-MS-EHY-07
H.M Imran Sohail 2012-MS-EHY-05
Muhammad Usman 2012-MS-WRE-20
Legal Framework For Environmental Assessment
Assessment Of Environmental Impacts
Land Acquisition And Resettlement Plan
Resettlement Budget And Financing
Environmental And Social Management Plan
Conclusions And Recommendations
Patrind a small village on the left bank of
Kunhar river, 12 ½ km downstream from
Garhi Habibullah bridge.
Project components consist of a weir near
Head pond behind the weir at conservation
level of 765 m above mean sea level.
Two coffer dams and a diversion tunnel built
to keep the Kunhar river bed in dry condition
during construction of the weir.
EIA Report of Project has been prepared in
accordance with the national requirements
for environment assessment and
The provisions followed are
a) Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997
b) National Environmental Quality Standards(NEQS)
c) AJK Environnemental Protection Act 2000
d) Land Acquisition Act 1894
e) Draft National Resettlement Policy 2002
f) NWFP Forest Ordinance 2002
Catchment area of Kunhar river
mountainous and steep slopes.
Only level areas in the catchment,
consisting of small terraces, support human
Patrind village about 484 acres in extent,
downstream of the weir at about 780 m
The data of meteorological stations at
Balakot and Muzaffarabad has been used.
The climate is pleasant with mild summers
and cold winters.
The average annual rainfall at Balakot is
1538.5 mm and at Muzaffarabad is 1351.9
Kunhar and Jhelum are major rivers in the
Daily flows of Kunhar river at weir site vary
from 10,000 cusecs to 850 cusecs.
With annual average of 3,671 cusecs.
Beyond weir site, reach of Kunhar river
joined by six nullahs, two of them contribute
high inflows of water through year.
Suspended load of Kunhar river contains
sand, silt and clay.
Overall sediment load at weir site has been
estimated 4.94 million tons on the mean
FLORA AND FAUNA
The project region has flora in abundance.
A variety of flora weeds, grasses, plants, flowers
and trees is found.
The region has pine forests supporting broad
Forest wealth of the region is shrinking due to
Valley slopes of project area are
characterised by animal biodiversity.
Growth of human population has put
pressure on the natural resources of the
The population of fauna will increase due to
the creation of head pond at Patrind.
Fauna population will increase due to the
improvement in the vegetal cover around
the head pond.
SOCIO - ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
8 villages near weir site and 5 around
powerhouse site have a population of 7,397.
Household size ranges from 5 to 9 persons
There is Panchayat/ Jirga system for conflict
resolution mechanism at village level.
Farming and livestock rearing are the major
occupations of the local population.
Construction and operation phases of
Project will have some impact on
Construction related impacts will be limited
to a 4 years construction period.
Operation phase impacts which will last over
the life of project.
Magnitude and probability of occurrence of
impacts have been quantified and described
During high flows (May – August), variations
in flow downstream of the weir will not be
In the low flow period the flow variations will
Then Kunhar river reach below the weir
would receive compensation flow of 2
cumecs from the head pond.
The land affected in terms of permanent
acquisition is 63.8 Ha.
Temporary land acquisition is 31.6 Ha.
Permanent acquisition consists of reservoir ,
structures on the weir , powerhouse and
The temporary land acquisition involves
temporary diversion channel on Jhelum
During project operation, compensation flow
will be discharged downstream of the weir.
As a result flora and fauna would not be
SOCIO – ECONOMICS
During construction opportunities will be
available to the locals for employment.
Project construction and operation will lead
to increase in tourist traffic.
Vegetation/ forestation most effective and
Both sides of the affected areas should be
planted with grass cover, tiny bushes and
Minimum flow of 2 cumecs allowed from
head pond during project operation to take
care of fauna.
This is done during low flow conditions.
It is recommended that smallest number of
trees should be cut for project
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL
Excavated material will not be dumped in
Lubricants, waste oil and other chemical
wastes will be collected and disposed off
Sprinkling of water to settle dust shall be
Contractor shall provide Personnel
Protective Equipment (PPE) to his
Workers and staff associated with the
project educated to protect wildlife.
Any stray animals found to be handed over
to the Wild Life Departments of KPK and
The land acquired on temporary basis
leased for 4 years to be
Decided in consultation with land owners.
The project will directly affect 14 houses
displacing 146 persons.
Persons/ communities affected interviewed
to gather opinion for resettlement and
Owners of land and houses affected
preferred the option to receive cash
As a result no resettlement sites have been
identified or investigated.
RESETTLEMENT BUDGET AND
Resettlement and environmental cost
estimated as Rs. 194.27 million (US$ 2.3
Cost of land subject to submergence by
Head pond is Rs. 110.04 million.
Project is environmentally and socially
Provided that the proposed activities are
carried out as mentioned in report.
mitigation measures are completely and
Company should follow the RP for
addressing the involuntary resettlement
Pertaining to land acquisition and
compensation for houses.
The proposed weir site is accessed by Boi
Road on right side of Kunhar river.
It is at distance of 12.3 km from Garhi
Center line of Kunhar river project site
marks boundary between Pakistan and AJK.
The left bank of Kunhar lies in AJK.
The proposed powerhouse site is located on
the right bank and downstream of Jhelum
Project Components Details
2, 429.00 Km2
Type of Weir
Concrete Gravity Dam
42.00 m from river bed elevation
No. of Radial Gates
4 Nos. each 12 X 10.33 m
38.2m x 66.0m x 41.7 High
Size and Nos.
Inner Circular Section, Steel Lined
Diameter : 5.5 m, 1 No.
Diameter : 3.0 m, 3 Nos.
FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND
Pakistan has had laws that contain provisions for
These laws partly inherited from pre-
independence days dealt with
Air and water quality
Land tenure and use
Wildlife protection etc.
Laws of environmental degradation remained
PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
PEPC coordinates and supervises
enforcement of PEPA-97.
Approves national environmental policies,
and ensures their implementation.
PEPC is required to meet at least twice a
PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AGENCY (PAK. EPA)
Under Section 6(2) of the Act, Pak. EPA has
the authority to:
To undertake inquiries or investigations into
To request any person to furnish any
information or data relevant to the functions
To recommend to the Federal Government
incentives, prizes, awards, subsidies etc
For achieving environmental objectives and
EPA in August 2000 issued Procedures for
Approval of EIA, includes Schedules A, B and C
Defines projects which require an EIA.
Deals with list of projects which have affects on
large number of people.
The impact of such projects may be irreversible
and could lead to significant changes,
In land use, social, physical and biological
Defines projects which require an IEE.
Deals with projects where the range of
environmental issues comparatively narrow,
And can be understood and managed
through less extensive analysis.
Combines everything not in Schedule A and
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
NEQS for gaseous emissions and
Environmental Protection Agency effect
from August 10, 2000.
Relevant NEQS consulted in the preparation
of EIA Report for Patrind Hydroelectric
FOREST ACT 1927/NWFP FOREST
The Forest Act, 1927 establish the right of
the government to designate areas for
Acquire areas for prohibiting or restricting
the public use of the resources or activities.
NWFP Forest Ordinance 2002 has the
objectives of protection of forests.
SARHAD NATIONAL CONSERVATION
STRATEGY 1996/ 2004
North Western Frontier Province N.W.F.P
initiated the Sarhad Provincial Conservation
Strategy in 1992;
It was reviewed in 2004.
This document has the goal to secure
The economic, social and ecological well
being of the people of KPK.
Through conservation and sustainable
development of the province’s natural
EXTERNAL SUPPORT AGENCIES
Funds in the form of loans or grants for
development Projects in Pakistan,
Generally available from external support
agencies like the
Asian Development Bank.
THE WORLD BANK
World Bank, as one of the major financers, play
an important role. Policies include
Operation Policy (OP) 4.01 Environmental
Bank Procedures (BP) 4.01 Environmental
Assessment December 1999.
OP/BP 4.12 Involuntary Resettlement.
Provides practical guidance and specific
information for designing sustainable projects.
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB)
ADB 2009 sets out the policies and
principles for three key safeguard areas:
Involuntary resettlement safeguards.
Indigenous People safeguards.
Aims to ensure the environmental
soundness and sustainability.
Aims to avoid involuntary resettlement
To enhance the livelihoods of all displaced
Project area covers region of Manshera and
Abbottabad districts in KPK and Muzaffarabad
district in AJK.
Area has a mountainous topography dissected
by rivers, hill streams and springs.
Kunhar and Jhelum are two major rivers in the
Baseline data has been collected by field
Purpose of field surveys was to investigate the
planning area and the project layout.
Catchment area of the Kunhar river is
mountainous and steep slopes.
Up-north in Naran the elevation is 2,362 m
above mean sea level.
Elevation of 735 m at Patrind weir site.
Erosion on these mountains is substantial
due to steep slopes.
Much of the northern mountains confine the
river flow within narrow valleys.
No infrastructure requiring relocation like
Electrical Transmission Lines,
Telephone Lines Etc.
exist in the head pond area.
There are no
Sites of archaeological Importance
in the area to be submerged by the head
According to Seismotectonic Map of
Pakistan (1979) project belongs to one of
major earthquake zones.
Recent earthquake 8th October 2005
caused damage to lives and property with
land in vicinity of the project region.
This indicated importance of the seismicity
in planning layout and design of project.
The climate of the project area is pleasant,
characterised by mild summers and cold
The climatological data for weir site at
Patrind is not available.
The data of nearest meteorological stations
at Balakot and Muzaffarabad is used,
Which has been recorded at these stations
maintained by Surface Water Hydrology
Project (SWHP) WAPDA.
Kunhar river derives its flow from rainfall
Both of which do not contain any impurities.
River water picks up
Climate is very conductive for the growth of
Flora is in abundance in the area.
Variety of herbs, weeds, flowers, plants and
trees is growing in the area.
In the project area both conifers and broad
leave trees occur in the project area.
Forest in project region occur only in the
upper valley and thus remain un-affected by
The subtropical pine forests have an
altitudinal range from 800 – 1700 m.
Annual rainfall varying from 635 – 1270
These areas mainly covered by chir pine
Valley slopes high above the project area
are characterised by plant and animal
Altitude, topography and climate providing
numerous habitats for several species of
flora and fauna.
The fauna of the project area consists of
mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and
Zoological Survey Department (undated)
Have been declared as the endangered
Leopard Cat and Panther both are found
upto 3,500 m elevation in the pine forests of
Markhor is another animal which has been
Kunhar is a cold water river and has low
primary fish productivity.
As the river is not productive it is not fished
on commercial scale.
Apart from fishing, fish does not form part of
any of the local communities diets.
Agriculture in Muzaffarabad and Abbottabad
districts is the dominant economic activity.
Majority of farmers have their own simple
irrigation systems using water of streams
Wheat, maize and rice are the major crops.
Crop yields are variable and estimates of
crop yields are wheat 470 Kg/Acre, maize
452 Kg/Acre, rice 320 Kg/Acre.
Mosques and graveyards exist in each
village of the project area.
There are no sites of archaeological and
historical importance in the project area.
There are neither minority ethnic groups in
nor are there any other groups which can be
considered indigenous people.
Community consultation process was
started at an early stage in the project cycle.
This ensures that feedback from
communities and other stakeholders,
Directly or indirectly affected by the project
can adjust and improve the project’s design,
planning, and implementation,
And help structure of project to be both
environmentally and socially acceptable.
During the field survey an extensive community
consultation exercise undertaken,
To incorporate the concerns and views of local
communities in socioeconomic and
environmental assessment survey.
Consultants held meetings with primary
stakeholders to assess potential issues that
could be raised due to project activities.
The survey team visited five villages in total
that may be affected from the activities of the
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES UNDER
Impacts regarding population displacement and
land acquisition exist though to a moderate
The access roads built for the project and the
head pond may cause,
Inroads into the watershed by farmers, hunters,
Accelerating losses in forests and wildlife
There are no historical, cultural monuments
shrines, mosques requiring salvaging.
Sediment load in terms of watershed
erosion/ silt runoff may affect the life of the
The weir design provides a limited control of
sediment load by sluicing during flood flows.
Sand trap has also been provided.
Creation of head pond, tube well irrigation
around head pond would be of value to the
CHECKLIST OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND
IMPACTS OF PATRIND HYDROPOWER PROJECT
PROJECT LOCATION IMPACTS
Resettlement / Land Acquisition
Watershed erosion silt runoff
Effect on groundwater hydrology
Other inundation losses or adverse effects
Small Moderate Major
Rise of water table
Other losses or
Submergence of land
and economic trees
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO
1. Road erosion
2. Reservoir site preparation
3. Water rights conflicts
4. Fish screens
Small Moderate Major
Road erosion Impairment of water
including nutrients for
Prepare site to
Fish screens None
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED
WITH CONSTRUCTION STAGE
1. Soil erosion/silt runoff
2. water-oriented diseases
4. blasting and hauling
5. Construction monitoring
Small Moderate Major
Impairment of water
Hazards to workers
Noise and air
Contractor not likely
to observe constraints
Small Moderate Major
Erosion of banks and
Careful design to
Lack of reservoir
Social conflicts in
impairment of fishing
and power generation
from flow restrictions
POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENHANCEMENT
1. Reservoir fishery enhancement
2. Downstream community water supply
3. Forestry/wildlife reserves
Small Moderate Major
optimal use of
reserves to offset
Recreation Improvement in
including the poor
Park on Left Bank
1. Multipurpose management need
2. Rural electrification
Small Moderate Major
Improving quality of
life for rural poor
Socio-economic impacts of the Project particularly those relating
I. land acquisition.
II. population displacement.
III. loss of housing/ farm produce.
IV. loss of income
V. income resources.
The issues have been discussed within the framework of
I. Asian Development Bank.
II. the World Bank/ International Finance Corporation.
III. AJK Environmental Protection Act 2000.
IV. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997.
RESETTLEMENT POLICY OBJECTIVES
The following policy objectives have been used to develop
resettlement plan for the Project.
I. Involuntary resettlement
II. Integral part of project design
III. to be dealt with from the earliest stage of project
IV. Involuntary resettlement should be avoided or
V. Community participation should be encouraged.
VI. Implementation of resettlement program.
VII. Timely compensation for lost assets
VIII. The compensation process should be fully
RESETTLEMENT –RELATED BASELINE DATA
The team of environmentalists visited sites
Soil deposit areas,
Access roads and construction camps.
They identified the
Types of land to be acquired at these sites,
The number of houses and families directly
The number of trees that would be lost as a result
of project implementation.
PERMANENT LAND ACQUISITION
In total 1253.95 kanals (= 63.43 ha)
will be acquired permanently for constructing the
Patrind Hydropower Project as shown in Table
TEMPORARY LAND ACQUISITION
There is need for temporary acquisition of land for
The Construction Camp,
Storage Camp And
Temporary disposal of excavated material in the
vicinity of the weir site and powerhouse site.
The following Table shows the details of the land area
proposed for temporary acquisition.
VALUE OF LAND
in the project area as well as consultation with district
revenue department officials were undertaken to arrive
at prices of land.
The land values given by the revenue department
officials were lower in most cases transactions are verbal
and not documented.
The rates used in preparation of resettlement costs are
given in Table
Construction Of Camps
is to take place are cultivable. The construction of these camps may result in
damage to standing crops.
Where possible by the construction schedule, farmers will be permitted to
Compensation Of The Crop
compensation will be awarded on the basis of market value of the crop.
Depending upon the crops
Assessment Of Market Price
of the crops was conducted in consultation with officials of revenue department
and agriculture department as well as local people.
Average Value Of Crops
An average value of Rs. 15,000 per acre has been used as compensation for
crops. This will apply to the land area of 69 Kanals which will Be subject to
temporary acquisition for construction of the camps.
Directly Affected People
I. 13 Houses will be directly affected due to
construction of powerhouse displacing 129
persons in Alora village.
II. 1 house on Weir side will be directly affected
displacing 17 persons.
Table give details of all these houses, names of their
owner and number of occupants subject to
RELOCATION OPTIONS FOR PHYSICAL
The following are the six options available for
relocation and physical resettlement of displaced
No Resettlement The option of no resettlement
should be considered if alternatives are too
On-Site Resettlement Where the population
densities are relatively low, it may be possible to
consolidate members of an affected community in a
single area thus making room for project facilities
without having to relocate the community to another
Where the whole site is not required for projec
facilities, it may be possible to minimize or isolate land
take. As a result, only fraction of the affected
community may require physic relocation.
Full Resettlement to Nearby and Multiple Site Where
full resettlement is necessary, the impact of
displacement can be minimized by relocating affected
people to several small sites near the affected area;
Resettlement to Margins of Developed Area The
margins of developed areas offer cheaper land than
more central locations but normally still have access to
utilities and infrastructure.
PATRIND HYDROPOWER PROJECT
The project implementation will directly affect 14 houses
displacing 146 persons.
During field surveys, persons/ communities affected by
Patrind Hydropower Project were individually as well as
collectively interviewed to gather their opinion for
resettlement and relocation.
All owners of land and of houses directly affected by the
project showed their interest in receiving cash
None of them opted to receive land for land
compensation or land for construction of new houses.
As a result no resettlement sites have been identified or
The purpose of a mitigation programmed is to
manage the environmental effects resulting from
implementation of the Project in a manner
That minimizes adverse impacts and maximizes
The issues regarding the physical environment of the
project area requiring mitigation related to
Disposal Of Excavated Material,
Variations Of Flow Downstream Of The Weir,
Environmental Pollution Control And
Public Health And Safety Of Workers.
RESETTLEMENT BUDGET AND
The Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan as has
been developed keeping in view the Guidelines of
World Bank Guidelines OP/BP 4.12 (2004),
Land Acquisition Act (1894),
Draft National Resettlement Policy of Pakistan
Guidelines of World Commission on Dams (1997).
COST OF ECONOMIC TREES
A total of 624 trees will be affected by the project
The trees are generally of younger age, between 3 –16
It is estimated that a single tree on an average would
yield about 70 cu. ft. of wood.
According to local market the cost of Kiker, Beence,
Shahtoot is Rs. 260. per cu.ft., Walnet, Tali, Deodar,
Cheer at Rs. 900 per cu.ft..
The fruit trees like Angeer is rated at Rs. 10,000 per tree
whereas apricot and pear @ Rs. 12,000 per tree each.
Accordingly the total cost of 624 trees to be cut due to
project implementation is estimated at Rs. 7,462,300
The outlay of resettlement budget as given above
amounts to Rs.194,267,000 (US$ 2,312,702.38)
The Company is committed to provide funding for
the estimated amount of Rs. 194.3 million (US$ 2.3
The Company will assure that the amounts of
money assessed and finally approved for
compensation and financial assistance are paid to
the genuine persons losing land, houses and other
The effect of sewage effluents on the quality of the river
water is insignificant domestic sewage flows into the
river is very small.
If population of the project area increases and river
discharge is reduced during the operation of project,
condition of the river water deteriorate.
This will require regular quantitative and qualitative
monitoring of domestic sewage entering into the river
The following must be monitored periodically to assess
the environmental impact due to reduced water
Suspended solids (sediment) analysis, Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD) Bacterial count: E-coli Test,pH
Due to the scarcity of base line data on the ecology of
the area including its
Aquatic ecosystem and bio-diversity, monitoring
Plan for wildlife, fisheries and bio-diversity.
It is suggested that this should be done for a period of 4
years after commencement of the project operation.
The personnel required for this task will include a
biologist (Forestry or Wildlife) and a chemist.
The chemist will be responsible for chemical analysis of
While the biologist will collect local data on animal and
plant life including pattern, age distribution, feeding and
breeding areas, parasites and pests.
A comprehensive list of the factors to be monitored is
Stored water volume in the head pond
Annual volume of sediment transported into head pond
Water quality at weir site and at various points along the river.
Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen
Wildlife Vegetation changes in the upper
watershed, head pond drawdown zone, and
Areas Increases in erosion in the watershed
Impacts on wild lands, species or plant
communities of special ecological significance
Public health and disease vectors
In- and out-migration of people with respect to the
project area Changes in economic and social status
of people in the project
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL
The environmental analysis of Patrind Hydropower
Project has identified and assessed a number of
environmental and socio-economic impacts related to
Planning, Design, Construction And Operation Phases.
Patrind Hydropower Project is located in KPK and AJK
It is proposed that one representative each of AJK
Hydroelectric Board (AJK HEB),
Provincial Environmental Protection Agency KPK
DG Environment AJK
May look over the performance of the key players in the
implementation of the management and monitoring
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study
has been conducted in line with the relevant
Asian Development Bank (ADB),
World Bank (WB),
International Finance Company (IFC)
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997.
The objective of the study is to identify and assess
the potential environmental and social impacts of
the Patrind Hydropower Project.
The major conclusions of the EIA are;
During the Project implementation, environmental and social
impacts are experienced primarily during the construction phase.
The operation phase will have mostly insignificant impacts on the
social, physical and biological environment of the area.
This has been confirmed during field surveys for the
environmental and social assessment as part of this report.
The potential impacts during the construction phase of the project
include land acquisition (resulting in loss of cultivated land,
houses and economic trees), soil erosion, water pollution, effect
on ambient air etc.
The key environmental issues during the operation phase of
the project include
Downstream Flow Variations
Safety Hazards For The Plant Staff
All the recommended mitigation measures are contained in
the Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP),
which will need to be made part of the EPC Contract.
The plan provides for the requisite structure of the
organization during the project implementation, defining roles
and responsibilities of key players.
A Resettlement Plan (RP) has also been developed and made
part of the report to provide framework to address the
involuntary resettlement issues and to guide through the
compensation assessment and disbursement process.
The relevant provisions of RP will also be made part of the
EPC Contract. The proposed mitigation measures adequately
address all the concerns raised by the stakeholders.
The project is unlikely to cause any significant, lasting impact
on the social, physical and biological environment of the area.
On the basis of the environmental and social impact
assessment and the conclusions as discussed above it
is recommended that:
The Environmental and Social Management Plan should
be made a part of the EPC Contract awarded by the
Company for implementation of the project.
The Company should follow the RP for addressing the
involuntary resettlement issues primarily pertaining to
land acquisition and compensation for houses and other
The Company should ensure adherence to the
environmental legislation and regulations.
Company and its contractor(s) should employ local labor
as for as possible.
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