INDIAN BUSINESS ACADEMY
“LIVE PROJECT - EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING METHODS IN
MEETING KSA OBJECTIVES”
FACULTY GUIDE:- Submitted By:
Dr. S. Nigam Rajdip Sen Gupta
Reg. No. FPG0709/122
Completion of any project report is the milestone in the life of every
management student and the success of live project then enhances the self
confidence of the student. A successful and satisfactorily completion of any task is
the outcome of the invaluable aggregate contribution of the different personal
effort in all the direction, explicitly or implicitly.
The key to the acknowledgement of such a different task lies in the hands of
the professor. Words are poor gratitude bearer but I give him this opportunity to
offer my sincere thanks to my professors, Dr. Shailendra Nigam Sir and Dr. Divya
Kirti Mam for their benevolent and expertise guidance without which this research
live project would not have seen the life of today. Also I thank the employees of
Keane, for giving their valuable feedback.
I also wish to thank everyone who helped me directly or indirectly in the
preparation of this research project.
Date: 31st March, 2008.
It is a result of my combined efforts and commitment in order to seek and
know about the Training method effectiveness in meeting KSA objectives.
As the name suggests, this live research project has tried to emphasize on
the “Problem Solving Approach” given as the solution to the application of
training program in the minds of the participants.
The main aspect of this project is to use the knowledge in order to know the
real life situations and to make it more practical for the organization so that it can
make an impact while providing the training and development to the highly
experienced individuals and corporate houses.
It is quite true that the world outside our cozy home is many a time quite
different from what we have perceived similarly, it is possible that the theoretical
knowledge that we acquire in the class room is much different from the practical
aspect of life.
The project was undertaken to analyze the concept of, “Training method
effectiveness in meeting the KSA objectives of an organisation” and to adopt the
best practices of the industry to serve the customer.
To accomplish the above, around 42 employees of Keane, a Global business and
IT Consulting firm, in Greater Noida were surveyed and interviewed. The core
purpose of the survey was to find out employee perspective towards the training
(mainly induction) that are given to them.
An interview based on a questionnaire to know what does the employee feels in
general towards its own organization and the training methods used. The idea
behind the study is to adopt the best practices and to eliminate the pitfalls of the
system. The project is an approach is how to give feedback on training method
effectiveness in meeting the objectives of the organization.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE….10-12
FINDING AND ANALYSIS………………………………… 14-18
Keane is a global services firm that specializes in enabling transformation of its clients’
business and IT functions. The transformation partner of choice for clients across a broad
array of industries, Keane is unique in its passion for building satisfying and enduring
relationships with clients. Keane’s solutions – which comprise consulting, technology, and
outsourcing services – are customized to address clients’ industry-specific challenges and
drive improvements in business performance.
Our promise: to enable swift, dramatic transformation of your critical business and IT
Our approach: we combine deep industry, business process, and technical expertise with
disciplined program management and an integrated team of global and local professionals to
craft custom solutions that meet each client’s specific business requirements.
Your results: we make your organization more efficient, more effective, and more valuable
to your customers now - and for the long term.
Recently acquired by Caritor, an IT services industry pioneer, Keane now offers services that
span consulting, technology, and outsourcing backed by greater technical depth, industry
expertise, and geographic reach. Based in San Ramon, CA, Keane operates in 10 countries
and employs more than 14,000 professionals. From application and business process
outsourcing services to industry-specific solutions that merge consulting insights with
technology innovation, everything Keane does is tailored to meet your unique and specific
business needs. Hear what our clients have to say about working with Keane.
Keane is a company grounded in integrity, focused on clients, and driven by results. We
embody the best of what we were 42 years ago, who we are today, and where we will be 42
years from now.
Build a globally respected and enduring business consulting and information technology
institution that partners with clients to enable them to transform their businesses so that they
get closer to realizing their vision and become a leader in their industry.
Help customers improve their company performance by providing world-class solutions via
business and IT capabilities that leverage our globally integrated team of thought-provoking,
Keane’s Core Values
Customer Partnership: We approach every client with a view to build a professionally
Integrity & Accountability: We have the intellectual honesty to refuse opportunities that we
cannot fulfill to the satisfaction of our clients, but once we commit we stand accountable
Result Orientation: We leverage technology and embrace innovation with a single-minded
focus of delivering leadership results for our clients
Flexibility: We adapt our services and solutions to enable us to exceed our clients’
Care for the Individual: We value the cultural diversity of our employees, treat every
individual with respect, and encourage all to realize their fullest potential
Sandeep Bhargava John M. Dick Marv Mouchawar
EVP, Industry Solutions and General Counsel EVP, Products and
Business Development Corporate Development
Karen Powell Krishna Prabhu Jim Puthuff
SVP, Global Client SVP, Global Client EVP and COO, Global
Management Management Client Management
Srikanth Rao Mani Subramanian Dean Williams
EVP, President Keane India Chairman & CEO SVP, Global Human
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE
Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to perform the
activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement,
training is not important. When this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and
increase the versatility and adaptability of employees.
As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has
increased. When jobs were simple, easy to learn, and influenced to only a small degree by
technological changes, there was little need for employees to upgrade or alter their skills. But
the rapid changes taking place during the last quarter century in our highly sophisticated and
complex society have created increase pressures for organizations to readopt the products and
services produced, the manner in which products and services are produced and offered, the
types of jobs required, and the types of skills necessary to complete these jobs.
Evaluating training effectiveness:
It is not enough to merely assume that any training in an organization offers is
effective. We need to develop substantiate data to determine whether our training effort
is achieving its goals; that is if it is correcting the deficiencies in the skills, knowledge or
attitudes that were assessed as needing attention. It is often easy to generate a new training
program, but if all training effort is not evaluated, it becomes possible to rationalize any
employee training efforts. To avoid the uncontrolled expansion of training costs, management
must insist on a thorough cost benefit evaluation to ensure that the training dollars generate
Here are the three approaches, each of which offers improvement over subjective
• Test-retest method:
Participants are given a test before they begin the program. After the program is
completed, the participants retake the test. The difficulty arises in attempting to substantiate
those changes in the test scores will be reflected in performance and that whatever changes
has occurred can be fully attributed to instructions.
• Pre-post performance method:
The utilization of tests as proxies for job performance creates the opportunities for
error. The pre-post performance method is designed to correct this error. In this method each
participant is evaluated prior to the training and rated to the actual job performance. After
instruction is completed participants are re-evaluated. This directly deals with job behavior.
• Experimental control group method:
Two groups are established-comparable as to skills, intelligence and learning
abilities-and evaluated on actual job performance. Members of the control group work on the
job but do not undergo instruction. The experimental group is given the instruction. At the
conclusion of the training the two groups are re-evaluated. If the training is really effective,
the experimental group’s performance will have improved, and its performance will be
substantially better than that of the control group. This approach attempts to correct for
factors other than the instruction program that influence job performance.
From the three methods mentioned, the experimental control group method is preferred. But
costs, time and questions about the ethical activity is withholding training from some
employees may make this method inappropriate. With in the evaluation we should assess four
The trainee’s reaction includes the subjective assessment. If the objective of the
program is consistent with the expectation of the participants. If the trainees perceive that the
training program was ineffective, this should immediately raise a red flag about the program.
An excellent reaction in the participants may indicate that the session had an entertainment
value and therefore and excellent rating is not an accurate evaluation.
To conduct the analysis we need to generate three measures; cost, change, and
impact. The costs are those monetary outlays for providing the training. The change factor
looks at the difference between what one knew after the training as compared with before the
training. The last factor impact, tries to show what change was solely attributed to the training
program. It measures “after the training results”.
Thus it is impossible to claim that the training, in and of itself, is effective unless it is
evaluated. If those responsible for training are convinced that every training program being
offered is “good”, it is a reasonable bet that little evaluation is taking place, and it is very
much possible that the actual training could be improved.
I have tried to reach the different parameters needed to strive upon to make the
training program more effective. The project thus gives the idea by touching on the different
titles which will help practically in making the organization success in its training programs.
The objectives of the project can be broadly classified as –
1. Collecting information about the training methods used in an
2. Determining and evaluating the effectiveness of the training methods
in meeting the KSA objectives.
Data Sources: Primary and Secondary.
Research Approaches: Survey method
Research Instruments: Questionnaires
• The sample unit was the employees of Keane
• The sample size was 42 employees.
• The sampling procedure was Stratified Random
Contact Methods: Personal Interview.
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Analysis of Responses
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FINDING AND ANALYSIS
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to attend the training. (Q5) 17 10 8 6 1 0 42
Percentage 40.48 23.81 19.05 14.29 2.38 0 100
A Lot all
4) Extent to which your appreciation 6 5 4 3 2 1
and understanding of job enhanced. (Q3) 15 13 9 3 1 1 42
Percentage 35.71 30.95 21.43 7.14 2.38 2.38 100
5) Post training, extent to which your
a. Line manager helped to implement
your Action-plan 6 9 16 4 4 3 42
Percentage 14.29 21.43 38.1 9.52 9.52 7.14 100
b. Colleagues helped to implement your
Action plan. (Q11) 3 19 11 7 2 0 42
Percentage 7.14 45.24 26.19 16.67 4.76 0 100
6) Overall rating of training program. (Q4) 4 16 9 3 0 0 32
Percentage 9.52 38.1 21.43 7.14 0 0 100
Too short right long
7) Length of the program. (Q6) 9 31 2 42
Percentage 21.43 73.81 4.76 100
8) Pacing of the program. (Q8) 4 34 4 42
Percentage 9.52 80.95 9.52 100
Well sequenced Poorly sequenced
9) Logically sequence of the program. (Q7) 7 13 15 5 2 0 42
Percentage 16.67 30.95 35.71 11.90 4.76 0 100
10) Has post-training debriefing meeting Yes No
line manager been arranged? (Q10) 27 15 42
Percentage 64.29 35.71 100
From the responses, we can arrive at the following conclusions:
Analysis of General feedback
1. Objectives of the training program –
Around 90% of the employees have responded on the positive side, (4,5,6) that the
objective of the training has been achieved, though they are not fully satisfied because
only 7% have responded to 6(fully satisfied) option.
2. Achievement of Personal Objective –
Though around 85% are of the view that somewhat their personal objectives are
achieved but around 17% fully agree to that.
3. Enhancement of appreciation and understanding of job as a whole –
Here we got a good response, around 66% agree that after training their
understanding and appreciation of the job has increased, however they have come up
with different suggestions, which are discussed later.
4. Overall rating of the program –
Though only 60% have rated the program positively but only 10% have rated them as
5. Recommendation to others –
Around 63% have ‘Fully’ recommended others to attend the program.
Analysis of feedback on Balance of the Program
6. Length of the Training program –
Around 74% feel that the length of the program is ‘Just right’, rest are of not satisfied.
7. Logical sequence of the Training program –
Only around 48% are of the opinion that the program was well sequenced, rest want
8. Pacing of the Training program –
Here around 81% of the respondents feel that the pacing of the program was ‘Just
Analysis of feedback on Training Program Content
9. Best things that respondents liked about the program are:
• Informative content
• Friendly atmosphere
• Its practical exposure
• And few liked the Trainer also.
Things they didn’t liked about the Content are:
• No alternate knowledge was provided
• Abrupt and hectic schedule
• Its long stretch
• Few didn’t liked the trainer and the tests conducted
Analysis of feedback on Post Training Scenario
10. Only for 64% of the respondents, a proper post-training debriefing meeting with
their managers was arranged, it is recommended to arrange a meeting for all, wherein
they can be told how to apply the theoretical part (learnt in the training) in the actual
11. Assistance to implement the Action plan –
a. Around 35% fully agree that they received assistance from their Boss.
b. However around 53% agree that they received a lot of help from their
12. Though the respondents came up with various Recommendations to
improve the Training program, the most common ones are –
• Majority recommended for more of practical orientation.
• Certifications and proper appraisal should be given.
• There should be fun element and in tandem with latest market requirement.
• There should be more interaction between trainer and trainee.
• Lastly few suggested that the training should be informal and a bit elaborate.
- for effective training:
Every training program must address certain vital issues:
Who are the trainees?
Who are the trainers?
What methods and techniques?
What should be the level of training?
What principles of learning?
Where to conduct the program?
Training should be such that it breaks the mental barriers of employees so that they come out
with their suggestions, complaints, and necessities. The organization can get the basic
feedback which will ultimately help in increasing the productivity.
Inputs in training and development:
Any Training program must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain
skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future. In
addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasis on attitudinal changes
and stress upon decision making and problem solving abilities.
Ethics in T&D:
There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical
practices abound in marketing, finance and production functions in an organization. They are
less seen and talked about in the personnel function. It is HR manager’s duty to enlighten all
the employees in the organization about the need for ethical behavior.
Attitudes affect motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need
to be converted into positive attitudes so it is the duty of the HR manager to take care of
negative attitudes and converting into the positive one.
Decision making and problem solving skills:
It must focus on methods and techniques for making organizational decisions and
solving work related problems. The HR manager should have the capability of groom the
trainees with the decision making and problem solving skills.
Some Important steps that has to be taken into consideration to make
1. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different
strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at
all levels acquire the needed skills.
2. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and
training and re-training are done at all levels on a continuous and on-going basis.
3. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and
individual training needs.
4. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of the training.
The Kirkpatrick Model
The most well-known and used model for measuring the effective of training
programs was developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in the late 1950s. It has since been adapted
and modified by a number of writers; however, the basic structure has well stood the test of
time. The basic structure of Kirkpatrick’s four-level model is shown here.
Figure 1 - Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training
Level 4 - What organizational benefits resulted from
Results the training?
To what extent did participants change their
Level 3 -
behavior back in the workplace as a result of
To what extent did participants improve
Level 2 -
knowledge and skills and change attitudes as
a result of the training?
Level 1 -
How did participants react to the program?
An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the
training program was met. Its not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important
that another. All levels of evaluation are important. In fact, the Kirkpatrick model explains
the usefulness of performing evaluations at each level. Each level provides a diagnostic
checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level. So, if participants did not learn (Level 2),
participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning. Now
moving up to the next level, if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace
(Level 3), perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2).
The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the
levels. So, you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for
which programs. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs,
Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for “hard-skills” programs only, Level 3 evaluations
(Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for programs
costing much. Above all else, before starting an evaluation, be crystal clear about your
purpose in conducting the evaluation.
Using the Kirkpatrick Model
How do you conduct an evaluation? Here is a quick guide on some appropriate information
sources for each level.
Level 1 (Reaction)
• completed participant feedback questionnaire
• informal comments from participants
• focus group sessions with participants
Level 2 (Learning)
• pre- and post-test scores
• on-the-job assessments
• supervisor reports
Level 3 (Behavior)
• completed self-assessment questionnaire
• on-the-job observation
• reports from customers, peers and participant’s manager
Level 4 (Results)
• financial reports
• quality inspections
• interview with the participants
Train the Trainer
To train the trainer objective is to enable delegates to design, train, evaluate and
follow up effective training programmes. They will also learn how to design training of any
length for groups of varying sizes, learning styles and experience. One can focus on delivery
skills (effective body language and voice projection) and also teach classic techniques about
handling difficult trainees and controlling the group
There are different agendas on which one can train the trainer:
Assertiveness and managing conflict
Coaching for managers
Disciplinary procedures and correcting poor performance
Dealing with difficult people
PowerPoint Presentation Skills
Project management for non-project managers
The New Manager
Planning the Training Event
Overview of key competencies in implementing effective training events
• Planning a training event
• Module 1 : Providing Logistical Support
o 1.1 Define the training framework
o 1.2 Define role of the training administrator
o 1.3 Manage the budgeting process
o 1.4 Manage the invitation process
o 1.5 Determine and select training venue
o 1.6 Manage travel and accommodation requirements
o 1.7 Determine and select Subject Matter Specialist
o 1.8 Manage technical and human resources
o 1.9 Review and evaluate the training logistics and support
• Module 2: Developing training programmes
o 2.1 Identify participants
o 2.2 Understand adult learning principles
o 2.3 Design needs assessments: strategies and tools
o 2.4 Conduct and analyze needs assessments
o 2.5 Develop learning objectives - workshop/session
o 2.6 Develop content outline
o 2.7 Identify appropriate training and facilitation techniques
o 2.8 Develop training programmes
• Module 3: Adapting and Developing Content
o 3.1 Identify and assess existing materials
o 3.2 Adapt materials
o 3.3. Validate the training design
o 3.4 Finalize materials
• Module 4: Implementing Effective Training Events
o 4.1 Apply adult learning principles
o 4.2 Identify differences between training and facilitation
o 4.3 Use appropriate training and facilitation techniques
o 4.4 Create positive learning environment
o 4.5 Co-facilitate with Subject Matter Specialists (Resource Persons)
o 4.6 Verify achievement of learning objectives
• Module 5: Evaluating and Reviewing Training
o 5.1 Summarize the process of evaluation
o 5.2 Select training and evaluation methods
o 5.3 Assess and summarize training experiences
o 5.4 Assess impact of training event
o 5.5 Report evaluation results
o 5.6 Apply outcomes of evaluation and review
The project was the addition of the classroom study that I have undergone plus the
practical knowledge that I have gained during my curriculum part. The project being more
suggestive and practical I have tried to be more analytical on various aspects that have been
Throughout the project we have discussed the need of training and development
activities in the organization as well as the expected outcomes from such endeavors. In
practice, however, it is not uncommon for individuals to be sent to or to attend training events
as a reward for past good work. While recognizing that good work has its merits, it is our
premise that sending employees to a training program as a reward rather than fulfill a training
and development need undermines good training and development practices.
THE BEST MINUTE
IS THE ONE I INVEST
Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management
- K. Ashwathappa
Keane, headquartered in San Ramon, CA, is a global business and IT consulting firm
delivering world-class solutions to clients across a broad array of industries. In June
2007, Caritor acquired Keane, bringing together the strengths and values of two industry
leaders: Caritor, a globally integrated IT solutions provider with a 15-year history, and
Keane, a 42-year-old business and IT services leader. Partnering with clients in ten
countries, Keane provides the results-driven orientation, fast and flexible global sourcing
model, and disciplined program management required to ensure flawless delivery and
success for our clients.
It has its branch office in Noida SEZ, where in various trainings, mainly induction and IT
related, are provided.