Training %26 development

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Training %26 development

  1. 1. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENTTRAINING & DEVELOPMENT PRESENTED BYPRESENTED BY IJAZ NISARIJAZ NISAR
  2. 2. TRAINING DEFINEDTRAINING DEFINED TRAININGTRAINING is a learning process thatis a learning process that involves the acquisition ofinvolves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills,knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing ofconcepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhanceattitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.the performance of employees.
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT DEFINEDDEVELOPMENT DEFINED DEVELOPMENT,DEVELOPMENT, on the other hand,on the other hand, helps the individual handle futurehelps the individual handle future responsibilities, with less emphasisresponsibilities, with less emphasis on present job duties.on present job duties.
  4. 4. Need and basic purposes ofNeed and basic purposes of trainingtraining To Increase ProductivityTo Increase Productivity To Improve QualityTo Improve Quality To Help a Company Fulfil Its FutureTo Help a Company Fulfil Its Future Personnel NeedsPersonnel Needs To Improve Organizational ClimateTo Improve Organizational Climate To Improve Health and SafetyTo Improve Health and Safety Obsolescence PreventionObsolescence Prevention Personal GrowthPersonal Growth
  5. 5. The Benefits of TrainingThe Benefits of Training How Training Benefits the OrganisationHow Training Benefits the Organisation  Leads to improved profitability and/or moreLeads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.positive attitudes towards profit orientation.  Improves the job knowledge and skills atImproves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.all levels of the organization.  Improves the morale of the work force.Improves the morale of the work force.  Helps people identify with organisationalHelps people identify with organisational goals.goals.  Helps create a better corporate image.Helps create a better corporate image.
  6. 6. The Benefits of TrainingThe Benefits of Training  Aids in organisational development.Aids in organisational development.  Helps prepare guidelines for work.Helps prepare guidelines for work.  Aids in understanding and carryingAids in understanding and carrying out organisational policies.out organisational policies.  Provides information for future needsProvides information for future needs in all areas of the organisation.in all areas of the organisation. Organization gets more effectiveOrganization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.decision making and problem solving. Aids in developing leadership skills,Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes,motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successfuland other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.workers and managers usually display.
  7. 7. The Benefits of TrainingThe Benefits of Training  Aids in increasing productivity and/orAids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.quality of work.  Helps keep costs down in manyHelps keep costs down in many areas, e.g., production, personnel,areas, e.g., production, personnel, administration, etc.administration, etc.  Develops a sense of responsibility toDevelops a sense of responsibility to the organisation for being competentthe organisation for being competent and knowledgeable.and knowledgeable. Improves labour-managementImproves labour-management relations and creates an appropriaterelations and creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication.climate for growth, communication.
  8. 8. The Benefits of TrainingThe Benefits of Training Reduces outside consulting costs byReduces outside consulting costs by utilising competent internal consulting.utilising competent internal consulting.  Stimulates preventive managementStimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires.as opposed to putting out fires.  Eliminates sub-optimal behaviour.Eliminates sub-optimal behaviour.  Helps employees adjust to change.Helps employees adjust to change. Aids in handling conflict, therebyAids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.helping to prevent stress and tension.
  9. 9. Benefits to the IndividualBenefits to the Individual  Helps the individual in making betterHelps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solvingdecisions and effective problem solving Through training and development,Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition,motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility andachievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalised andadvancement are internalised and operationalised.operationalised. Aids in encouraging and achievingAids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.self-development and self-confidence.
  10. 10. Benefits to the IndividualBenefits to the Individual  Helps a person handle stress,Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict.tension, frustration and conflict.  Provides information forProvides information for improving leadership knowledge,improving leadership knowledge, communication skills, and attitudes.communication skills, and attitudes.  Increases job satisfaction andIncreases job satisfaction and recognition.recognition.  Moves a person towards personalMoves a person towards personal goals while improving interaction skills.goals while improving interaction skills.  Satisfies personal needs of theSatisfies personal needs of the trainee.trainee.
  11. 11. Benefits to the IndividualBenefits to the Individual  Provides trainee an avenue forProvides trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her owngrowth and a say in his/her own future.future. Develops a sense of growth inDevelops a sense of growth in learning.learning.  Helps a person develop speakingHelps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writingand listening skills; also writing skills when exercises are required.skills when exercises are required. Helps eliminate fear inHelps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.attempting new tasks.
  12. 12. Benefits in Intra and Inter-Benefits in Intra and Inter- group Relationsgroup Relations Improves communication betweenImproves communication between groups and individuals.groups and individuals.  Improves interpersonal skills.Improves interpersonal skills. Makes organisation policies, rules andMakes organisation policies, rules and regulations viable.regulations viable.  Improves morale.Improves morale.  Builds cohesiveness in groups.Builds cohesiveness in groups.  Provides a good climate for learning,Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and coordinationgrowth, and coordination.. Makes the organisation a better place toMakes the organisation a better place to work.work.
  13. 13. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts AbilityAbility:: The physical and mental capacityThe physical and mental capacity to perform a task.to perform a task. Action learning:Action learning: Training method thatTraining method that involves giving teams or work groups ainvolves giving teams or work groups a problem, having them work on solving itproblem, having them work on solving it and committing to an action plan, andand committing to an action plan, and then holding them accountable forthen holding them accountable for carrying out the plan.carrying out the plan. Action plan:Action plan:A written document detailingA written document detailing steps that a trainee and his manager willsteps that a trainee and his manager will take to ensure that training transfers totake to ensure that training transfers to the jobthe job
  14. 14. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Action planning:Action planning: An employee’s processAn employee’s process of determining how he will achieve hisof determining how he will achieve his short-and long-term career goals.short-and long-term career goals. Assessment:Assessment: The collecting ofThe collecting of information and providing of feedback toinformation and providing of feedback to employees about their behavioremployees about their behavior communication style, or skills.communication style, or skills. Assessment center:Assessment center: A process in whichA process in which multiple rates or evaluators (also knownmultiple rates or evaluators (also known as assessors) evaluate employees,as assessors) evaluate employees, performances on a number of exercises.performances on a number of exercises.
  15. 15. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Attitude:Attitude: Combination of beliefs and feelings thatCombination of beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to behave in a certain way.predispose a person to behave in a certain way. Attitude awareness and change program:Attitude awareness and change program: Program focusing on increasing employees’Program focusing on increasing employees’ awareness of their attitudes toward differences inawareness of their attitudes toward differences in cultural and ethic backgrounds, physicalcultural and ethic backgrounds, physical characteristics (e.g., disabilities), and personalcharacteristics (e.g., disabilities), and personal characteristics that influence behavior towardscharacteristics that influence behavior towards others.others. Basic skills:Basic skills: Skills necessary for employees toSkills necessary for employees to perform their jobs and learn the content ofperform their jobs and learn the content of training programs.training programs.
  16. 16. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Behavior based conflict:Behavior based conflict: Conflict occurringConflict occurring when an employee’s behavior in work roles is notwhen an employee’s behavior in work roles is not appropriate in non-work roles.appropriate in non-work roles. Behavior based program:Behavior based program: Program focusing onProgram focusing on changing the organization policies and individualchanging the organization policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees’ personal growthbehaviors that inhibit employees’ personal growth and productivity.and productivity. Behavior modeling:Behavior modeling: A training method inA training method in which trainees are presented with a modelwhich trainees are presented with a model who demonstrates key behaviors towho demonstrates key behaviors to replicate and provides them with thereplicate and provides them with the opportunity to practice those key behaviorsopportunity to practice those key behaviors
  17. 17. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Benchmarking:Benchmarking: The use of informationThe use of information about other companies’ training practicesabout other companies’ training practices to help determine the appropriate type,to help determine the appropriate type, level, and frequency gains from a traininglevel, and frequency gains from a training program.program. Benchmarks:Benchmarks: A research instrumentA research instrument designed to measure important factors indesigned to measure important factors in being a successful manager.being a successful manager. Benefits:Benefits: What of value the companyWhat of value the company gains from a training program.gains from a training program.
  18. 18. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Blended learning:Blended learning: Learning involving aLearning involving a combination of online learning, face-to-combination of online learning, face-to- face instruction, and other methods.face instruction, and other methods. Career:Career: The pattern of work relatedThe pattern of work related experiences that span the course of aexperiences that span the course of a person’s life.person’s life. Career development:Career development: The process byThe process by which employees’ progress through awhich employees’ progress through a series of stages, each characterized by aseries of stages, each characterized by a different set of developmental tasks,different set of developmental tasks, activities, and relationships.activities, and relationships.
  19. 19. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Career insight:Career insight: The degree to whichThe degree to which employees know about theiremployees know about their interests as well as their skillsinterests as well as their skills strengths and weaknesses, thestrengths and weaknesses, the awareness of how these perceptionsawareness of how these perceptions relate to their career goals.relate to their career goals.
  20. 20. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Career managementCareer management:: The process throughThe process through which employeeswhich employees Become aware of their interests, values,Become aware of their interests, values, strengths, and weaknessesstrengths, and weaknesses Get information about job opportunities within aGet information about job opportunities within a companycompany Identify career goalsIdentify career goals Establish action plans to achieve career goalsEstablish action plans to achieve career goals Career path:Career path: A sequence of job positionsA sequence of job positions involving similar types of work and skills thatinvolving similar types of work and skills that employees move through in company.employees move through in company.
  21. 21. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Case studyCase study:: A description of howA description of how employees or an organization dealt with aemployees or an organization dealt with a situation.situation. ChangeChange:: The adoption of a new idea orThe adoption of a new idea or behavior by a companybehavior by a company Change managementChange management:: The process ofThe process of ensuring that new interventions such asensuring that new interventions such as training practices are accepted and usedtraining practices are accepted and used by employees and managers.by employees and managers.
  22. 22. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts CoachCoach:: A peer or manager who worksA peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate him,with an employee to motivate him, develop skills, and provide reinforcementdevelop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback.and feedback. Cognitive abilityCognitive ability:: Outcomes used toOutcomes used to measure what knowledge trainees learnedmeasure what knowledge trainees learned in a training program.in a training program. CompetencyCompetency:: An area of personalAn area of personal capability that enables an employee tocapability that enables an employee to perform his job.perform his job.
  23. 23. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts CompetencyCompetency model:model: A model identifyingA model identifying the competencies necessary for each jobthe competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior,as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personal characteristics underlyingand personal characteristics underlying each competency.each competency. Competitive advantageCompetitive advantage:: An upper handAn upper hand over other firms in an industry.over other firms in an industry. CompetitivenessCompetitiveness:: A company’s ability toA company’s ability to maintain and gain market share in anmaintain and gain market share in an industry.industry.
  24. 24. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Computer based training (CBT):Computer based training (CBT): An interactiveAn interactive training experience in which the computertraining experience in which the computer provides the learning stimulus, the trainee mustprovides the learning stimulus, the trainee must respond, and the computer analyzes responsesrespond, and the computer analyzes responses and provides feedback to the trainee.and provides feedback to the trainee. Continuous learningContinuous learning:: A learning system inA learning system in which employees are required to understand thewhich employees are required to understand the entire work system including the relationshipentire work system including the relationship among their jobs, their work units, and theamong their jobs, their work units, and the company. Also, employees are expected tocompany. Also, employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them onacquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with fellowthe job, and share this information with fellow workers.workers.
  25. 25. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Cost benefit analysisCost benefit analysis:: The process ofThe process of determining the economic benefits of adetermining the economic benefits of a training program using accountingtraining program using accounting methods.methods. Course objectivesCourse objectives (lesson objectives):(lesson objectives): The expected behaviors, content,The expected behaviors, content, conditions, and standards of a trainingconditions, and standards of a training course or lesson; more specific thancourse or lesson; more specific than program objectives.program objectives. Course parametersCourse parameters:: General informationGeneral information about a training program includingabout a training program including
  26. 26. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Criterion deficiencyCriterion deficiency:: The failure toThe failure to measure training outcomes that weremeasure training outcomes that were emphasized in training objectives.emphasized in training objectives. Cross trainingCross training:: Training method in whichTraining method in which team members understand and practiceteam members understand and practice each other’s skills so that members areeach other’s skills so that members are prepared to step in and take anotherprepared to step in and take another member’s place should he temporarily ormember’s place should he temporarily or permanently leave the team. Also, morepermanently leave the team. Also, more simply, training employees to learn thesimply, training employees to learn the skills of one or several additional jobs.skills of one or several additional jobs.
  27. 27. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Culture:Culture: A set of assumptions groupA set of assumptions group members share about the world andmembers share about the world and how it works as well as ideals worthhow it works as well as ideals worth striving for.striving for.
  28. 28. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Development:Development: Formal education, jobFormal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessments ofexperiences, relationships, and assessments of personality and abilities that help employeespersonality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.prepare for the future. Distance learningDistance learning:: Training method in whichTraining method in which geographically dispersed companies providegeographically dispersed companies provide information about new products, policies, orinformation about new products, policies, or procedures as well as skills training and expertprocedures as well as skills training and expert lectures to field locations.lectures to field locations. E learningE learning:: Instruction and delivery of trainingInstruction and delivery of training by computer online through the Internet or Web.by computer online through the Internet or Web.
  29. 29. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts EmpowermentEmpowerment:: Giving employeeGiving employee responsibility and authority toresponsibility and authority to make decisions regardingmake decisions regarding product development orproduct development or customer servicecustomer service
  30. 30. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Evaluation design:Evaluation design: Designation of whatDesignation of what information is to be collected, from whom,information is to be collected, from whom, when, and how to determine training’swhen, and how to determine training’s effectiveness.effectiveness. FeedbackFeedback:: Information employees receiveInformation employees receive while they are performing concerning howwhile they are performing concerning how well they are meeting objectives.well they are meeting objectives. Formative evaluationFormative evaluation:: EvaluationEvaluation conducted to improve the trainingconducted to improve the training process. Usually conducted before andprocess. Usually conducted before and during the training processduring the training process
  31. 31. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Glass ceiling:Glass ceiling: A barrier to advancementA barrier to advancement to an organization’s higher levels.to an organization’s higher levels. GoalGoal:: What a company hopes to achieveWhat a company hopes to achieve in the medium-to-long-term future.in the medium-to-long-term future. Goal orientation:Goal orientation: A trainee’s goals in aA trainee’s goals in a learning situationlearning situation.. Goal setting:Goal setting: An employee’s process ofAn employee’s process of developing short-and long-term careerdeveloping short-and long-term career objectives.objectives.
  32. 32. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Group mentoring programGroup mentoring program:: Program in which aProgram in which a successful senior employee is paired with a groupsuccessful senior employee is paired with a group of four to six less experienced protégés to helpof four to six less experienced protégés to help them understand the organization, guide them inthem understand the organization, guide them in analyzing their experiences, and help them clarifyanalyzing their experiences, and help them clarify career directions.career directions. Hands-on method:Hands-on method: Training method in whichTraining method in which the trainee is actively involved in learning.the trainee is actively involved in learning. High-leverage trainingHigh-leverage training:: Training that uses anTraining that uses an instructional design process to ensure that itinstructional design process to ensure that it is effective and that compares oris effective and that compares or benchmarks the company’s trainingbenchmarks the company’s training programs against other companies’programs against other companies’
  33. 33. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts High-potential employee:High-potential employee: An employee whomAn employee whom the company believes is capable of succeeding inthe company believes is capable of succeeding in a higher-level managerial position.a higher-level managerial position. Human resource management:Human resource management: The policies,The policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance.behavior, attitudes, and performance. Human resource managementHuman resource management (HRM)(HRM) practices:practices: Management activities relating toManagement activities relating to investments in staffing, performanceinvestments in staffing, performance management, training, and compensation andmanagement, training, and compensation and benefits.benefits.
  34. 34. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Human resource planning:Human resource planning: The identification,The identification, analysis, forecasting, and planning of changesanalysis, forecasting, and planning of changes needed in a company’s human resources area.needed in a company’s human resources area. Intellectual capital:Intellectual capital: Cognitive knowledge,Cognitive knowledge, advanced skills, system understanding andadvanced skills, system understanding and creativity, and self motivated creativity.creativity, and self motivated creativity. Intellectual skillsIntellectual skills:: Mastery of concepts andMastery of concepts and rules.rules. Internet-based trainingInternet-based training:: Training delivered onTraining delivered on public or private computer networks andpublic or private computer networks and displayed by a web browser.displayed by a web browser. Intranet based trainingIntranet based training:: Training deliveredTraining delivered using a company’s own computer network orusing a company’s own computer network or server.server.
  35. 35. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Job:Job: A specific position requiringA specific position requiring completion of certain tasks.completion of certain tasks. Job analysis:Job analysis: The process of developing aThe process of developing a description of the job (duties, tasks, anddescription of the job (duties, tasks, and responsibilities) and the specificationsresponsibilities) and the specifications (knowledge, skills and abilities) that an(knowledge, skills and abilities) that an employee must have to perform it.employee must have to perform it. Job enlargement:Job enlargement: The adding ofThe adding of challenges or new responsibilities to anchallenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current job.employee’s current job.
  36. 36. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Job experience:Job experience: The relationship, problems,The relationship, problems, demands, tasks, and other features that andemands, tasks, and other features that an employee faces on the job.employee faces on the job. Key behavior:Key behavior: One of a set of behaviors that isOne of a set of behaviors that is necessary to complete a task. Important part ofnecessary to complete a task. Important part of behavior modeling training.behavior modeling training. Knowledge:Knowledge: Facts or procedures. WhatFacts or procedures. What individuals or teams of employees know or knowindividuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge); also ahow to do (human and social knowledge); also a company’s rules, processes, tools, and routinescompany’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge).(structured knowledge).
  37. 37. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Knowledge management:Knowledge management: The process ofThe process of enhancing company performance by designingenhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems,and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creating,structures, and cultures to improve the creating, sharing, and use of knowledge.sharing, and use of knowledge. Knowledge workers:Knowledge workers: Employees who own theEmployees who own the means of producing a product or service. Thesemeans of producing a product or service. These employees have a specialized body of knowledgeemployees have a specialized body of knowledge or expertise, which they use to perform their jobsor expertise, which they use to perform their jobs and contribute to company effectiveness.and contribute to company effectiveness.
  38. 38. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Learning:Learning: A relatively permanent changeA relatively permanent change in human capabilities that does not resultin human capabilities that does not result from growth processes.from growth processes. Learning organization:Learning organization: A company thatA company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt,has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change; an organization whoseand change; an organization whose employees continuously attempt to learnemployees continuously attempt to learn new things and then apply what they havenew things and then apply what they have learned to improve product or servicelearned to improve product or service quality.quality.
  39. 39. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Lecture:Lecture: Training method in which theTraining method in which the trainer communicates through spokentrainer communicates through spoken words that trainees are supposed to learn.words that trainees are supposed to learn. Manager support:Manager support: Trainee’s managers.Trainee’s managers. Emphasizing the importance of attendingEmphasizing the importance of attending training programstraining programs Stressing the application of trainingStressing the application of training content on the job.content on the job. Mentor:Mentor: An experienced, productiveAn experienced, productive senior employee who helps develop a lesssenior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee (a protégé).experienced employee (a protégé).
  40. 40. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Metacognition:Metacognition: A learning strategyA learning strategy whereby trainees direct their attention towhereby trainees direct their attention to their own learning process.their own learning process. Mission:Mission: A company’s long-term reasonA company’s long-term reason for existing.for existing. Modeling:Modeling: Having employees who haveHaving employees who have mastered the desired learning outcomesmastered the desired learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees.demonstrate them for trainees. Motivation to learn:Motivation to learn: A trainee’s desire toA trainee’s desire to learn the content of a training program.learn the content of a training program.
  41. 41. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Motor skills:Motor skills: Coordination of physicalCoordination of physical movements.movements. Multimedia trainingMultimedia training:: Training that combinesTraining that combines audiovisual training methods with computeraudiovisual training methods with computer based training.based training. Near transfer:Near transfer: A trainee’s ability to applyA trainee’s ability to apply learned capabilities exactly to the work situation.learned capabilities exactly to the work situation. Need:Need: A deficiency that a person is experiencingA deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in times.at any point in times. Needs assessment:Needs assessment: The process used toThe process used to determine if training is necessary. The first stepdetermine if training is necessary. The first step in the instrumental system design model.in the instrumental system design model.
  42. 42. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Norms:Norms: Accepted standards of behavior forAccepted standards of behavior for workgroup members.workgroup members. Objective:Objective: The purpose and expected outcomeThe purpose and expected outcome of training activities.of training activities. Obsolescence:Obsolescence: A reduction in an employee’sA reduction in an employee’s competence resulting from a lack of knowledge ofcompetence resulting from a lack of knowledge of new work processes, techniques, andnew work processes, techniques, and technologies that have developed since hetechnologies that have developed since he completed his education.completed his education. On-the-job trainingOn-the-job training (OJT):(OJT): Training in whichTraining in which new or inexperienced employees learn throughnew or inexperienced employees learn through first observing peers or managers performing thefirst observing peers or managers performing the job and then trying to imitate their behavior.job and then trying to imitate their behavior.
  43. 43. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Opportunity to perform:Opportunity to perform: The chance to useThe chance to use learned capabilities.learned capabilities. Organization development:Organization development: A planned,A planned, systematic change process that uses behavioralsystematic change process that uses behavioral sciences knowledge and techniques to improve asciences knowledge and techniques to improve a company’s effectiveness by improvingcompany’s effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning andrelationships and increasing learning and problems solving capabilities.problems solving capabilities. Organizational analysis:Organizational analysis: Training analysisTraining analysis involving determining the appropriateness ofinvolving determining the appropriateness of training, considering the context in which trainingtraining, considering the context in which training will occur.will occur.
  44. 44. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Organizational socialization:Organizational socialization: The process ofThe process of transforming new employees into effectivetransforming new employees into effective company members. Its phases are anticipatorycompany members. Its phases are anticipatory socialization, encounter, and settling in.socialization, encounter, and settling in. Organizing:Organizing: A learning strategy that requiresA learning strategy that requires the learner to find similarities and themes in thethe learner to find similarities and themes in the training materials.training materials. Outsourcing:Outsourcing: The use of external supplies toThe use of external supplies to provide training services.provide training services. Perception:Perception: The ability to organize a messageThe ability to organize a message from the environment so that it can be processedfrom the environment so that it can be processed and acted upon.and acted upon.
  45. 45. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Performance appraisal:Performance appraisal: The process ofThe process of measuring an employee’s performance.measuring an employee’s performance. Person analysis:Person analysis: Training analysis involvingTraining analysis involving Determining whether performanceDetermining whether performance deficiencies result from lack of knowledge,deficiencies result from lack of knowledge, skill, or ability or else from a motivationalskill, or ability or else from a motivational or work-design problem.or work-design problem. Identifying who needs training,Identifying who needs training, Determining employees’ readiness forDetermining employees’ readiness for trainingtraining
  46. 46. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Person characteristics:Person characteristics: An employee’sAn employee’s knowledge, skill, ability, behavior, or attitude.knowledge, skill, ability, behavior, or attitude. Practice:Practice: An employee’s demonstration of aAn employee’s demonstration of a learned capability; the physical or mentallearned capability; the physical or mental rehearsal of a task, knowledge, or skill to achieverehearsal of a task, knowledge, or skill to achieve proficiency in performing the task or skill orproficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge.demonstrating the knowledge. Pretest/posttest:Pretest/posttest: An evaluation design in whichAn evaluation design in which both pretraining and post training outcomesboth pretraining and post training outcomes measures are collected.measures are collected. Pretraining measure:Pretraining measure: A baseline measure ofA baseline measure of outcomes.outcomes.
  47. 47. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Program design:Program design: The organization andThe organization and coordination of the training program.coordination of the training program. Program Objectives:Program Objectives: Broad summaryBroad summary statements of a program’s purpose.statements of a program’s purpose. Psychological success:Psychological success: A feeling of pride andA feeling of pride and accomplishment that comes from achieving lifeaccomplishment that comes from achieving life goals.goals. Reaction outcomes:Reaction outcomes: A trainee’s perceptions of aA trainee’s perceptions of a training program, including perceptions of thetraining program, including perceptions of the facilities, trainers, and content.facilities, trainers, and content. Readability:Readability: Written materials’ level of difficulty.Written materials’ level of difficulty.
  48. 48. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Readiness for training:Readiness for training: The condition ofThe condition of Employees having theEmployees having the personalpersonal characteristicscharacteristics necessary to learn programnecessary to learn program content and apply it on the job andcontent and apply it on the job and TheThe work environmentwork environment facilitation learningfacilitation learning and not interfering with performance.and not interfering with performance. Reengineering:Reengineering: A complete review and redesignA complete review and redesign of critical processes to make them more efficient andof critical processes to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality.able to deliver higher quality. Structure/Structure/ Process/InnovationProcess/Innovation Re-Structuring / Re-inventing …Small/Better/DifferentRe-Structuring / Re-inventing …Small/Better/Different
  49. 49. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Rehearsal:Rehearsal: A learning strategy focusingA learning strategy focusing on learning through repetitionon learning through repetition (memorization).(memorization). Self-Management:Self-Management: Person’s attempt toPerson’s attempt to control certain aspects of his decision-control certain aspects of his decision- making and behavior.making and behavior. Simulation:Simulation: A training method thatA training method that represents a real life situation, withrepresents a real life situation, with trainees’ decisions resulting in outcomestrainees’ decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if theythat mirror what would happen if they were on the job.were on the job.
  50. 50. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Skill:Skill: Competency in performing a task.Competency in performing a task. Skill-based outcomes:Skill-based outcomes: Outcomes used toOutcomes used to assess the level of technical or motor skills orassess the level of technical or motor skills or behavior; include skill acquisition or learning andbehavior; include skill acquisition or learning and on-the-job use of skills.on-the-job use of skills. Social learning theorySocial learning theory:: Theory emphasizingTheory emphasizing that people learn by observing other personsthat people learn by observing other persons (models) who they believe are credible and(models) who they believe are credible and knowledgeable.knowledgeable. Social support:Social support: Feedback and reinforcementFeedback and reinforcement from managers and peers.from managers and peers. Socialization:Socialization: Sharing tacit knowledge bySharing tacit knowledge by sharing experiences.sharing experiences.
  51. 51. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Stakeholders:Stakeholders: The parties with an interest in aThe parties with an interest in a company’s success (include shareholders,company’s success (include shareholders, employees, customers, and the community).employees, customers, and the community). Subject matter expert (SME):Subject matter expert (SME): Person who isPerson who is knowledgeable ofknowledgeable of Training issue,Training issue, Knowledge, skills, and abilities required for taskKnowledge, skills, and abilities required for task performance,performance, Necessary equipment, andNecessary equipment, and Conditions under which tasks have to beConditions under which tasks have to be performedperformed Summative evaluation:Summative evaluation: Evaluation of theEvaluation of the extent that trainees have changed as -a result ofextent that trainees have changed as -a result of participating in a training program.participating in a training program.
  52. 52. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Synchronous communication:Synchronous communication: Communication in which trainers, experts,Communication in which trainers, experts, and learners interact with each other liveand learners interact with each other live and in real time in the same way as theyand in real time in the same way as they would in face to face classroomwould in face to face classroom instruction.instruction. Team leader training:Team leader training: Training that aTraining that a team manager or facilitator receives.team manager or facilitator receives. Team training:Team training: Training method thatTraining method that involves coordinating the performances ofinvolves coordinating the performances of individuals who work together to achieve aindividuals who work together to achieve a common goal.common goal.
  53. 53. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Trainee characteristics:Trainee characteristics: The abilities andThe abilities and motivation that affect learning.motivation that affect learning. Training:Training: A company’s planned effort to facilitateA company’s planned effort to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.employees’ learning of job-related competencies. Training administration:Training administration: Coordination ofCoordination of activities before, during, and after a trainingactivities before, during, and after a training program.program. Training context:Training context: The physical, intellectual, andThe physical, intellectual, and emotional environment in which training occurs.emotional environment in which training occurs. Training design:Training design: Characteristics of the learning,Characteristics of the learning, and enabling environment.and enabling environment.
  54. 54. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Training design process:Training design process: A systematicA systematic approach to development trainingapproach to development training programs. Its six steps include conductingprograms. Its six steps include conducting needs assessment, ensuring employees’needs assessment, ensuring employees’ readiness for training, creating a learningreadiness for training, creating a learning environment, ensuring transfer of training,environment, ensuring transfer of training, selecting training methods, and evaluatingselecting training methods, and evaluating training programs.training programs. Training effectiveness:Training effectiveness: Benefits that aBenefits that a company and its trainees receive fromcompany and its trainees receive from training.training.
  55. 55. Training ConceptsTraining Concepts Training evaluation:Training evaluation: The process of collectingThe process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training hasthe outcomes needed to determine if training has been effective.been effective. Training outcomesTraining outcomes (Criteria):(Criteria): Measures that aMeasures that a company and its trainer use to evaluate trainingcompany and its trainer use to evaluate training programs.programs. Training site:Training site: The place where training isThe place where training is conducted.conducted. Transfer of training:Transfer of training: Trainees’ applying learnedTrainees’ applying learned capabilities gained in training to their jobs.capabilities gained in training to their jobs. Work environment:Work environment: On-the-job factors thatOn-the-job factors that influence transfer of training.influence transfer of training.

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