The Training Process:
o Steps in training process
o Training techniques
o D.L. Kirpatrick’s Model on evaluation of training program
As we have already discussed the concept of training and development in
detail, let us now go through the six steps in the training process. All those
involved in training need to be aware of the key stages in the training
process, often referred to as the training cycle:
Training cycle based on a human resource development plan
Organisational strategy HRM strategy
Training and development strategy
Analysis of needs
Delivery of training
Monitor and evaluate
Steps in the Training Process
1. Organizational objectives
2. Assessment of Training needs
3. Establishment of Training goals
4. Devising training programme
5. Implementation of training programme
6. Evaluation of results
Let us go through the steps in training process in detail:
I. Organizational Objectives and Strategies:
The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its
objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we
wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It
is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess
the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources.
II. Needs Assessment:
Needs assessment diagnosis present problems and future challenges to be met
through training and development? Organizations spend vast sums of money
(usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before
committing such huge resources, organizations that implement training programs
without conducting needs assessment may be making errors.
Needs assessment occurs at two levels- group and individual. An individual
obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards, that
is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due
to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance
deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training.
Faulty selection, poor job design, improving quality of supervision, or discharge
will solve the problem.
Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an
employee. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. It is
necessary that the employee be trained to acquire new skills. This will help
him/her to progress in his or her career path. Training and development is
essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks.
Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers.
Although job transfers are common as organizational personnel demands vary,
they do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts. Employees commonly
require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Jobs have disappeared as
technology, foreign competition, and the forces of supply and demand are
changing the face of our industry.
Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the
organization’s strategy necessitates training of groups of employees.
Needs Assessment Methods: How are training needs assessed? Several methods
are available for the purpose. As shown below some are useful for organizational-
level need assessment and others for individual need assessment.
Methods used in Training Needs assessment:
Group or organizational analysis Individuals Analysis
• Organizational goals and
• Personnel /skills inventories
• Organizational climate indices
• Efficiency indices
• Exit interview
• MBO or work planning systems
• Quality circles
• Customer survey/satisfaction data
• Consideration of current and
• Performance appraisal
• Work sampling
• Attitude survey
• Training progress
• Rating scales.
Benefits of Needs assessment: As pointed above, needs assessment helps
diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees. Causes require
remedial actions. This being a generalized statement there are certain specific
benefits of needs assessment. They are:
1. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training
group and their sponsoring organizations.
2. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap
between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and
expectations from the training programmes.
3. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs course inputs closer to
the specific needs of the participants.
III. Training and Development objectives
Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be
established. Without clearly set goals, it is not possible to design a training and
development programme and, after it has been implemented there will be no way
of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable.
This is easy where skills’ training is involved. For example, the successful trainee
will be expected to type 55 words per minute with two or three errors per page.
Nevertheless, clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that
the programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated.
IV. Designing Training and Development Programme
Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues
1. Who participates in the programme?
2. Who are the trainers?
3. What methods and techniques are to be used for training?
4. What should be the level of training?
5. What learning principles are needed?
6. Where is the program conducted?
Who are the trainers: Trainers should be selected on the basis of self-nomination,
recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever is the
basis, it is advisable to have two or more target audience. For example, rank-and-
file employees and their supervisors or by the HR department itself.
Several people, including the following may conduct training and Development
1. Immediate supervisors
2. Co-workers, as in buddy systems,
3. Members of the personnel staff,
4. Specialists in other parts of the company,
5. Outside consultants,
6. Industry associations, and faculty members at universities.
What is the importance of budgets in running a training
V. Methods and Techniques of training
A multitude of methods of training is used to train employees. Training methods
are categorized into two groups (i) on the job training and (ii) off-the job methods.
On the job training: refers to methods that are applied in the workplace, while the
employees is actually working.
Cannell (1997:28) defines on-the-job training as:
“Training that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal
workstation of the trainee- although some instruction may be provided in a special
training area on site - and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague
spends significant time with a trainee to teach a set of skills that have been
specified in advance.”
Tailor-made course content with use of REAL company
It is usually less expensive than off-job training
Learning will take place using the equipment which will be
Trainees acclimatise more rapidly
Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time.
Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices.
A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be
Valuable equipment may be damaged.
Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful,
i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments
by other workers.
A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training.
Wider range of facilities and equipment are available.
The trainee can learn the job in planned stages.
It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life.
It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is
Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies.
Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee
changes from training equipment to production equipment.
No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can
only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting,
with its own customs and network of personal relationships.
Can be more expensive.
Carrying out the training
Everyone involved in the training should be informed well in advance of
the training session(s). It is equally important that the person(s) delivering
the training – whether in-job or off-job training - are well versed in what
has to be achieved and the most suitable techniques to adopt.
On the Job Training
• Orientation training
• Job-instruction training
• Apprentice training
• Internships and assistantships
• Job rotation
Off-the –job training: are used away from workplaces.
• Special study
• Conference or discussion
• Case study
• Role playing
• Programmed instruction
• Laboratory training
At this point, it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. Let
us go through the following for better understanding - lectures, audio-visuals, on-
the –job training, programmed instruction, computer-aided instruction, simulation
1. Vestibule Training: This training method attempt to duplicate on-the-job-
situation in a company classroom. It is a classroom training that is often
imported with the help of the equipment and machines, which are identical
with those in use in the place of work. This technique enables the trainees
to concentrate on learning new skill rather than on performing on actual
job. This type of training is efficient to train semi-skilled personnel,
particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of
work at the same time. Often used to train – bank tellers, inspectors,
machine operators, typists etc. In this, training is generally given in the
form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role-play etc.
2. Demonstrations And Example: In this type of training method trainer
describes and displays something, as & when he teaches an employee,
how to do something by actually performing the activity himself & going
on explaining why & what he is doing. This method is very effective in
teaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job than
tell him or give him instruction about a particular job. This training is
done by combination with lectures, pictures, text materials etc.
3. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor
to a large audience. The lecture is presumed to possess a considerable
depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that
is can be used for very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low.
This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though its
application is restricted in training factory employees. Limitations of the
lecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates the
principle of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication.
There is no feedback from the audience. Continued lecturing method can
be made effective it if is combined with other methods of training.
4. Audio-visuals: Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, video-
types and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic
examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time.
Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain
equal for all training groups. But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way
system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts
for clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from
audience to audience.
5. Programmed Instruction (PI): This is method where training is offer
without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee
in blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine.
1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner
2. Allowing the person to respond
3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers
4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If
not, he or she repeats the same.
6. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): this is an extension of the PI
method. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer
so that the management can monitor each trainee’s progress and needs.
CAI training program can also be modified easily to reflect technological
innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained.
This training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use
the computer almost any time they want, thus get training when they
7. Apprenticeship: This method of training is usually done in crafts, trades
and in technical areas. It is the oldest and most commonly used method, if
the training is relatively for a longer period. Here a major part of training
is spent on the job productive work. Each apprentice is given a
programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule, which
provide for efficient training in trade skills.
8. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that
duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the
job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making
environment for the trainee. Simulations present likely problem situations
and decision alternatives to the trainee. The more widely held simulation
exercises are case study, role-playing and vestibule training.
9. Conference: In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss
points of common interest to each other. It is a basic to most participative
group centered methods of developments. This emphasis on small group
discussion, on organized subject matter and on the active participation of
the members involved.
There are three types of conferences,
* Direct discussion: - Here trainer guides the discussion in such a way
that the facts, principles or concepts are explained.
* Training Conference: - The instructor gets the group to pool its
knowledge and past experience and brings different points of view to bear
on the problem.
* Seminar Conference: - In this method instructor defines the problem,
encourages and ensures the full participation in the discussion.
10. Case Studies: This method is developed in 1800S At the Harvard Law
School. The case study is based upon the belief that managerial
competence can best be attained through the study, contemplation and
discussion of concrete cases. When the trainees are given cases to
analyse, they are asked to identify the problem and recommend tentative
solution for it. The case study is primarily useful as a training technique
for supervisors and is specially valuable as a technique of developing
discussion-making skills, and for broadening the prospective of the
In case study method the trainee is expected to master the facts, should
acquainted with the content of the case, define the objective sought in
dealing with the issues in the case, identify the problem, develop
alternative courses of action, define the controls needed to make the action
effective and role play the action to test its effectiveness and find
conditions that may limit it.
11. Role Playing :In role-playing trainees act out the given role as they would
be in stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play before
the nest of the class. Here role players are informed of a situation and of
the respective roles they have to pay. Sometimes after the preliminary
planning, the situation is acted out by the role players. This method
primarily involves employee-employer relationship – Hiring, firing,
discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview
12. Programmed Instructions: This method involves a sequence of steps that
are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as
guides in the performance of desired operation or series of operations.
This method involves breaking information down into meaningful units
and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential
learning. The programme involves – presenting questions, facts or
problems to trainees to utilize the information given and the trainee
instantly receive feedback on the basis of the accuracy of his answers.
To be really effective, the training methods must fit in training programme
needs to find out how effective the methods are in accomplishing their goals
of modifying skills, attitudes and ultimate behaviour.
V. Points in Planning Training Evaluation
To monitor the quality of training
To appraise the overall effectiveness of the investment in training
To assist the development of new methods of training
To aid the individual evaluate his or her own learning experience.
John Dopyera and Louise Pitone identified eight decision points in planning
training evaluation. They are:
1. Should an evaluation be done? Who should evaluate?
2. What is the purpose of evaluation? There are mainly two purposes of doing
evaluation. They are justification evaluation and determination evaluation.
Justification evaluations are undertaken as reactions to mandates. Other
purposes that will make evaluation efforts more fruitful. These purposes
include training needs assessment, programme improvements and impact
3. What will be measured? The focus of the evaluation will be on training and
delivery, programme content, materials, impact of training on individuals
through learning, behaviour or performance change. Learning can be
measured through pre-test and post-test. Evaluate the effects of training after
the trainee returns to the work place using changes in between or the work
results as indicators.
4. How comprehensive will the evaluation be? The scope or the duration and
comprehensiveness of the evaluation is influenced by available support,
communication and evaluation purpose.
5. Who has the authority and responsibility? Who has the authority and
responsibility at different stages of evaluation will be determined by the
factors like personnel, credibility of internal staff, communication, objectivity
of internal staff to do an evaluation regardless of results.
6. What are the sources of data? The most common sources of evaluation data
are reactions, opinions and/ or test results of the participants, managers,
supervisors, production records, quality control, financial records, personnel
records, safety records, etc.
7. How will the data be collected and compiled? Data can be collected before
training for needs analysis or pre-testing purpose, during training programme
to make improvements along the way and after training for evaluation. Next
step is selection of treatment or control groups and determination of nature of
samples. Data can be complied either manually or by computers.
8. How will the data be analysed and reported? First reporting issue is concerned
with audiences like participants or trainees, training staff, managers,
customers etc. Second and third issues are concerned with analysis and results
and accuracy, policies and format respectively.
These decision points are intended to increase awareness of and interest in u.
evaluation of training, to improve planning skills and to encourage more
systematic- evaluation of training.
Methods of Evaluation
Various methods can be used to collect data on the outcomes of training. Some of
Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinion
reactions, views of trainees.
Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt
anything during and after the training.
Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training
offered to operatives.
Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and
judgments of trainers, superiors and peer groups about the training.
Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee
satisfaction, which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in employee
turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances, discharges, dismissals, etc.
Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training (cost of hiring trainers, tools to learn
training centre, wastage, production stoppage, opportunity cost of trainers and
trainees) could be compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time
improved learning, superior performance) in order to evaluate a training
Feedback: After the evaluation, the situation should be examined to identify the
probable causes for gaps in performance. The training evaluation information.
(about costs, time spent, outcomes, etc.) should be provided to the instructors’
trainees and other parties concerned for control, correction and improvement of
trainees' activities. The training evaluator should follow it up sincerely so as to
ensure effective implementation of the feedback report at every stage.
Please note that no training is complete without its evaluation. That is, the follow
up of a training programme is very essential.
Impediments or problems in Training Process:
• Management’s commitment is lacking
• Aggregate spending on training is inadequate
• The trainers may lack skills
• No help in case of downsizing
Evaluation of Training Programme
(D L Kirpatrick’s Model)
According to Kirpatrick behaviour change brought about by the training function can be
Change of skill
Change of Knowledge
Change of Attitude
Change of skill may be measured by a change in production/output
Testing the conceptual clarity on the subject matter can assess change of knowledge.
Here trainer deals with ‘concepts’ or ‘principle’
Attitude change is the most difficult of behavioural change. There are three ways to
evaluate attitudinal changes in an individual:
I) By the subjective evaluation of others about the person;
II) By the individual verbalization of his or her family’
III) By the individuals total productivity
What are the
What are the
to the job
The Way Ahead
The development of learning organizations, working to harness the brainpower,
knowledge and experience of their people, reflects the fundamental importance of
training and learning for those organizations that hope to prosper in the new
millennium. The rend towards a more "empowering" style of management and an
increasing emphasis on self-development have combined to bring about a move
away from didactic instruction towards coaching and facilitation and away from
"trainer" towards "performance improvement consultant".
In the coming future, the following trends are likely to be seen:
Increased use of virtual reality, the internet and multi-
Emphasis on cross-cultural development
Remote learning to reflect changing patterns of work
The Role of the Trainer
- How to begin
In the ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery (2nd edition, 1999),
Nancy Maresh argues that trainers should capitalize on the innate nature of the
* Seek and perceive patterns
* Create meanings
* Integrate sensory experience
* Make connections
The trainer should aim to:
- Become proficient at designing and delivering a dynamic curriculum
- assess learning
- effectively administer true education
Maresh argues, "In the process trainers will release learners' intrinsic drive to
acquire knowledge, an admirable outcome from any training."
People come to learn with a variety of previous experiences, needs and skills, so
Maresh advises us to create common ground as a first step in the training process
- and every subsequent learning segment. By this she means entering into a
dialogue with the members of the training group, acknowledging their experience
and speaking directly to "the familiar frustrations, joys, and challenges that link
up to the learning task at hand."
This is done through a series of questions that highlight the backgrounds of
individual members, identify their concerns and gain commitment to the learning
process. Maresh suggests 'enrollment' questions beginning with "How many
people have ever but not relying on just a show of hands. It is essential to elicit
information and comments. Moreover, the trainer should repeat what members
have said so that everyone hears and to validate the members who made those
For example, a training session on selection interviewing could begin with
enrollment questions such as:
* How many people here have been trained as interviewers?
* How many of you have a lot of experience as interviewers, whether or not you
have been trained?
* And how many have very little experience of interviewing?
* Any with none at all?
* But surely you all been interviewed by someone else?
Questions such as these should involve everyone in the room and also bring out
comments, questions and friendly banter - as well as telling the trainer what level
of training will be needed for the group.
The common ground acts as a basis for group awareness. When the audience
begins to see themselves as a group, they begin to relax and feel comfortable
entering into the learning process together. The stage is now set for the trainer to
address what Maresh calls the 'big why' in the trainees' minds. Remember that we
are building connections and relating to previous experiences. So the purpose,
method and intended results of the training need to be explained in relation to the
answers given to the enrollment questions.
The importance of the subject - especially in relation to trainees' own experience -
and what can be done with the learned skills when trainees get back to work
should be explored.
Then, Maresh advises, the trainer should say something about his or her own
background, ideally using a personal story involving the subject of the training
session. According to Maresh:
"This connects the leader to the participants in an essential way. People's
experiences are dramatic. They include emotions, mystery, tension, climaxes and
humor. When personal stories are recounted, learners emotionally identify with
the parts that have meaning to them, and this confirms their commitment to
participate. Personal stories bond the audience to the instructor, the course
content, and other participants."
She also addresses the logical component of the adult learner's mind by stressing
the need to provide an agenda or list of learning objectives at this point. The team
members need to know what the outcomes of the course will be.
Armstrong, M (2001) A Handbook of Human Resource
Management Practice. 8th
edition, Kogan Page, London.
Training Need Assessment
• Organisational Analysis
• Taskor role Analysis
• Manpower Analysis
The Philosophy of Training
“The purpose of training and development
is to maintain and improve effectiveness
and efficiency of individuals within the
organization. This can only have
sustained effect if it influences the
actions and practices of line mangers so
as to serve better both - the self –
interest of employees.”
Areas of Training
• Technical Skills
• Social Skills