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Designing of t& d model Designing of t& d model Document Transcript

  • University Reg. No: M-253 A GRAND PROJECT ON DESIGNING OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT MODEL: THE HRD APPROACH [In partial fulfillment of the requirement of Master of Business Administration (MBA) Programme (2005-07) of Gujarat University, Ahmedabad] Submitted to: Ms. Kajal Sharma Core Faculty MBA Programme NICM, Gandhinagar Submitted by: Tarun V. Patel (Roll no. 37) National Institute of Cooperative Management (Post Graduate Centre of Gujarat University) Gandhinagar
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  • Article I. PREFACE A major purpose of training and development is to remove performance deficiencies, whether current or anticipated, that are result of employee’s inability to perform at the desired level, there by enabling employees to be much more productive. Training for performance improvements is particularly important to organization with segment or declining rates of productivity. It is too important to organizations that are rapidly incorporating new technologies to consequently increasing like hood of employee obsolescence. Training and Development can also increase the level of commitment of employees to organization and increase their perceptions that the organization is a good place to work. Increased commitment can result in less turnover and absenteeism thus increasing organizations productivity. Training and development is the segment of human resource development. It recognizes an organization’s manpower as a virtual resource contributing to fulfillment of its goal and objectives. It involves the planning and implementation of variety of activities and functions for optimum utilization of human resources for the benefit of the individual to the organization. Different resources manage industries, but mere existence of this resource is not sufficient condition for the production and growth. They need human resource to make them productive. In the age of intensive competitive environment success depends on a little more than achieving the laid down objectives of the organization. It is often this little more in terms of intangibles, which qualify it to termed excellence. 3
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am pleased to acknowledge the guidance given by Ms. Kajal Sharma (Core faculty, MBA NICM). It is support and guidance that I have been able to successfully finish my project on time. I feel great pleasure in expressing my gratitude to Dr. S.O.Junare our honorable director, NICM for providing me a platform to present my research study. I am grateful to Mr. Arjun B. Patel, honorable director of Shree Mahuva Pradesh Sahakari Khand Udyog Mandli Ltd. for giving me an opportunity to work in such an estimated organization and helping me whenever it was necessary. I also thankful to Mr.Jitendrakumar Dhimar(Labor Welfare officer) And Mr.Vinodbhai Patel (Head of Department - Time Office) who had guided me by providing knowledgeable and useful information to Designing of Training and Development Model. I would also like to thank to all the sugar staff for their accommodating nature and their exposure and invaluable guidance thought my project. And with whom I discussed all the various issues related to the project. They made numerous valuable suggestions and correction which greatly improved quality of my work. In spite being busy with routine work they spent quality time with me and never hesitated to cooperate and help me out with my problem as and when required. Last but not the list I would like to thank all these people who have directly or indirectly helped me in the preparation of my project. 4
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Shree Mahuva Pradesh Sahakari Khand Udyog Mandli Ltd. facing some problems related how to provide the training and to which employees trainings should be provided. The project “Designing of Training and Development Model: The HRD Approach” provides the solution for the problem of the organization. This project study is includes Assessment of training needs, Design, Implementation and Evaluation off the program. Assessments of training needs done through the training needs assessment form fill up by head of departments and discussion with the identified employees for the training. After that data had been prepared by Behavioral Training category wise and Functional Training wise. Design part contains objectives of the program, Develop lesson plan, Acquiring of material, selection of the trainer and the schedule of the program. In design part first of all objectives of the training programs are defined. Lesson plan guides the trainer about the training, and which topics should be covered and time duration for that and the list of activities listed in to the lesson plan In Implementation part the delivery of the training programs takes place. Program implementation will be done according to the schedule. An Evaluation part the delivered program has been evaluated according to the selected and designed criteria. 5
  • Certificate 1 Preface 2 Acknowledgement 3 Executive Summary 4 CONTENTS Sr. No Particulars Page No 1. PROJECT ABSTRACT 7 1.1. Project Definition 7 1.2. Objective of the Project 7 1.3. Limitation of the Project 7 1.4. Target Audience 8 2. COMPANY PROFILE 2.1. History of the Company 9 2.2. Area of Operation 10 2.3. Members and Membership Capital 11 2.4. Staff Welfare 13 2.5 Organization Structure 14 3. TRAINING AND HRD PROCESS MODEL 15 4. ASSESSMENT 16 4.1. Assess Needs 17 4.2. Training Needs Analysis Form 19 4.3. Analyzed Data 23 4.3.1 Behavioral Training Data 26 4.3.2 Functional Training Data 35 5. DESIGN 39 5.1. Define Objectives 40 5.2. Develop a Lesson Plan 40 5.3. Program Announcement 42 5.4. Program Outline 42 5.5. Acquire a Material 43 5.5.1 Highlights on acquired material 43 5.6 Select a Trainer 65 5.6.1 Analyzed Data from Trainer selection 67 5.7 Schedule the Program 70 5.7.1 Highlights on Scheduled Program 70 6
  • Sr. No Particulars Page No 6. IMPLEMENTATION 74 6.1. Deliver the HRD Program 75 6.2. Available methods and Techniques 75 6.2.1 On-the-job Training Methods 76 6.2.2 Classroom Training Approaches 78 7. EVELUATION 82 7.1. Purpose of HRD Evaluation 83 7.2. Available Models for HRD Evaluation 84 7.3. Evaluation Design 87 7.3.1 Lecture Rating Form 88 7.3.2 Program Evaluation Form 89 8. CONCLUSION 90 9. BIBILOGRAPHY 91 7
  • Project Abstract Project Definition Designing of Training and Development Model: The HRD Approach Objectives of the Project  To develop an organizational personality among the supporting staff, supervisory staff, office staff.  To sensitize them the importance of their work in organizational efficiency  To make them aware the recent changes and new responsibilities of supporting staff, supervisory staff, office staff.  Injecting self-motivation good manners, etiquette.  Positive attitude to develop harmony at work place and in family.  Develop good habits like honesty, integrity, commitment, team, and feeling among them. Limitations of the Project Due to limited time the Training and Development model for Shree Mahuva Pradesh Sahakari Khand Udyog Mandli Ltd does not covers the training needs analysis at deep level. Needs assessment is more time consuming process and it’s not possible to cover all kinds of trainings assessment. So here in project the needs assessment done through the Head of the Departments and informal discussion with the target audience of the project. 8
  • Target Audience  Supporting Staff.  Supervisory Staff.  Office Staff. 9
  • COMPANY PROFILE Note on Past History of Factory:  Shree Mahuva Pradesh Sahakari Khand Udyog Mandli Ltd., Bamania, Tal. Mahuva, Dist. Surat, Gujarat State is registered as a co-operative Society under the provision of the Gujarat State Co-operative Societies Act, 1961, vide the registration No. SE-29, date 10-01-1974.  The Industrial License was issued for the co-operative Sugar Factory under Industrial License No. I.L.S.353 (74), dated 03-08-1974.  The initial Registered Capacity of the plant was 1250 TCD and its first commercial production started in the trial season 1980-81 under nominated Board of Directors by the Govt. of Gujarat State.  Thereafter, within a short span, the capacity of the factory was expanded from 1250 to 2000 TCD on 01-12-1983 and then expanded on 28-11-1991 from 2000 TCD to 3500 TCD looking to the sugar cane crop available in the area of operation of the society.  Shree Mahuva Pradesh Sahakari Khand Udyog Mandli Ltd., Bamania, Tal. Mahuva, Dist. Surat is located at Village Bamania, Tal. Mahuva, Dist. Surat the tail end of the foot hills of Dang Forest of Gujarat State.  It is a notified backward area of majority of the people in the Area are Adivasis, small and marginal farmers, having small pieces of land. More than 40% of the total member of the factory companies this group are farmers.  The Sugar Plant is situated on BARDOLI-ANAVAL road and by rail via Mumbai-Surat by traveling 450 kms. from Pune city. 10
  • 1. AREA OF OPERATION : The area of operation is within the radius of 20 miles i.e. 33 kms from the location of the factory. The area of operation consists of 360 scattered villages plus 27 villages outside area of operation from following Talukas of Surat, Valsad, Navsari Districts. • Mahuva • Bardoli • Valod • Songadh • Vyara • Kamrej • Palsana • Gandevi • Chikhali • Mandvi • Vansada • Mangrol • Jalalpor Due to Backward area and unsatisfactory general economic condition of the people of the area, the factory faced lot of difficulties in raising the minimum share capital contribution from the compact area and therefore the share of the factory have been issued in the scattered village of the area of operation. The lands in the area are fertile and have come under the perennial irrigation of Ukai Left bank canal and kakrapar canal of River Tapi. The annual rain falls in 30” to 40” inch. The climate, soil, water is quite suitable for the growth of sugarcane. 11
  • The society is having sufficient sugar cane supply from its area of operation and its making continues efforts for the can development activities.  CANE CRUSHED DURING INITIAL 5 YEARS PERIOD & FORM 1997 TO 2002 During 1980-81 to 1985-86 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 (Trial Season) Cane Crushed 64743 293764 275129 232446 270480 Sugar 65400 291500 267500 252320 300770 Production Recovery % 10.10% 9.90% 9.70% 10.824% 11.05% During 1997-98 to 2001-02 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-2005 2005-2006 Cane Crushed 448616 669445 602962 595835 615900 Sugar 472100 698987 650910 632910 680300 Production Recovery % 10.57 10.41 10.80 10.63 11.04 2. MEMBERS & MEMBERSHIP CAPITAL In the year 1980-81, the no. of members, shares and capital of their factory are as under : Member : 9187 Shares : 45000 Share Capital : Rs. 2,25,00,000 12
  • As On the 31/03/2006 above figures are as follows : Member : 17223 Shares : 30209 Share Capital : Rs. 6,03,84,000 Because of the expansion of the crushing capacity from 1250 TCD to 2000 TCD the authorized capital of the societies has been increased upto 2,32,50,000 from the year 1983-84. The additional share capital increased for the purpose of expansion 50% share to Adivasis shares to others were issued. Also Gujarat Govt. Share Capital of Rs. 160 lakhs fully paid up and shares issued to Adivasis and other members on 50%. 3. AWARDS The Societies has been awarded the National Efficiency Award for achieving Best Result in the Season 1988-1990. 4. MANAGEMENT The first Board of factory was nominated by the Govt. of Gujarat and there were 21 Board of Directors on Board was in force up to 02-03-1987. The first elected Board of Directors consisting of 19 Directors came into force effective form 03-03-1987. Therefore, here Board was elected every year up to 1996 as per Gujarat Govt. Order. After 1996, the Board of Directors was elected for 3 years period as per Gujarat Govt. Order. The Society’s Board of Directors is presently of 16 members, comprising of • 11 Representatives of grower members 13
  • • 1 Employee Director, • 1 Representative of nominal grower member • 1 Nominee from SDCB, • 1 Nominee from Gujarat Khand Udyog Sangh • 1 Registered of Co-operative Sicieties • Bye-Laws provide for additional Directors including 2 Directors from Financial Institution. STAFF WELFARE  The Society is keen in Staff Welfare Activities.  The organization has provided about 360 residential accommodations to its staff and workers, which are well constructed with enough space and ventilated arrangement and water and electric supply is provided.  Ambulance is provided to Employee in Emergency Case.  Medical facility is also given to the staff.  Cultural Programs are also conducted at the Festival season. 14
  • FIGURE : ORGANISATION STRUCTURE General Body Board of Directors Chairmen Managing Director Personnel Finance Production Marketing Department Department Department Department HRD Manager General Manager Manager Plant In charge General HRD Executive Head Of The Accountant Department Workers Assi. Accountant (Cashier) Clerk Clerk Clerk Shift Supervisor Shift Supervisor Shift Supervisor Shift Supervisor Maintenance Operator Operator Operator Operator Fitter Helper Helper Helper Helper 15
  • Training and HRD Process Model. ASSESSMENT DESI IMPLEMENTATION EVALU GN ATION Assess Needs Select Prioritize Define Evaluation Needs Objective Criteria s Develop lesson Determine plan. Evaluation Design Develop/ Acquire Deliver the material HRD Conduct program or Evaluation intervention of Program Select Trainer / Leader. Interpret Select Results methods and techniques Schedule the program 16
  • Article II. ASSESSMENT 17
  • Article III. Assess Needs Definition: Discrepancy/Gap between what an organizations expects to happen and what actually occur.  It’s starting point of HRD and training process. A needs assessment can identify:  An organization’s goals and its effectiveness in reaching this goals.  Gaps between employees’ skills and the skills required for effective current job performance.  Gaps between current skills and the skills needed to perform the job successfully in the future.  The conditions under which the HRD activity will occur.  Following are the types of need: 1) Performance deficiency. – Gaps between current and effective performance. 2) Democratic – Employee preference for HRD programs. 3) Diagnostic – Factors and conditions that create and ensure effective performance. 4) Analytic – New and better way to perform task.  Following are the levels of needs assessment: 1) Organization. – Where is training needed and in what condition will the training be conducted? 2) Task. - What must be done to perform the job effectively? 3) Person. – Who should be trained? What kind of training do they need? 18
  • Organizational Analysis: Organizational analysis is a process used to better understand the characteristics of the organisation to determine where training and HRD efforts needed and conditions within which they will be conducted. It requires a broad or whole system view of the organisation. Components of the Organizational needs analysis:  Organizational Goals  Organizational Resource  Organizational Climate  Organizational Constraints 19
  • Training Needs Analysis form which is used to analysis training needs of Shree Mahuwa Pradesh Sahakari khand udyog mandli Ltd is as follow: DETAILS: DEPT. NAME NO OF EMPLOYEES : GRADE : Supervisory-A To Unskilled Sr.No Name of TYPE OF TRAINING TRAINING NEEDS Employees ANALYSIS Behavioral Functional Critical Essential Desirable 20
  • Any suggestions for developing the identified competency ,by the immediate superior/ next superior NOTE: • Kindly refer to the annexure attached and according to that given code no. to the training required by employee in Behavioral and Functional field. • Kindly fill the type of training which is Critical, Essential, and Desirable by denoting B, F. Where • B - Behavioral F - Functional Date: Name & Signature of HOD 21
  • CODE NO. BEHAVIOURAL TRAINING 1 Communication and Presentation skills 2 Effective Managerial Skills 3 Emotional Intelligence 4 Leadership skills 5 Personality Development 6 Stress Management 7 Team Building 8 Time Management 9 Work ethics and Culture CODE NO. FUNCTIONAL TRAINING 1 Basic awareness for computer 2 Effective negotiation skill 3 First Aid training 4 Resource Management 5 Safety for site – staff 6 Six-Sigma awareness 22
  • Required training for the employees are identified by the discussions with the top management, discussion with head of the departments, Labour welfare officer and observing the organisation. Identified trainings are categorised into two categories. 1) Behavioral Trainings & 2) Functional Trainings. Above form was filled up by the head of departments. e.g. In Behavioral training Effective managerial skills is require for any employee. Code no for that is 2. So, in column of Behavioral training HOD has to indicate 2.Same for Functional training. Form the TNA forms the critically needed trainings are listed by the category. From all departments, as per equal training need employees are listed and the detailed analyzed data prepared into particular format. From this analysis which employee needed which training(s) is cleared. Before designing this training needs analysis form I had observe in organization I had observed that some training are required like communication and presentation skill, Effective Managerial Skills, Emotional Intelligence, Leadership skills, Personality Development, Stress Management, Team Building, Time Management, Work ethics and Culture. I had categorised those training under Behavioral Training. And another trainings which are recommended by the management of the organisation those trainings are Basic awareness for computer, Effective negotiation skill, First Aid training, Resource Management, Safety for site – staff, Six-Sigma awareness, I had categorised these trainings under Functional Training. After identifying the trainings I have approved these trainings from labour welfare officer and HOD of general department by discussion with them. I have observed that in the organisation there is not so good communication happened during the work. And employees lacking in this skill so, training on communication and presentation skill is required for the identified employees. By which an employees could be able to present them self in well manner and they would improve in communication skill. This will help in work 23
  • In some department there are of work stress for these departments the training session on stress management is required. It will give some guidelines and some techniques to reduce the stress level. To improve managerial skills the training on effective managerial skill is required. By this training target audience – supervisors would make their work effective. Training on leadership would help to improve leadership skills to the identified employees. By this training potential leaders created for the future. Training on Personality development would help to develop overall personality to the employees. Training on Time management is also one of the required training for the employees of this organisation because this is observed that they are not managing their time properly and so they are not able to complete assigned work on time. So, this training will help employees for proper time management. In some department this is observed that team building is required for better performance. With team work the performance would be improve. So, training on team building would be given to the identified employees. Training on work ethics and culture has been recommended by the management so training on this topic would be given to the employees who are identified. Functional trainings would be directly help to the employees during their work. In the organisation the manual work has been computerized step-by-step. So, as a part of the function the training on basic awareness for computer is required. Effective negotiation skill is required because of the nature of work to the employees. In case of accident or injury during the work the training on first aid is essential for the primary treatment. Training on resource management is required to manage available resource management on effective way. How to use the available resource in effective way and how to obtain best result from that available resource has taught to the employees. Training on six sigma has been recommended by the management of the organisation. Safety for site staff is required because in engineering department and power house safety for site staff is more important one. So, the training on safety for site staff would be provided to the identified employees from those particular departments. 24
  • Analyzed Data Number of Employees requires training are as follow. The Behavioral Training requirement of Shree Mahuwa Pradesh Sahakari khand udyog mandli Ltd shown in following chart training category wise. No. of Employees required Behavioral Training 70 62 60 50 46 44 43 40 No. of Trainees 32 Identified 30 20 17 15 10 12 10 0 Development Team Building Leadership Skills Work ethics and Time Management Personality Stress Management Effective managerial Communication and Emotional Intelligence Presentation Skills Culture Skills Training Categories This chart shows the number of employees in Behavioral Training (category wise). In communication and presentation skill 62 employees, in effective managerial skill 10 employees, in emotional intelligence 12 employees, in leadership skill 46 employees, in personality development 44 employees, in stress management 43 employees, in team building 32 employees, in time management 17 employees and in work ethics and culture 15 employees are identified for the training. 25
  • No. of Employees required Functional Training 30 30 27 25 20 15 14 No of Trainees Identified 15 10 5 0 0 0 Basic Awareness Effective First Aid Training Resource Safety for site Six Sigma of Computers Negotiation Skills Management staff Awareness Training Categories Above chart shows the number of employees those required Functional training (category wise). In basic awareness of computers 14 employees, in effective negotiation skills 15 employees, in first aid training 27 employees, in resource management 0, in safety for site staff 30 employees, and for six sigma awareness 0 employees identified for the training. 26
  • After needs assessment it is decided that in which training how many employees will take part. The numbers of employees from the particular departments are identified for the trainings sessions. For each training category, from the total employees of the departments how many employees required particular training is shown by the Charts. In behavioral training categories how many employees from the particular department requires training and how many employees stay without training is shown by the following charts. 27
  • Behavioral Training Category wise Analyzed Data 1. Communication and Presentation Skill 110 105 16 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 No. of Employees 65 60 55 50 93 45 40 40 35 30 2 25 20 15 24 10 4 16 5 5 0 Securtiy Engineering Power House Agriculture Department Name No. of employee requires No Training No. of employee requires Training In Communication and presentation skills from security department 4 employees, from engineering department 16 employees, from Power House 2 employees and from Agriculture department 48 employees are identified for the training. Through this training security department will able to do good communication in front of visitors as well as staff. And in engineering and agriculture department there is observed that there communication and presentation skills are not so good by providing this training they will get improvement. And employees from the power house also make improvement on their routine work 28
  • Figure : Employees reqire Communication & Presentation training 6% Securtiy 26% Engineering Power House Agriculture 65% 3% For the Communication and presentation training, total 62 employees have been selected from 4 departments as shown in the figure. Among 14 employees, more employees are selected for the training from the Agriculture Department i.e. 66%. Fewer employees who require Communication and presentation training are from the Power House i.e. 3%. 29
  • 2. Effective Managerial Skills 60 55 8 50 45 No. of Employees 40 35 30 48 25 20 15 10 2 5 4 0 Time Office Agriculture Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training In Effective Managerial skills employees from the Agriculture department 8 and Time Office 2 employees are identified for the training. Through this training employees from the time office are able to do their work by an effective management. In time office the routine work requires effective management. So, by this training will help more to employee of tome office. 30
  • Figure : Employees Require Training for Effective Managerial Skill 20% Time Office Agriculture 80% For the training of Effective Managerial Skill, total 10 employees have been selected from the 2 departments as shown in the figure. Among 10 employees, more employees are from the Agriculture Department i.e. 80%. Other employees who require training for Effective Managerial Skill are from Time Office Department i.e. 20%.ach. 31
  • 3. Emotional Intelligence skills 60 55 9 50 45 No. of Employees 40 35 30 3 47 25 20 15 25 10 5 0 General Agriculture Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training In emotional intelligence training the employees from the general department 3 employees and agriculture department 9 employees are identified. By providing this training to the employees from the general and agriculture department they can able to manage their emotions intelligently. From that the organisation can get an advantage. 32
  • Figure : Employees Require Emotional Intelligence Training 25% General Agriculture 75% For the Emotional Intelligence Training, total 12 employees have been selected from 2 departments as shown in the figure. Among 12 employees, more employees are from the Agriculture Department i.e. 75%. Other employees who require this training are from General Department i.e. 25%. 33
  • 4. Leadership skills 60 55 11 50 45 40 No. of Employees 35 1 30 25 45 20 15 25 1 4 10 5 9 5 0 Time Office Civil Power House Agriculture Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training In Leadership training from time office 1 employee, from civil department 1 employee, from power house 1 employee, from agriculture department 11 employees are identified. By providing this training to the employees from these departments, the leadership skills could be developed. And with leadership skill the department could get potential leader. 34
  • Figure: Employees Require Leadership Training 4% 13% Security 2% Engineering 2% Civil Power House Agriculture 79% In the Leadership training total 46 employees have been selected from 5 departments. As shown in figure, Among 46 employees, more employees are from the Agriculture Department i.e. 79%. Fewer employees who require this training are from the Power House and Civil Departments i.e. 23% each. 35
  • 5. Personality Development 110 6 105 100 95 90 85 80 No. of Employees 75 70 65 60 55 103 50 45 40 34 35 3 30 25 20 15 25 1 22 10 5 8 0 General Security Engineering Agriculture Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training For the training of personality development from general department 3 employees, from security 1 employee, from engineering department 6 employees and from agriculture department 34 employees are identified. Through this training employees are developed in their personality. By this an organisation can get an improvement on staff. Overall development in to the personality of employee’s should be done through this training. 36
  • Figure : Employees Require Personality Development Training 7% 2% 14% General Security Engineering Agriculture 77% For the Personality Development training total 44 employees have been selected from 4 departments. As shown in figure, Among 44 employees, more employees are from the Agriculture Department i.e. 77%. Fewer employees who require this training are from the Security Department i.e. 2%. 37
  • 6. Stress Management 120 100 18 No. of Employees 80 60 91 19 40 2 2 1 20 37 26 1 24 24 8 0 General Security Engineering Power Workshop Agriculture House Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training In Stress Management from general department 2 employees, from security department 1 employee, from engineering department 18 employees, from power house 2 employees, and from workshop 1 employee, and from agriculture department 19 employees are identified for the training. Through this training the identified employees will be able to manage their stress. By managing their stress that employee’s productivity could be increased. And an organisation can get productive work from those employees. 38
  • Figure:Employees Require Stress Management Training 5% 2% General Security Engineering 44% Power House 42% Workshop Agriculture 2% 5% For the Stress Management training total 43 employees have been selected from 6 departments. As shown in figure, Among 43 employees, more employees are from the Agriculture Department i.e. 44% following Engineering Department having 42%. Fewer employees who require this training are from the Workshop and Security Departments i.e. 2% each. 39
  • 7. Team Building 110 105 16 100 95 90 85 80 No. of Employees 75 70 65 60 55 93 16 50 45 40 35 30 25 40 20 15 10 5 0 Engineering Agriculture Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training For the training of team building from engineering department 16 employees and from agriculture department 16 employees are identified. In engineering department this training is required because in these departments some tasks should be performed in team. So, by this training those employees could understand that which the benefits are getting from the team work and that all. So, this training will help to the employees as well as both of the departments. 40
  • Figure : Employees Require Training in Team building Engineering 50% 50% Agriculture For the Team Building training total 32 employees have been selected from 2 departments. As shown in figure, Among 32 employees, 16 employees from Agriculture Department and 16 from Engineering Department requires this training. 41
  • 8. Time Management 60 55 11 50 45 No. of Employees 40 35 1 30 25 45 20 15 25 1 4 10 5 9 5 0 Time Office Civil Power House Agriculture Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training For the training of time management from time office 1, civil 4, powerhouse 1, agriculture department11 employees are identified. By this training employees could be aware from the advantages which can get from the managing the time. Keys to managing time and other things. By this the employees could be able to finish their allotted work on or before time with quality. 42
  • Figure : Employees Require Time Management Training 6% 24% Time Office Civil Power House 64% 6% Agriculture For the Time Management training total 17 employees have been selected from 4 departments. As shown in figure, Among 17 employees, more employees have been selected from the Agriculture Department i.e. 64%. Fewer employees for this training are from Power House and Time Office i.e. 6% each. 43
  • 9. Work Ethics and Culture 110 4 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 No. of employees 70 65 60 105 55 50 45 40 35 5 30 25 3 2 20 15 20 10 10 5 9 0 Engineering Civil Work Shop Transport Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training For the training of work ethics and culture the no. of employees are identified from engineering 4, civil 3, work shop 5, and transport department 5. Through this training the employees can get awareness on work ethics and culture. For the training for Work Ethics and Figure : Employees Require Training in Work ethics and culture Culture, total 14 employees have been selected from 4 departments. 14% 29% As shown in figure, Among 14 Engineering employees, more employees have been Civil selected from the Work Shop i.e. 36%. Work Shop Fewer employees for this training are 36% Transport from Transport Department i.e. 14 %. 21% 44
  • Functional Training category wise Data In Functional Training categories how many employees from the particular department requires training and how many employees stay without training is shown by the following charts. 1. Basic Awareness of Computers 5 110 100 No. of Employees 90 80 70 3 60 104 50 40 3 30 53 1 20 25 2 10 12 4 Engineering Agriculture Time Office 0 General Civil Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training For the training basic awareness of computers the no of employees are identified from general department 3, engineering department 5, time office 2, agriculture department 3, and civil department 1. As shown in figure above. The training basic awareness of computer is required to the employees because of the requirement of their job profile. By these training employees from the general, engineering, civil, agriculture and time office could be aware from the basic awareness of computer. 45
  • Figure : Employees Require Training about Basic Awareness of Computer 7% 21% General 21% Time Office Engineering 14% Agriculture Civil 37% For the basic computer awareness training, total 14 employees have been selected for the training from 5 departments. As shown in Figure, Among 14 employees, more employees are selected from the Engineering Department i.e. 37%. Fewer employees who require Computer awareness training are from the Civil Department i.e. 7%. 46
  • 2. Effective Negotiation Skill 2 110 105 100 95 90 85 No. of Employees 80 75 70 65 60 55 9 107 50 45 40 35 1 30 25 47 20 1 15 2 27 10 12 5 4 0 Civil General Agriculture Time Office Engineering Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training In effective negotiation skills the no of employees are identified from agriculture department 9, general department 2, civil department 1, engineering department 2 and time office 2 as shown in above figure. Reason behind providing this training to the employees is requirement of the job. This training will help employees to improve their negotiation skills which require performing their job functions. 47
  • Figure : Employees Require Effective Negotiation Training 13% Agriculture 7% Time Office General 7% Civil 60% Engineering 13% For the Effective Negotiation training, total 15 employees have been selected from the 5 departments as shown in the figure. Among 15 employees, more employees are from the Agriculture Department i.e. 60%. Less employees who require Effective Negotiation training are from the Civil and General Departments – 7% each. 48
  • 3. First Aid Training 60 55 5 No. of Employees 50 45 40 35 30 25 51 5 3 20 15 1 23 23 10 1 3 12 9 5 7 5 2 Agriculture Time Office Sanitation 0 Transport General House Power Civil Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training In first aid training no of employees are identified from the agriculture department 5, time office 1, general department 5, civil department 1, sanitation department 3, transport department 9 and power house 3. As a part of the safety this training required to provide employees who critically needed. By this training employees are able to do primary treatment in case of injury or accident. In sanitation department, power house, transport department, agriculture department, civil department there are chances for accident are there so first aid training is required for these departments. 49
  • Figure : Employees Require First Aid Training 11% 19% Agriculture Time Office 4% General Civil 32% Sanitation 19% Transport Power House 4% 11% For the First Aid training, total 27 employees have been selected from 7 departments as shown in the figure. Among 27 employees, more employees are from the Transport Department i.e. 32%. Fewer employees who require First Aid training are from Civil Department i.e. 4%. 50
  • 4. Safety for site Staff. 120 10 100 No. of Employees 80 60 99 40 3 20 23 0 Engineering Power House Department Name No. of Employees requires No Training No. of Employees Requires Training For the Site for safety training the no of employees are identified from the engineering department 10 and power house 3. As shown in figure above. For the safety of the employees as well as workers this training required for the engineering department as well as power house. Because in engineering department and power house safety is require while performing the job functions. 51
  • Figure : Employees Require Training in Site for Safety 23% Engineering Power House 77% For the Site for Safety training, total 13 employees have been selected from 2 departments. As shown in figure, Among 13 employees, more employees are from the Engineering Department i.e. 77%. Other employees who require Site for Safety training are from the Power House i.e. 23%. 52
  • DESIGN 53
  • Objectives ⇒ To develop an organizational personality among the supporting staff, supervisory staff, office staff. ⇒ To sensitize them the importance of their work in organizational efficiency ⇒ To make them aware the recent changes and new responsibilities of supporting staff, supervisory staff, office staff. ⇒ Injecting self-motivation good manners, etiquette. ⇒ Positive attitude to develop harmony at work place and in family. ⇒ Develop good habits like honesty, integrity, commitment, team, and feeling among them. Develop a lesson plan A lesson plan is a trainer’s guide for the actual delivery of the training content. Creating a lesson plan requires the trainer to determine what is to be covered and how much time to devote to each part of the session. Lesson plan specify: • Content to be covered. • Sequencing of activities. • Selection of training media. • Timing of each activity. • Instructor activity. • Trainer activity 54
  • General Format of the lesson plan used in “Shree Mahuwa Pradedh Sahkari Khand Udhyog Mandli Limited” is as follow. Program Title : Trainer : Objectives of the Lesson Plan : Trainees : Methods of Training used: Topics Duration Instructor’s Trainee Activity Activity Above form will provide actual delivery of the program content to the in-house trainer. Program title is the title of the intervention which trainer has to teach. By the objectives of the program trainer could prepare accordingly and deliver the program according to that objectives. The numbers of trainees are indicated by the number so that the trainer can prepare him / her self for the activities. Above form also contains the topics which are going to be covered in to the program and duration for that topics, activities for the instructor and activities for the trainees. 55
  • Program Announcement: Used to inform the target audience about the training program. Announcement should be indicating the purpose of program, when and where it held, sufficient lead time should be given to the employees. So, they can adjust their schedule. When training dates will be decided by the top management of the company, the program announcement will be takes place. Program Outlines: Program outlines are the documents that communicate the content goals and expectations for the program typically provided at the beginning of the program. These include such things as course objectives, topics to be covered, materials and tools needed and tentative schedule of the events. Program outlines can also be to establish expectations, including punctuality, attendance, work habits, class participation; such expectations should be clearly explained. For example: If the training content is sequenced, it will important for all trainees to be present at all sessions. 56
  • Develop Acquire Material Provide the trainings to the employees who critically needed trainings are identified and for those trainings materials need to be develop / acquire. Acquired Materials highlights are as follow.  Highlight of acquired material on Communication and presentation skills Importance of communication skills The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously. Doing this involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. And it's a process that can be fraught with error, with messages often misinterpreted by the recipient. When this isn't detected, it can cause tremendous confusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity. In fact, communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication By successfully getting your message across, you convey your thoughts and ideas effectively. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that you send do not necessarily reflect your own, causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of your goals – both personally and professionally. In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more than 50,000 employees, communication skills were cited as the single more important decisive factor in choosing managers. The survey, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh’s Katz Business School, points out that communication skills, 57
  • including written and oral presentations, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success. In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to struggle, unable to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively – whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression. Getting your message across is paramount to progressing. To do this, you must understand what your message is, what audience you are sending it to, and how it will be perceived. You must also weigh-in the circumstances surrounding your communications, such as situational and cultural context. The Importance of Removing Barriers from Communications Problems with communication can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender, message, channel, receiver, feedback and context - see the diagram below) and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion. (Fig: Communication Process) 58
  • To be an effective communicator and to get your point across without misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to lessen the frequency of these problems at each stage of this process with clear, concise, accurate, well- planned communications. We follow the process through below: Sender... To establish yourself as an effective communicator, you must first establish credibility. In the business arena, this involves displaying knowledge of the subject, the audience and the context in which the message is delivered. You must also know your audience (individuals or groups to which you are delivering your message). Failure to understand who you are communicating with will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood. Message... Next, consider the message itself. Written, oral and nonverbal communications are affected by the sender’s tone, method of organization, validity of the argument, what is communicated and what is left out, as well as by the individual style of communicating. Messages also have intellectual and emotional components, with intellect allowing us the ability to reason and emotion allowing us to present motivational appeals, ultimately changing minds and actions. Channel... Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports. Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, it's not particularly effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while you'll quickly cause problems if you criticize someone strongly by email. 59
  • Receiver... Your message is delivered to individual members of your audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message will get from this audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message, and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, and act appropriately. Feedback... Your audience will provide you with feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback as it is crucial to ensuring the audience understood your message. Context... The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.). Removing Barriers At All These Stages To deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the barriers that exist in each of these stages of the communication process. Let’s begin with the message itself. If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message. 60
  • Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the demands on other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra-busy society. Communication in Your Organization To ensure successful communications within your organization, it is best to start with the very basics: your knowledge of verbal and non-verbal communications. In the workplace, these types of communications are continually exchanged, oftentimes without much planning or even the thought that such communications are taking place. The Importance of Non-Verbal Communication For instance, it’s not always just what you say. It’s also how you “say” it – taking into account your eyes, your posture, your overall body language, even your appearance at the time the communication is exchanged, and the voice in which you offer the exchange. In verbal communication, an active dialogue is engaged with the use of words. At the same time, however, non-verbal communication takes place, relying on nonverbal cues, such as gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, even clothing and personal space. Nonverbal cues are very powerful, making it crucial that you pay attention to your actions, as well as the nonverbal cues of those around you. If, during your meeting, participants begin to doodle or chat amongst themselves, they are no longer paying attention to you: Your message has become boring or your delivery is no longer engaging. Once again, you need to be mindful of cultural differences when using or interpreting nonverbal cues. For instance, the handshake that is so widely accepted in Western cultures as a greeting or confirmation of a business deal is not accepted in other cultures, and can cause confusion. 61
  • While eye contact, facial expressions, posture, gestures, clothing and space are obvious nonverbal communication cues, others strongly influence interpretation of messages, including how the message is delivered. This means paying close attention to your tone of voice, even your voice's overall loudness and its pitch. Be mindful of your own nonverbal cues, as well as the nonverbal cues of those around you. Keep your messages short and concise. This means preparing in advance whenever possible. And for the impromptu meeting, it means thinking before you speak. 62
  • Enhancing your communications: • Because gestures can both compliment and contradict your message, be mindful of these. • Eye contact is an important step in sending and receiving messages. Eye contact can be a signal of interest, a signal of recognition, even a sign of honesty and credibility. • Closely linked to eye contact are facial expressions, which can reflect attitudes and emotions. • Posture can also be used to more effectively communicate your message. • Clothing is important. By dressing for your job, you show respect for the values and conventions of your organization. • Be mindful of people’s personal space when communicating. Do not invade their personal space by getting too close and do not confuse communications by trying to exchange messages from too far away. 10 Tips for Communicating Change While organizational change requires more than 10 tips, here are 10 key things to keep in mind when planning, announcing, implementing, and communicating a change initiative: 1. Remember that there's no one perfect way to communicate change. Change is uncomfortable, and adapting to change is messy. The perfect Gantt chart does not a painless change experience make. Why? Because tasks are easy to list, but behavior and long-held habits are not easy to change. Gather outside information, solicit perspectives, and adapt the approaches for your organization and group. 2. Start by asking yourself what exactly is changing and why. Too many programs are heavy on the jargon and light on the 63
  • substance of what the buzz phrases mean in the day-to-day reality of the organization' s people. You have to make that link. For example, what does it mean when you say the organization needs to be more responsive? What behaviors characterize a so-called flat organization? Go to the root of what you're trying to achieve from an organizational behavior perspective, and give the jargon life. 3. Know what results you want, ideally, from both the change initiative and the communication program or tactic. What's the call to action for the communication program? What's the call to action for the specific communication tactic? What systemic or operations changes are under way that provide the framework for the desired results and behaviors? 4. Include communication strategists at the very beginning of the discussions about the change, on the strategic team from the start. Too often, qualified communicators are involved after backlash is in full force, when the leaks and rumor mills are rampant. The corporate lawyer or the MBA with one or two classes in PowerPoint is not qualified to understand how the people of the organization will respond to change and what information they'll need. Their particular expertise is most likely legal requirement and cost cutting, not communication. 5. Share information with employees as soon as possible. There's a real dilemma in public companies, where investor communication is a priority and employees hear about a merger or reorganization on their car radio while commuting to work. Once fear and insecurity are heightened, you waste a lot of time getting back to a place of order, understanding, and productivity, and many people head for their desks to update résumés and to call employment recruiters. 6. Keep in mind that quantity is fine, but quality and consistency are crucial. Most CEOs and managers are quoted as 64
  • saying, "You can't communicate too much," but you can communicate too much insignificant or insensitive information. You can't communicate too much significant, substantial information. 7. Longevity. Remember that a change effort starts with the announcement or a merger or change initiative. Many leaders and managers underestimate the length of time required by a change cycle. That's why numerous reports indicate poor performance following many IPOs, mergers, change initiatives, etc. Just as Rome wasn't built in a day, neither do people and organizations change in a week, or even a year. Think of it as changing some very ingrained habits; that's what you're doing. 8. Remember to use a variety of communication pathways and vehicles. Some organizations make an enormous mistake in using only one vehicle, such as e-mail or the company intranet site. Redundancy and repetition are helpful in creating an effective communication program. 9. Don't confuse process -- visioning, chartering change teams, planning, endless PowerPoint presentations -- with communication. While those meetings and processes can be communication vehicles if designed mindfully and handled in the context of a broader program, they aren't adequate to meet change communication needs. 10. Give people multiple opportunities to share concerns, ask questions, and offer ideas, and make following up with answers and updates a top priority. The more people are involved in the process, the fewer you'll have walking out the door or worse, staying and acting as internal saboteurs. 65
  •  Highlight of acquired material on Leadership Skills Leadership Leadership, a critical management skill, is the ability to motivate a group of people toward a common goal. These items will help you develop your skills as a leader. A leader is interpreted as someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. How they set that direction and influence people depends on a variety of factors. The Five Ps of Leadership There are whole libraries full of things that tell you what to do about leadership and how to remember what’s important. Here’s another short edition to that library – the 5 P’s of leadership. They are: • Pay Attention to What’s Important • Praise What You Want to Continue • Punish What You Want to Stop • Pay for the Results You Want • Promote the People Who Deliver Those Results  Pay Attention to What’s Important Time management courses, strategy books, and management gurus all will tell you that there’s not a lot that’s really important. Your job as a leader is to concentrate on what’s most important so that it gets taken care of. Then let the rest of the stuff take care of itself. Now if you’re a perfectionist, that’s going to be hard for you to do. But there’s not P for perfectionism in this scheme of 66
  • things. No, we recognize that there are limited resources of time, energy, people, and money. Because those resources are limited, you want to go for the big stuff first. Pay attention to it in your written and oral communications. Restate the key themes over and over. Don’t undervalue repetition, repetition makes for memory and memory makes for action. Pay attention to it in your casual contacts. John Kotter, in his book to general managers, pointed out that effective general managers make great use of the random contacts they have with people. Those contacts could be in the hallway, at the water cooler, in the elevator, or walking down the street. The seize on those moments to talk about the things and ask the questions that are important to their leadership agenda. You should do that too. Organize you day, your communications, your organizational structures, your reward systems and everything else to pay attention to what’s important and then do that with unremitting diligence.  Praise What You Want to Continue Praise is your best training tool. In technical terms, praise is a positive consequence that follows a positive action. It’s a reward for something done right. Use praise to get people to continue to do things or to take positive action. That’s where it’s best used. Remember, too, that praise is a tool that is most effective when it’s used inconsistently. Used consistently, praise tends 67
  • to loose its force. So, don’t worry so much about praising everything that people do right, but do worry about praising. That’s important, because most of us came up in a world where we didn’t praise enough. Seek out opportunities to praise but don’t get anal retentive about it.  Punish What You Want to Stop Punishment is the mirror image of praise. It’s a negative consequence that follows negative behavior. It follows a principle stated almost in biblical terms by one of my past trainees. She said: "the good shall be rewarded and the unjust shall be punished in proportion to their deeds." Punishments – negative consequences – are the tool you use to get people to stop stuff. If you figure out what’s most important for people to quit doing in your organization, rig up some kind of negative consequence for them if they do it. Be careful though, because you may fall prey to the hot stove guideline. It was Mark Twain (or if it wasn’t it should have been) who said, "A cat who sits on a hot stove will never sit on a hot stove again. But he won’t sit on a cold stove either. The management lesson here is that if you zap people too much with negative consequences, they don’t just quit doing the stuff that you don’t want them to do. They quit doing pretty much everything. That’s why "rule by fear" and "controlled ferocity" cultures have a devil of a time getting people to take initiative. They’ve been zapped so often they’re just not willing to risk it. 68
  •  Pay For the Results You Want Years ago when I was managing distribution and customer service centers I happened to compliment one of the customer service reps. She immediately turned around to me and said, "Don’t just tell me, show me, payday is Friday." Pay is one of the tangible ways you can reward people for doing good stuff. It’s another form of praise in visible, tangible form. Don’t limit your thinking about pay to just money, though. Pay people with time off, recognition, choice assignments, small gifts, and special bonuses to encourage the behavior you want. One of my clients used to carry around a pocket-full of restaurant gift certificates as he wandered around his trucking company. When he found somebody doing something that he wanted to encourage he was likely to whip out a gift certificate and hand it to them on the spot. It created the kind of event and drama that makes for good communication and it encouraged positive behavior. Another client of mine, a police chief this time, did something similar. She was a police chief in Texas, and, as you might expect, she talked like a Texan. She had little slips made up with one of her favorite phrases on them. It was, "’preciate ya." When she heard something about one of her officers that was positive, she sent them one of her ‘preciate ya slips. When she caught somebody done something she wanted to encourage she handed one out. Officers collected the slips 69
  • and when they got enough, they got recognition in the department newsletter and some extra time off. Look for ways to pay for the results you want. Pay and praise are the things that get the engine of progress going.  Promote People Who Deliver the Results You Want This one just makes sense. The problem is that lots of organizations forget about it. They maintain reward and promotion systems that reward the old behavior, even while they’re trumpeting the new behavior in memo’s, meetings, and executive retreats. When I was just starting out in consulting, a much more experienced and wiser consultant said to me, "When you first go into an organization, pay attention to who it is they promote. Listen to the stories that folks tell you about who gets promoted and rewarded and why. That will tell you just about everything you need to know about what the real organizational priorities are." What are the stories that your people tell in your organization? What are the stories they tell about their bosses? You want those stories to be positive about great things their bosses have done. If all the stories are negatives, buddy you’ve got a problem. What do your folks say about the folks who are promoted? Do they feel they got promoted on merit because of their performance or because they just happened to "know somebody" or worse. The five P’s of leadership will help you stay on track to positive organizational change. Remember to pay attention to 70
  • what’s important, praise what you want to continue, punish what you want to stop, pay for the results you want, and promote the people who deliver those results and you’ll help your organization be the very best that it can become.  Highlight of acquired material on Time Management Time Management Advantages of Time Management • gain time • motivates and initiates • reduces avoidance • promotes review • eliminates cramming • reduces anxiety Key to successful Time management • Self knowledge and goals: In order to manage your time successfully, having an awareness of what your goals are will assist you in prioritizing your activities. • Developing and maintaining a personal, flexible schedule: Time management provides you with the opportunity to create a schedule that works for you, not for others. This personal attention gives you the flexibility to include the things that are most important to you. Simple Techniques to Manage Time There never seems to be enough time in the roles of management and supervision. Therefore, the goal of time management should not be to find more time. The goal is set a reasonable amount of time to spend on these roles and then use that time wisely. 71
  • 1. Start with the simple techniques of stress management above. 2. Managing time takes practice. Practice asking yourself this question throughout the day: "Is this what I want or need to be doing right now?" If yes, then keep doing it. 3. Find some way to realistically and practically analyze your time. Logging your time for a week in 15-minute intervals is not that hard and does not take up that much time. Do it for a week and review your results. 4. Do a "to do" list for your day. Do it at the end of the previous day. Mark items as "A" and "B" in priority. Set aside two hours right away each day to do the important "A" items and then do the "B" items in the afternoon. Let your answering machine take your calls during your "A" time. 5. At the end of your day, spend five minutes cleaning up your space. Use this time, too, to organize your space, including your desktop. That'll give you a clean start for the next day. 6. Learn the difference between "Where can I help?" and "Where am I really needed?" Experienced leaders learn that the last question is much more important than the former. 7. Learn the difference between "Do I need to do this now?" and "Do I need to do this at all?" Experienced leaders learn how to quickly answer this question when faced with a new task. 8. Delegate. Delegation shows up as a frequent suggestion in this guide because it is one of the most important skills for a leader to have. Effective delegation will free up a great deal of time for you. 9. If you are CEO in a corporation, then ask your Board 72
  • for help. They are responsible to supervise you, as a CEO. Although the Board should not be micro-managing you, that is, involved in the day-to-day activities of the corporation, they still might have some ideas to help you with your time management. Remember, too, that good time management comes from good planning, and the Board is responsible to oversee development of major plans. Thus, the Board may be able to help you by doing a better themselves in their responsibilities as planners for the organization. 10. Use a "Do Not Disturb" sign! During the early part of the day, when you're attending to your important items (your "A" list), hang this sign on the doorknob outside your door. 11. Sort your mail into categories including "read now", "handle now" and "read later". You'll quickly get a knack for sorting through your mail. You'll also notice that much of what you think you need to read later wasn't really all that important anyway. 12. Read your mail at the same time each day. That way, you'll likely get to your mail on a regular basis and won't become distracted into any certain piece of mail that ends up taking too much of your time. 13. Have a place for everything and put everything in its place. That way, you'll know where to find it when you need it. Another important outcome is that your people will see that you are somewhat organized, rather than out of control. 14. Best suggestion for saving time - schedule 10 minutes to do nothing. That time can be used to just sit and clear your mind. 73
  • You'll end up thinking more clearly, resulting in more time in your day. The best outcome of this practice is that it reminds you that you're not a slave to a clock - and that if you take 10 minutes out of your day, you and your organization won't fall apart. 15. Learn good meeting management skills. Meetings can become a terrible waste of time. Guidelines for good meeting management are included later in this section. 74
  •  Highlight of acquired material Negotiation skills The 4 Phases of Negotiation The complexity of the negotiating process will vary according to the size and complexity of the proposed deal as well as the attitudes adopted by the parties involved. This book explains a comprehensive and detailed approach, which should be tailored to suit the needs of each particular negotiation. It is worth remembering that the time and effort that you invest in any round of talks should reflect the potential benefit that can be gained from them. Nearly all negotiations are characterized by four phases – preparation, opening, bargaining and closing. In large scale negotiations each of these phases are normally tackled sequentially. However, in smaller scale negotiations it is quite common for these phases to merge - possibly into a single unstructured process. Where this is the case, a good understanding of the logic that underpins the four phase approach can guide you, even when you are negotiating smaller deals. Preparation involves information gathering - knowing the state of the market, being aware of the supply and demand status, being aware of any current or imminent discounts and special offers and so on. The opening phase of a negotiation involves both sides presenting their starting positions to one another. It usually represents the single most important opportunity to influence the other side. In the bargaining phase your aim is to narrow the gap between the two initial positions and to persuade the other side that your case is so strong that they must accept less than they had planned. In order to do this you should use clearly thought out, planned and logical debate. 75
  • The closing phase of a negotiation represents the opportunity to capitalize on all of the work done in the earlier phases. The research that you’ve done in the preparation phase, combined with all of the information that you’ve gained since should guide you in the closing phase. Recognizable Patterns In practice negotiations can be a messy business - there are no hard and fast rules. Human behavior plays a strong part in any negotiation process - varying attention spans, deviations and interruptions are just a few of the hurdles, as are a whole range of emotional responses - from the silent sulk to the aggressive outburst. However in all this chaotic human interaction there are underlying and recognizable patterns. This book identifies the underlying patterns of the negotiating process, highlights and analyses them and forwards a considered view of best practice - for effective negotiating skills. It identifies alternative courses of action that should help you to steer a successful path to the outcome that you seek. Characteristics of Negotiation In business we negotiate with both suppliers and customers. We also negotiate within our organizations, for example with colleagues and team members. Think for a minute about the hundreds of deals you make every year - with your boss, your customers, your suppliers and colleagues. Whilst there are an infinite variety of negotiation scenarios, most negotiations are defined by 3 characteristics: 1. There is a conflict of interest between two or more parties. What one wants is not necessarily what the others want. 2. Either there is no established set of rules for resolving the conflict, or the parties prefer to work outside of an established set of rules to develop their own solution. 3. The parties prefer to search for an agreement rather than to fight 76
  • openly, to have one side capitulate, to break off contact permanently or to take their dispute to a higher authority. The principles of negotiation are not dependent on the identity of the parties involved, their cultures or the amounts at stake. The skill of negotiation can be applied universally - whether you are seeking a promotion, commissioning a nuclear power plant or simply buying a used car. Factors Influencing Negotiations The actual negotiation process depends on the following factors: 1. The goals and interests of the parties 2. The perceived interdependence between the parties 3. The history that exists between the parties 4. The personalities of the people involved 5. The persuasive ability of each party Negotiation is a complex communication process, all the more so when one round of negotiations is just an episode in a longer-term commercial or political relationship. In these situations considerations about the longer term relationship will influence any specific round of talks - and reduce the tendency to maximize short term gain at any expense. Negotiations are often associated with labor union contract, with strongly held positions, or with conflicting situations. However, looking at negotiating from a better perspective, we are surprised to find that it is much a part of our daily life. Daily, we bring negotiations into our relationships, our businesses, and our employment practices. In recalling the different negotiations in which I have been involved, one stands clearly in my mind. It was a performance appraisal meeting at a former place of employment. I can recall how the meeting took place and its unproductive results. Later I learned effective negotiation skills that would have produced a winning outcome for all parties involved. 77
  • Performance appraisals were conducted once a year in my former organization. I dreaded that review because a new manager that had not observed the employees' job performance would conduct it. Rumor had it that she would evaluate every one as merely competent employee, and contrary to my expectations, the rumor turned out to be true. 78
  • Select a Trainer/ Leader Selection of the trainer from the organization it self. In the organization there are some employees identified as a trainer. If an organization provides them platform as trainer then they are able to perform well as trainer. And by this an organization can save the cost to trainer. The selection of the trainer had done through the following form Name of the Employee: Name of the Department: Designation: 1. In our organization if you have given an opportunity to provide training to employees/staff/workers then will you able to do? e Yes Y No 2. Will you able to collect the material on selected topic? 2 Yes Y No 3. When will you be able to deliver the training? 3 During the working hours D After the working hours A Before the working hours 4. Will you able to mange this new role with your work? 4 Yes Y No 5. From the categorized training which training will you able to deliver? (Please refer the Annexure) t Any A According to my choice Mention your choice 79
  • ANNEXURE CODE NO. BEHAVIOURAL TRAINING B1 Communication and Presentation skills B2 Effective Managerial Skills B3 Emotional Intelligence B4 Leadership skills B5 Personality Development B6 Stress Management B7 Team Building B8 Time Management B9 Work ethics and Culture CODE NO. FUNCTIONAL TRAINING F1 Basic awareness for computer F2 Effective negotiation skill F3 First Aid training F4 Resource Management F5 Safety for site – staff F6 Six-Sigma awareness This form is used identified the In-House trainer for trainings. This will normally used to know whether the person is ready to take opportunity for delivering the training session or not. If he is ready to take this opportunity then, from where he will collect the material him self or not is known also. When this trainer is ready to deliver the training, means during the working hours, before the working hours or after the working hours is known by the question 3. Because this is important to know that timing ability to deliver the program. It’s also important to know that will In-house trainer able to manage his new role or not. So that will be answering by question 4. From the identified training which training would preferable by the trainer is also important to know that will be answered by question 5. 80
  • Analyzed data from Trainer Selection Following Chart shows the identified trainers for the Behavioral Training. The Identification of the trainer had done through the mentioned form and discussion with the potential trainers. No. of Trainers Identified 4 4 3.5 3 3 2.5 2 No of Trainer Identified 2 1.5 1 1 1 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 Development Team Building Personality Work ethics and Leadership Skills Time Management Stress Management Communication and Effective managerial Emotional Intelligence Presentation Skills Culture Skills Training Categories (Fig: Identified trainers for the behavioral training) No. of Trainers identified for different Behavioral Trainings are as follow:  Communication and Presentation Skills – 3  Effective Management Skills – 4  Emotional Intelligence - 0  Leadership Skills – 2  Personality Development – 0  Stress Management – 0  Team Building – 0  Time Management – 1  Work ethics and Culture – 1 81
  • Following Chart shows the identified trainers for the Functional Training. The Identification of the trainer had done through the mentioned form and discussion with the potential trainers. Trainers for Functional Training 3 3 2.5 2 No of Trainers Identified 1.5 1 1 1 1 0.5 0 0 0 Basic Effective First Aid Resource Safety for site Six Sigma Awareness of Negotiation Training Management staff Awareness Computers Skills Training Category Basic Awareness of Computers Effective Negotiation Skills First Aid Training Resource Management Safety for site staff Six Sigma Awareness (Fig: Identified trainers for the behavioral training) No. of Trainers identified for different Functional Trainings are as follow:  Basic awareness of computers – 1  Effective Negotiation Skills – 1  First Aid Training – 1  Resource Management – 0  Safety for site Staff – 3  Six sigma Awareness – 0 82
  • Following chart shows the trainings for which the In-House Trainers are not identified & the number of employees who requires that trainings. 44 43 45 40 35 32 30 25 No of Employees Requires Training 20 15 12 10 5 0 0 0 Emotional Personality Stress Management Team Building Resource Six Sigma Intelligence Development Management Awareness Training Categories Emotional Intelligence Personality Development Stress Management Team Building Resource Management Six Sigma Awareness This chart shows the trainings for which the In-House Trainers are not identified. And the number of employees who requires that trainings. To provide these trainings to the employees an organization has to outsource the training. And there are two trainings which are not needed to any employees. An organisation has to outsource the following trainings:  Emotional Intelligence for 12 employees  Personality Development for 44 employees  Stress Management for 43 employees  Team Building for 32 employees 83
  • Schedule of the program  Highlights on Scheduled Program P Communication and Presentation r Skills o g r a m T i t l e Venue In-house Training center Target Supporting Staff, Supervisory Staff, Office Staff Groups Time Program Topic 10:00 to 10:30 Registration, Introduction, Inauguration 10:30 to 11:30 Organizational Goals, Needs 11:30 to 11:45 Tea Break 11:45 to 1:00 Communication & presentation Fundamentals 1:00 to 1:45 Lunch Break 1:45 to 3:00 Communication (with exercise and Video Cassette) 3:00 to 3:15 Tea Break 3:15 to 4:15 Communication at work place 4:15 to 4:30 Communication __ What you heard Feedback 84
  • P Time Management r o g r a m Time T Program Topic i 10:00 to 10:30 Registration, Introduction, Inauguration t 10:30 to 11:30 l Overview and Concepts e Venue to 11:45 11:30 In-house Training center Tea Break Target Supervisory Staff, Office Staff 11:45 to 1:00 Groups Importance and advantages (With some examples) 1:00 to 1:45 Lunch Break 1:45 to 3:00 Biggest Time Wasters 3:00 to 3:15 Tea Break 3:15 to 4:15 Simple techniques to manage time 4:15 to 4:30 Discussion , Feedback 85
  • P Leadership Skills r o g r a m Time Program Topic T 10:00 to 10:30 Registration, Introduction, Inauguration i 10:30 to 11:30 t Leadership_ Meaning and Concept l 11:30 to 11:45 e Tea Break Venue In-house Training center 11:45 to 1:00 Target Overview of leadership in organization Supervisory Staff, Office Staff Groups 1:00 to 1:45 Lunch Break 1:45 to 3:00 Five P’s of Leadership 3:00 to 3:15 Tea Break 3:15 to 4:15 Leadership_ Style (with exercise and Video Cassette) Leadership Quality Manager Vs Leader 4:15 to 4:30 Open Session and Feed back 86
  • P Safety for site staff, First aid training r o g r a m T i t l e Venue In-house Training center Target Supervisory Staff, Office Staff Groups Time Program Topic 10:00 to 10:30 Registration, Introduction, Inauguration 10:30 to 11:30 Importance of safety at site 11:30 to 11:45 Tea Break 11:45 to 1:00 What to Do and not to do for safety 1:00 to 1:45 Lunch Break 1:45 to 3:00 Need for first aid 3:00 to 3:15 Tea Break 3:15 to 4:15 First Aid Training 4:15 to 4:30 Feedback 87
  • IMPLEMENTATION 88
  • Deliver the HRD Program To deliver the HRD program there are various methods and techniques. Which are as follow: Methods Techniques On the Job Training Job Instruction training Job rotation Coaching Mentoring Classroom Lecture Conference / Discussion Audiovisual Static Media Dynamic Media Telecommunication External Expertise Case Study Business Games Role Play Behaviour Modeling Self- Paced Computer Based Training Computer based instruction Intranet / Internet Intelligent computer-assisted instruction 1. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (OJT) METHODS On-the-job training (OJT) involves conducting training at a trainee’s regular workstation (desk, machine etc.). This is most common form of training; most 89
  • employees receive at least some training and coaching on the job. Virtually any type of one-on-one instruction between coworkers or between the employee and the supervisor can be classified as OJT. Structured OJT programs are generally conducted by an assigned trainer who is recognized, rewarded, and trained to provide appropriate instructional techniques. • There are some advantages of on the job training over the class room training. These advantages are: 1. On-the-job training facilitates the transfer of learning to the job because the trainer has immediate opportunity to practice the work task on the job. 2. On-the-job training reducing the costs because no training facilities are needed. • There are some disadvantages of on the job training over the class room training. These disadvantages are: 1. The job site may have physical constraints, noise and other distractions that could inhibit learning. Many of these cannot be changed because of job of the nature. 2. Using expensive equipments for the training could results in costly damage or disruption of the production schedule. 3. Using On-the-job training (OJT) while customers are present may inconvenience them and temporary reduce the quality of product or service. 90
  • 4. If On-the-job training (OJT) involving the heavy equipment may threaten the safety of others. There are four categories of on-the-job training methods. 1. Job Instruction training 2. Job rotation 3. Coaching 4. Mentoring  Job Instruction Training (JIT) JIT is defined as sequence of instructional procedures used by trainer to train employees while they work in their assigned job. Job instruction training follows three stapes which are: Preparing the workers – Is important because these need to know what to expect. Preparation may include providing employees with a training manual, handouts, or other training or job aids that can be used as references. Presenting the task – Should be carried out in such a way that the trainee understands and can replicate the task. Some trainees demonstrate the task before asking the trainers to repeat the process. Practice time – Is important for trainee to master a particular set of skills. 91
  •  Job Rotation Job rotation is frequently used for first level management training, particularly for new employees .When this technique is used, it is generally assumed that new managers need to develop a working knowledge of the organization before they can be successful managers.  Coaching and Mentoring Two other forms of On-the-job training (OJT) coaching and Mentoring, also involve one-on-one instruction. Coaching typically occurs between an employees and that person’s supervisor and focus on examining the employee performance and taking actions to maintain effective performance and correct performance problem. Mentoring, A senior manager is paired with a more junior employee for the purpose of giving support, helping the employee learn the ropes, and preparing the employee for increasing the responsibility. 2. CLASSROOM TARINING APPROACHES: Classroom Training Approaches are those conducted outside of the normal work settings. A classroom can be any training space away from the worksite such as company cafeteria or meeting room or in-house training center. There are some advantages of classroom training approach over on-the-job training. • Classroom settings permits the use of variety of training techniques such as video, lecture, discussion, role play and simulation. 92
  • • The environment can designed or controlled to minimize distraction and create a climate conducive to learning. • Classroom setting can accommodate larger number of trainees than the typical on-the-job setting, allowing for more efficient delivery of training.  There are five primary categories of classroom training include: 1. Lecture 2. Discussion 3. Audio Visual Media 4. Experiential Methods 5. Self-paced or computer-based training  Lecture Approach The Lecture method involves the overall presentation of information by subject matter expert to a group of listeners. The lecture method is so popular is the it is an efficient way of transmitting factual information to a large audience in a relatively short amount of time. Lecture method perpetuates the traditional authority structure of organizations, thus promoting negative behavior (such as passivity and boredom) and is poorly suited for facilitating transfer of individualized training  Discussion Method The discussion method involves the trainer in two way communication with the trainees, and the trainees in communication with each other. Because active participation is encouraged, the discussion method offers trainees an opportunity for feedback, clarification and sharing points of view. The success of this method is dependant upon the ability of trainer to initiate and manage class discussion by asking one or more of the following types of questions: Direct questions can be used to illustrate or produce a very narrow response 93
  • Reflective questions can be used to mirror what someone else has said to make sure the message was received as intended. Open-ended questions can be used to challenge the trainees to increase their understanding of specific topic.  Audio visual Media Audiovisual methods take advantage of various media to demonstrate the training material. Audiovisual media can bring complex events to life by showing and describing details that are often difficult to communicate in other ways. Audiovisual media categorized in three groups: i. Static Media ii. Dynamic Media iii. Telecommunication. Static Media typically involve fixed illustrations that use both words and images. Printed material, slides and overhead transparencies included in static media. Dynamic Media is a technique that present dynamic sequence of events is considered dynamic media. Dynamic media includes audiocassettes, CDs, film, videotape and video disk. Telecommunication allows the transmission of the training programs to different locations via telecommunication. This technology also allow organizations to conduct conference between remote location is known as videoconferencing, teleconferencing. 94
  •  External Expertise External expertise methods commonly used in organization include case studies, games and simulations, role playing and behavior modeling. Case Studies: One way to help trainees learn analytical and problem Solving skills is by presenting a story (Case) about people in an organization who are facing a problem 95
  • EVALUATION 96
  • (i) PURPOSE OF HRD EVALUATION: HRD Evaluation is defined as the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decision related to the selection, adoption, value and modification of various instruction activities. Evaluation can and should be done in organization to ensure effectiveness and accountability. Evaluation can help to do following: • Determine whether program is accomplishing its objectives • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of HRD programs, which can lead to changes as needed. • Determine the cost-benefit ratio of HRD program. • Decide who should participate in future HRD programs. • Identify the participants benefited the most or less from the programs. • Gather data to assist in marketing future programs. • Determine if the program was appropriate. • Establish a database to assist management in making decisions. • To build credibility with top managers and others in organization. 97
  • Available Models for Evaluation There are some models or framework for evaluation of HRD program. The list of that is as follow. 1. Kirkpatrick : There are four levels – Reaction, Learning, Job behaviors, and results 2. CIPP : There are four levels – Context, Input, Process and Product 3. CIRO: There are four levels – Context, Input, Reaction and Outcome 4. Brinkehoff: There are six stages – Goal Setting, Program Design, Program Implementation, and Immediate Outcome, Usage outcome and Impacts and worth. 5. Systems Approach: Four set up activities – Inputs, Process, Outputs and Outcomes 6. Kriger, Ford & Salas : A classification scheme that specifies three categories of learning outcomes ( Cognitive, Skill based and Affective) 7. Kaufman & Keller: There are five levels – Enabling and Reaction, Acquisition, Application, organizational Output and Societal Outcomes. 8. Holton: Identifies five categories of variables and relationships among them: secondary influences, motivation elements, environmental elements, outcomes, ability/enabling elements. 9. Phillips: There are five levels – Reaction and planned action, Learning, Applied learning on the job, business results, Return on Investments. 98
  • Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Framework: From the above all models of Training Evaluation, I have used Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Framework because it provides a useful way of looking at the possible consequences of training and reminds us that HRD efforts often have multiple objectives and it is the most popular and influential framework for training evaluation. In Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Framework there are four levels as follows: 1. Reaction 2. Learning 3. Job Behavior 4. Results  Reaction: At this level the focus is on the trainees’ perception about the program and its effectiveness. This is useful information. Positive Reaction to a training program may make it easier to encourage employees to attend future programs but if trainees did not like the program or think they didn’t learn anything (even if they did), they may discourage others from attending and may be reluctant to use the skills or knowledge obtained in the program. The main limitation of evaluating HRD program at the reaction level is that this information can not indicate whether the program met its objectives beyond ensuring participant’s satisfaction. 99
  •  Learning: Did the trainees learn what the HRD objectives said they should learn? This is an important criterion; one many in the organization would expect an effective HRD program to satisfy. Measuring whether someone has learned something in training may involve a quiz or test – clearly a different method from accessing the participants’ reaction to the program.  Job Behavior: This is also critical measure of training success. We all know coworkers who have learned how to do something but choose not to. Job requires observation of all trainee’s on-the-job behavior or viewing organizational records (e.g., reduction in paper wastage)  Results: Meeting this criterion is considered to be the bottom line as far as more managers are concerned. It is also most challenging level to access, given that many things beyond employee performance can affect organizational performance. Typically at this level, economic and operating data (such as sales or waste) are collected and analyzed. 100
  • Evaluation Design: After successful implementation of the program evaluation of the program with well designed forms is more important one. Here the evaluation form for the whole program from participants point of view has been designed and the trainer evaluation from is also designed. The trainer evaluation from will help to improve him/her as a trainers skills. Lecture rating form and program evaluation form included. 101
  • LECTURE RATING FORM for In-House Trainer LECTURE RATING FORM SPEAKER: DATE: SUBJECT: Very Satisfactory Weak Good Organization and Content 1 Appropriate introduction 2 Clear main points 3 Use of examples 4 Conclusion 5 Adaptation to group needs and interests 6 Novelty of topics Presentation 7 Use of voice 8 Body and Gesture 9 Use of notes 10 Total speaking ability Other 11 Handling questions/Discussion 12 Timing of session Total Handling of session REMARKS: 102
  • Lecture rating form is an important tool for the improvement of the In-House Trainer. This form will be helpful to collect an important data for making improvements to the In-House Trainer. The improvements in organisation and content presentation and skills and other area are identified by the help of this form. Trainer comes to know whether introduction given for the topic was appropriate or not. In case of negative comments the trainer can improve it on next session. Trainer can know about quality of examples which can be given during the program. His/ Her innovations to the program can be also known to the trainer so that he / she can improve for the next session. Required Improvements in Presentation skill as well as current presentation skills can also be identified by this lecture rating form. Use of voice, body and gesture, use of notes, total speaking ability of trainer can be measured. Area for the improvement for the trainer is indicated using this form. Time punctuality to the topics and question handling ability can also be measured by this form. To take an input from the trainees the lecture rating form is this form is important tool for the In-House Trainer development. 103
  • PROGRAM EVELUATION FORM Q – 1. What do you think about this training session? Very Good Good Average Q – 2. Will this program be beneficial to organization? YES NO Q – 3. Will this program helpful to increase productivity in organization? YES NO Q–4. Will this program be helpful to improve your communication in routine, organizational and personal life? YES NO Q – 5. Will this program be helpful to develop your personality? YES NO Q – 6 Will this program be helpful in your self development in personal life? YES NO Q – 7. Your suggestions to make this program more effective ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q – 8. Mention the subjects which you liked in this program 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) Q – 9. Your suggestions to improve subjects included in 104
  • By the “Program Evaluation Form” the perception of participant employees about the program will be known. From the first question the standard of the training session can be known. With second question it has been known that whether this organised training session is beneficial to the organisation or not. The productivity of the organization has been increased or not can also be known. How this program would be useful to the employees in the personal life as well as in routine work can be known by the question 4, 5 and 6. The participant employees can add their suggestions and comments corresponding to the program through question 7. This answer will help to make program effective and it will give some new ideas also. The topics which are liked by employees are known from the answer of the question 8 and 9 will and this would help to know the delivery standard of the topics and content of the topic and will intimate some suggestions for the improvement on subjects included in program. This will gives some innovative ideas form the employees. 105
  • CONCLUSION Designed model is systematic sequence of the steps: Assessment, Design, Implementation and Evaluation. By these four systematic steps of the designed Training and Development Model Shree Mahuva Pradesh Sahakari Khand Udyog Mandli Ltd. will provide the trainings only to those employees who critically require trainings. And help employees to improve in lacking area. By providing the trainings at the right way an organization would get several advantages like Greater commitment from staff, improved quality, increased productivity, greater flexibility and responsiveness to change, less wastage of time and improved morale. 106
  • BIBILOGRAPHY Books Human Resource Development - P.P. Arya and B.B. Tandon Human Resource Development - Randy Desimone, John Werner and Devide Harris Journals Indian journal of training and development Websites www.anthro.palomar.edu www.management.about.com www.mindtools.com www.queendom.com www.inc.com www.bockinfo.com www.managementh.elp.org www.edutopia.org www.dartmouth.edu www.ethicsquality.com www.ethicsquality.com www.cambridge.org www.smbtn.com www.stressmanagement.com. 107