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Chp 4 new- training & development



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  • 18


  • 1. Chapter 4 TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 2. Introduction
    • Need for organizations to build and sustain competencies that would provide them with competitive advantage.
    • Knowledge era Human assets are valued highly.
    • Growth oriented organizations value training as a response to changing environment
    • Continues learning process in human development
    • Helps in development of one’s personality, sharpens skills and enhances effectiveness
    • It is an important and integral part of organizational renewal process
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 3. Training and development
    • Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and understanding the skills relevant to his or her job.
    • Training and development
    • Training Vs. education
    • Training at different levels
    • Purpose of training
    • Learning curve
    • Transfer of learning
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 4. Functions of a training program
    • Acquiring knowledge
    • Change in attitudes
    • Helping to put theory into practice
    • Helps to evaluate abilities, competencies
    • Enhances problem solving and decision making ability
    • Improves performance
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 5. Importance & Need of training
    • Aids in new entrants attaining role clarity
    • Promotions
    • Prevents skill obsolescence
    • Improves quality and productivity
    • Meet organizational objectives
    • Improves organizational climate
    • Prevent accidents
    • To support personal growth and development
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 6.
    • Intention to learn from the participant
    • Reinforcement provided to the learner
    • Developing the potential from an individual’s point of view
    • Active participation of the trainee
    • Providing opportunities for practice
    • Transfer of learning to take place from a training program
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 7. What deficiencies, if any, does job holder have in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviours? What behaviours are necessary? Is there a need for training? What are the strategic goals of the organization? What tasks must be completed to achieve goals? Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 8.
    • Phase I – Needs assessment
    • Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D
    • Phase III - Evaluation
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 9.
    • Phase I – Needs assessment
      • Determines the organization’s true needs and the training programs necessary to meet them
      • Organisational analysis
      • Operations analysis
      • Individual analysis
        • Advisory committees, Assessment centres, Attitude survey, Group discussions, Questionnaires, Skills test, Observations of behaviour, Performance appraisals, Performance documents, Exit interviews
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 10.
    • Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D
      • Training design principles of learning
        • Motivation
        • Participation
        • Feedback
        • Organisation
        • Repetition
        • Application
      • Training delivery
      • On-the-job training (OJT)
      • Away-from-the-job training
      • A T&D plan & implementation
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 11.
    • Phase III – Evaluation
      • Levels of evaluation:
        • How did participants react?
        • What did participants learn?
        • How did participants’ behaviour change?
        • What organisational goals were affected?
      • Applying evaluation strategies
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 12. Training methods on the job /off the job
    • On the job training methods are:
    • Job instruction training
    • Vestibule training
    • Training by supervisors
    • Coaching on the job/Simulation
    • Apprenticeship
    • Job rotation
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 13.
    • Off the job training methods:
    • Lectures
    • Conferences
    • Case studies
    • Role play
    • Programmed instruction training
    • T group/Sensitivity training
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 14.
    • Criteria for evaluation are:
    • Objectives of the program
    • Cost-benefit analysis
    • Results obtained
    • Areas of improvement
    • Resources/ staff required
    • Methods of evaluation would be:
    • Questionnaires, projects, tests, interviews, observations or participation and discussions.
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 15.
    • Cross cultural approaches
    • Maintenance of standards
    • Interaction with learners
    • Use of technology – CD ROMs, WAN, CBT, WBT
    • E-learning – types
    • Informal learning, self-paced, leader lead learning and performance support tools
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 16.
    • Quality improvement programmes
    • Technological change-related programmes
    • Customer service T&D programmes
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 17.
    • Training is not equally distributed to all employees
    • Expenditure allocated to training is inadequate
    • Mismatch between theory and practice
    • Benefits of training are not immediately realized
    • Supporting contextual systems needs to be provided in organizations
    • Top management needs to support the philosophy of training in spirit
    Prof.Sujeesha Rao
  • 18. Chapter 4 B Executive Development Programs
  • 19. Organizational environment Organizational strategy/objectives Conduct of the training program Training needs assessment Identifying competency gaps Training plan STAGE 1 STAGE 3 STAGE 2
  • 20.
    • Decision making skills
    • Interpersonal skills
    • Job knowledge
    • Organizational knowledge
    • Specific individual needs
    • General knowledge
    Competency Development Areas of EDP
  • 21. Factors in designing an EDP
    • Learning characteristics and its applicability to design
    • Knowledge of results
    • Reward mechanism
    • Individual difference of the learners
    • Application to the work environment
    • Meeting organizational goals thru content design
  • 22. Methods of EDP
  • 23.
    • Evaluation of EDP is important for the following reasons:
    • Improving the quality of training and development process
    • Improving the efficiency and competency of trainers
    • Make improvements in the system to make it more responsive
    • Aligning the training objectives to organizational objectives
    • Evaluating the ROI on account of training and development
    • Changing the perception of the management as to regard training as an investment