Definition Of Motivation Motivation: The act or process of stimulating to action, providing an incentive or motive, especially for an act.
Motivation:The word motivation has been derived from the word‘motive’ which means any idea, need or emotion that promptsman into action.The core of management –by Rensis Likert.Motivation is important function which every mangerperforms for actuating the people to work for accomplishmentof objectives of the organization.Higher motivation leads to job satisfaction of the workerswhich can reduce absenteeism, turnover, and labour unrest.Motivation will foster team spirit among the workers andincrease their loyalty to the work group.
Significance of motivationWorkers will tend to be efficientas possible by improving upon theirskills and knowledge.The rate of labour turnover andabsenteeism among the workerswill be low.There will be good human relations in organization.The number of complaints andgrievances will come down.There will be increase in quantityand quality of products.
Motivational cycle Need, Drive Goal
Needs, Incentives and MotivesNeed tension search behaviour performance reward need satisfactionThe need has to be activated which is the function of incentives.Incentives is something which tends to incite towards some goal.A need mean some internal state that makes certain outcomesattractive.Incentives means an outward stimuli for the motive to work.when a motive is present in a person, it becomes active when there issome incentives.
Theories of MotivationNeeds theories Process theories• Maslow’s hierarchy • Expectancy Theory of needs• Herzberg’s two • Goal Setting Theory factor theory
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Self - Actualization Esteem needs Belongingness & love needs Safety needs Physiological needs:
Physiological needs Hunger, thirst etc.,Safety needs To feel secure & safe, out of dangerBelongingness & love needs Affiliate with others, be accepted & belongEsteem needs To achieve, be component, gain approval and belongSelf-actualization needs Self fulfillment & realize one’s potential
If we fulfill our needs at one level, then we canfocus on satisfying the need on the next higher level Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryDissatisfaction Not dissatisfied Positive and but satisfaction demotivation not motivated and motivation Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors •Company policies •Achievement •Quality of supervision •Career advancement •Relations with others •Personal growth •Personal life •Job interest •Rate of pay •Recognition •Job security •Responsibility •Working conditions
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional view Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzbergs view Motivators Satisfaction No satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
Maslow Model Vs Herzberg ModelBasis Maslow HerzbergHierarchy of Sequential No hierarchicalneeds arrangement arrangementNature Prescriptive Descriptive model modelCentral theme Unsatisfied need Gratified need energize causes behaviour, cause performance performanceMotivational Unsatisfied Higher orderfactor need-motivator needs-motivatorApplicability 1.Takes a 1.Takes a micro general view of view & deals the motivational with work problem of all motivational the workers oriented 2.Lower level problems . 2.Higher level
How Expectancy Theory Works Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Effort - Performance Link Performance - Rewards Link Rewards - Personal Goals Link No matter how much effort Your tutor does not look There are a lot of wonderful things you put in, probably not possible like someone who has £1 million you could do with £1 millionto memorise the text in 24 hours E=0 I=0 V=1 Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.
Motivation DirectionIntensity Persistence
Self motivation• Do it now• Break up the task into small steps• Don’t wait for mood or inspiration• Start action• Solutions will follow if you try
Motivational strategies Find new skills Develop & train them Get feedback on their performance Expand their ability to work Rotate their work
Motivational techniquesLeads them Real examples are quicker than advice Way to influencing peopleAppeal to benefits Can motivate Mutual benefits to both of youAppeal to emotions People act quickly to emotions Positive manner Sustained by repeated inputsAppeal to needs & wants basic needs satisfaction Creative expression, recognition & challenges & loveAppeal to expertise Abilities enhance his self-worth Put best effort to seek approval
Begin with the end in mind What are your talents?What is your ultimate career goal?What can you achieve in 2 years? What are your personal goals? By:-Tanu Jaswal