The role of culture in national development

6,061 views
5,808 views

Published on

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,061
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
52
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The role of culture in national development

  1. 1. 11 THE ROLE OF CULTURE INTHE ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT BYBY PROFESSOR OLUFEMI OBAFEMIPROFESSOR OLUFEMI OBAFEMI FNLFNL AndAnd TANKO AHMEDTANKO AHMED fwcfwc
  2. 2. 22 LEAD PAPER AT THELEAD PAPER AT THE 4TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE SCHOOL OF4TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE SCHOOL OF GENERAL STUDIES, KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA,GENERAL STUDIES, KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC, LOKOJA, KOGI STATE ON TUESDAY, 29 JUNE 2010KOGI STATE ON TUESDAY, 29 JUNE 2010 PRESENTED BYPRESENTED BY TANKO AHMEDTANKO AHMED,, fwcfwc Senior Fellow, NIPSS, KuruSenior Fellow, NIPSS, Kuru
  3. 3. 33 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Culture is aCulture is a special giftspecial gift to human beings, by theto human beings, by the Almighty Creator, which no other creature enjoys.Almighty Creator, which no other creature enjoys. Culture is the ultimate unwritten constitutionCulture is the ultimate unwritten constitution through which the human society came into beingthrough which the human society came into being as a system ofas a system of social contractsocial contract.. Culture is fundamental to human existence andCulture is fundamental to human existence and human civilization, embodying in its dynamism,human civilization, embodying in its dynamism, the totality of people’s response to the challengesthe totality of people’s response to the challenges of life and living in any given environmentof life and living in any given environment (Obafemi: 2005)(Obafemi: 2005)
  4. 4. 44 March of CivilizationMarch of Civilization In the idea of ‘In the idea of ‘march of civilizationmarch of civilization’ human’ human societies are lumped together in thesocieties are lumped together in the heritage of developmental stagesheritage of developmental stages culminating into the modern universal orculminating into the modern universal or global culture.global culture. From simple workable tools to moreFrom simple workable tools to more advanced implements of earlieradvanced implements of earlier developments to the subsequent leaps intodevelopments to the subsequent leaps into the 21st Century achievements in all humanthe 21st Century achievements in all human affairs, societies or nations continue toaffairs, societies or nations continue to march for local, regional and global powermarch for local, regional and global power and opportunities.and opportunities.
  5. 5. 55 AIMAIM Conceptual discourse;Conceptual discourse; Operational definitions of cultureOperational definitions of culture and development;and development; Role of Culture in NationalRole of Culture in National Development;Development; Observations;Observations; The Way Forward; andThe Way Forward; and Conclusion.Conclusion.
  6. 6. 66 WHAT IS CULTURE?WHAT IS CULTURE? The complex whole of ideas and things produced byThe complex whole of ideas and things produced by men in their historical experience;men in their historical experience; Distinctive groups of traits characterizing particularDistinctive groups of traits characterizing particular group or society;group or society; A pattern of thinking and doing that runs throughA pattern of thinking and doing that runs through the activities of a people and distinguishes themthe activities of a people and distinguishes them from all other peoples;from all other peoples; A distinctive human mode of adapting to theA distinctive human mode of adapting to the environment-moulding nature to conform to man’senvironment-moulding nature to conform to man’s desires and goals; and,desires and goals; and, Learned ways of behaving and adapting, asLearned ways of behaving and adapting, as contrasted to inherited behaviour patterns orcontrasted to inherited behaviour patterns or instincts.instincts.
  7. 7. 77 CULTURE (Contd…)CULTURE (Contd…) In another usage, culture refers to aIn another usage, culture refers to a societysociety oror groupgroup in which many or all people live and think in familiarin which many or all people live and think in familiar and mutually intelligible ways.and mutually intelligible ways. Likewise, any group of people who share a commonLikewise, any group of people who share a common culture with common rules of behaviour and a basicculture with common rules of behaviour and a basic form of social organization constitutes a society,form of social organization constitutes a society, making the termsmaking the terms cultureculture andand societysociety somewhatsomewhat interchangeable.interchangeable. It is, therefore, more appropriate to use ‘It is, therefore, more appropriate to use ‘culturalcultural groupgroup’ for human beings, instead of the derogatory’ for human beings, instead of the derogatory word of ‘word of ‘tribetribe’ often employed.’ often employed.
  8. 8. 88 Characteristics of CultureCharacteristics of Culture Culture is symbolicCulture is symbolic, that is, it is based on, that is, it is based on symbolssymbols oror abstract ways of referring to and understanding ideas,abstract ways of referring to and understanding ideas, objects, feelings, or behaviours and the ability toobjects, feelings, or behaviours and the ability to communicate with symbols using language;communicate with symbols using language; Culture is sharedCulture is shared, that is, people in the same society, that is, people in the same society share common behaviours and ways of thinking throughshare common behaviours and ways of thinking through culture;culture; Culture is learnedCulture is learned, i.e., while people biologically inherit, i.e., while people biologically inherit many physical traits and behavioural instincts, culture ismany physical traits and behavioural instincts, culture is socially inherited. A person must learn culture from othersocially inherited. A person must learn culture from other people in a society; andpeople in a society; and Culture is adaptiveCulture is adaptive, i.e., people use culture to flexibly, i.e., people use culture to flexibly and quickly adjust to changes in the world around them.and quickly adjust to changes in the world around them.
  9. 9. Characteristics of Culture (Contd...)Characteristics of Culture (Contd...) Culture is transmitted through theCulture is transmitted through the processprocess of socializationof socialization in which ‘in which ‘social skillssocial skills’ are’ are injected by ‘injected by ‘social institutionssocial institutions’ like the’ like the family, education, work, media andfamily, education, work, media and ‘‘significant otherssignificant others’ collectively called ‘’ collectively called ‘agentsagents of socializationof socialization’.’. Increasing complexity and sophistication ofIncreasing complexity and sophistication of human society(s) through ‘human society(s) through ‘developmentdevelopment’’ has widened the roles of other ‘agents’, likehas widened the roles of other ‘agents’, like the media, and shrink those of others, likethe media, and shrink those of others, like the family.the family. 99
  10. 10. 1010 Culture and TechnologyCulture and Technology  Rapid development in technology, in the last severalRapid development in technology, in the last several decades, have changed the nature of culture, anddecades, have changed the nature of culture, and modes of cultural exchange, as people around themodes of cultural exchange, as people around the world transact and transmit voluminous information toworld transact and transmit voluminous information to each other almost instantaneously through the use ofeach other almost instantaneously through the use of computers and satellite communications.computers and satellite communications. • Human societies can now exert or absorb influence, asHuman societies can now exert or absorb influence, as cultures cross national boundaries, through exchangescultures cross national boundaries, through exchanges in essential products, films and music, and other mass-in essential products, films and music, and other mass- produced and distributed items that shape the way weproduced and distributed items that shape the way we live and behave towards one another in form of alive and behave towards one another in form of a global cultureglobal culture..
  11. 11. Culture and Technology (Contd…)Culture and Technology (Contd…) • Local culture and social structures are now shapedLocal culture and social structures are now shaped by large and powerful interests in ways that earlierby large and powerful interests in ways that earlier anthropologists and sociologists could not haveanthropologists and sociologists could not have imagined when they thought of societies and theirimagined when they thought of societies and their cultures as relatively independent systems.cultures as relatively independent systems. • Many nations, like our own, areMany nations, like our own, are multi-culturalmulti-cultural societies composed of other smallersocieties composed of other smaller subculturessubcultures in ain a ‘‘salad bowlsalad bowl’ or ‘’ or ‘melting potmelting pot’ mixture existing with’ mixture existing with other societies in aother societies in a globalglobal context.context. 1111
  12. 12. 1212 Culture and GlobalizationCulture and Globalization The post-Cold War era and the ICT-drivenThe post-Cold War era and the ICT-driven globalization processglobalization process propelled by thepropelled by the Information and Communication TechnologyInformation and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution, created the notion of a(ICT) revolution, created the notion of a ‘‘global villageglobal village’ translated into a ‘’ translated into a ‘globalglobal culture’culture’.. There exists some kind of aThere exists some kind of a universal way ofuniversal way of lifelife oror way of doing thingsway of doing things involving allinvolving all nations, societies, groups and individuals atnations, societies, groups and individuals at relative levels of participation.relative levels of participation.
  13. 13. 1313 Impact of GlobalizationImpact of Globalization Information revolution;Information revolution; World economic culture;World economic culture; Technological competition with competingTechnological competition with competing value systems and questions regardingvalue systems and questions regarding civilizational differences.civilizational differences. These are accompanied by erosion of theThese are accompanied by erosion of the state power by sub-state level entities orstate power by sub-state level entities or emerging supra-national powers likeemerging supra-national powers like international agreements, multi-lateralinternational agreements, multi-lateral obligations.obligations.
  14. 14. Impact of Globalization (contd…)Impact of Globalization (contd…) Dissolution of national borders and internalDissolution of national borders and internal boundaries through regionalism and strengthening ofboundaries through regionalism and strengthening of local governments; andlocal governments; and Social relations are transformed, as worldSocial relations are transformed, as world competition at the level of individuals andcompetition at the level of individuals and international markets for human capital resot tointernational markets for human capital resot to brain-drain;brain-drain; Differences in modes of expression of influences overDifferences in modes of expression of influences over decision-making processes with new partners in civildecision-making processes with new partners in civil societies and NGOs.societies and NGOs. 1414
  15. 15. Impact of Globalization (Contd…)Impact of Globalization (Contd…) From simple and stable family groupsFrom simple and stable family groups to the present complex and rapidlyto the present complex and rapidly changing world, culture has taken thechanging world, culture has taken the form of aform of a global entity;global entity; with socialwith social interactions as complicated asinteractions as complicated as Lorenz’s theory of butterfly effect.Lorenz’s theory of butterfly effect. That a flapping of a butterfly’s wing inThat a flapping of a butterfly’s wing in Tokyo, Japan could cause a stormTokyo, Japan could cause a storm across the Pacific Ocean in New York,across the Pacific Ocean in New York, USA.USA. 1515
  16. 16. 1616 WHAT IS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT?WHAT IS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT? DevelopmentDevelopment is the act of advancement,is the act of advancement, growth, change or evolution from one stagegrowth, change or evolution from one stage to another marked by progress.to another marked by progress. In the context of this paper,In the context of this paper, developmentdevelopment applies toapplies to improvementimprovement in condition oftenin condition often found in the notion offound in the notion of National developmentNational development loosely referring to the process of projectedloosely referring to the process of projected improvement of the wellbeing of the citizensimprovement of the wellbeing of the citizens of a nation.of a nation.
  17. 17. WHAT IS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT? (Contd…)WHAT IS NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT? (Contd…) AA nationnation oror nation-statenation-state is a modernis a modern ‘‘societal unitsocietal unit’ into which most the people of’ into which most the people of the world are shared and identified, asthe world are shared and identified, as reflection of the latest development stage ofreflection of the latest development stage of humans grouping in the ‘humans grouping in the ‘march ofmarch of civilizationcivilization’.’. Nigeria is an independent nation-state withNigeria is an independent nation-state with cultural diversitycultural diversity wherein many groups arewherein many groups are endowed by clearly distinct characteristics,endowed by clearly distinct characteristics, but sharing common identity of nationhoodbut sharing common identity of nationhood (being Nigerians)(being Nigerians).. 1717
  18. 18. 1818 Development TheoriesDevelopment Theories Discussions on understandingDiscussions on understanding national developmentnational development concept oftenconcept often resort to the use ofresort to the use of developmentdevelopment theorytheory (Wikipedia: 2010)(Wikipedia: 2010) Development theory is a set ofDevelopment theory is a set of theories and models, contributed bytheories and models, contributed by various disciplines, on the best waysvarious disciplines, on the best ways to bring about desirable change into bring about desirable change in society.society.
  19. 19. Development Theories (Contd...)Development Theories (Contd...) Modernization TheoryModernization Theory states that development can bestates that development can be achieved through same process undergone by currentlyachieved through same process undergone by currently developed nations;developed nations; Dependency TheoryDependency Theory views development as relational basedviews development as relational based on internal conditions differing between economies ofon internal conditions differing between economies of developed and under-developed countries;developed and under-developed countries; World System TheoryWorld System Theory holds that industrialization can notholds that industrialization can not always be equated with development; andalways be equated with development; and State TheoryState Theory proposes that the economy is inter-twinedproposes that the economy is inter-twined with politics, therefore, take-off period in development iswith politics, therefore, take-off period in development is unique in each country.unique in each country. 1919
  20. 20. Development Theories (Contd...)Development Theories (Contd...) Theory of Uneven and Combined developmentTheory of Uneven and Combined development describing the dynamics of human history to explaindescribing the dynamics of human history to explain that some countries developed ahead of others viathat some countries developed ahead of others via capitalist economic modes; andcapitalist economic modes; and Development Economies TheoriesDevelopment Economies Theories are concerned withare concerned with how economies developed overtime throughhow economies developed overtime through comparative advantagecomparative advantage in gains in specialization.in gains in specialization. Models include:Models include: • thethe Rostovian Take-Off modelRostovian Take-Off model of basic stages;of basic stages; • thethe Harrod-Domar modelHarrod-Domar model is based on savings andis based on savings and productive levels of capitals; andproductive levels of capitals; and • thethe dual sector modeldual sector model is based on labour transition.is based on labour transition. 2020
  21. 21. 2121 Objectives of DevelopmentObjectives of Development To increase the availability and widen theTo increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic necessities of life (food,distribution of basic necessities of life (food, shelter and security);shelter and security); To raise levels of living standard associatedTo raise levels of living standard associated with cultural and humanistic (core) values;with cultural and humanistic (core) values; andand To raise the range of economic and socialTo raise the range of economic and social choice available to individual(s) andchoice available to individual(s) and nation(s), to free them from servitude andnation(s), to free them from servitude and dependence.dependence.
  22. 22. 2222 New ApproachesNew Approaches BasicBasic CConcepts of Developmentoncepts of Development include:include: Community;Community; Culture;Culture; Gender; and,Gender; and, Human RightsHuman Rights Which aggregate and resort toWhich aggregate and resort to culture,culture, asas both platform and instrument forboth platform and instrument for development.development.
  23. 23. 2323 ROLE OF CULTURE INROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ““Tradition and knowledge constituteTradition and knowledge constitute the main pillars of development andthe main pillars of development and sustenance of communities since timesustenance of communities since time immemorial. No society can progressimmemorial. No society can progress in the absence of the two. They makein the absence of the two. They make an individual to become a responsiblean individual to become a responsible and patriotic citizen...“and patriotic citizen...“ - Kaabully Nimaga- Kaabully Nimaga
  24. 24. ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Contd...)ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Contd...) Culture is the key to success inCulture is the key to success in national development; that ournational development; that our cultural heritage, technologicalcultural heritage, technological achievements and the attainment ofachievements and the attainment of skills in various spheres of humanskills in various spheres of human endeavour provide the historicalendeavour provide the historical bases for anchoring the aspirationsbases for anchoring the aspirations and motivation to nationaland motivation to national advancement and progress.advancement and progress. - Gonyok (1999)- Gonyok (1999) 2424
  25. 25. ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Contd...)ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Contd...) The central role of culture in theThe central role of culture in the development process led many countries todevelopment process led many countries to design and introduce ‘cultural policies’ asdesign and introduce ‘cultural policies’ as action plans on how culture should beaction plans on how culture should be managed and constructed for the benefit ofmanaged and constructed for the benefit of their citizens. These policies are alsotheir citizens. These policies are also expanded through literal pacts betweenexpanded through literal pacts between nations and further encapsulated innations and further encapsulated in conventions of regional bodies and theconventions of regional bodies and the United Nations through assignedUnited Nations through assigned institutions.institutions. -- Adedokun and Oamen (2010)Adedokun and Oamen (2010) 2525
  26. 26. ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Contd...)ROLE OF CULTURE IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Contd...) CultureCulture is ais a platform, as well as, an instrumentplatform, as well as, an instrument of nationalof national development;development; CultureCulture initiates, nurtures and sustains developmentinitiates, nurtures and sustains development, at the, at the same time, development also generates and evolvessame time, development also generates and evolves culture in reciprocity;culture in reciprocity; CultureCulture reflects, translates and points the directionreflects, translates and points the direction forfor national development;national development; CultureCulture isis the fulcrum for all other toolsthe fulcrum for all other tools (like development(like development plans, visions, policies and other action plans) for nationalplans, visions, policies and other action plans) for national development; anddevelopment; and CultureCulture creates opportunitiescreates opportunities for us to find ways to harnessfor us to find ways to harness our human and natural resources to take our rightful placeour human and natural resources to take our rightful place in the march of civilization.in the march of civilization. 2626
  27. 27. 2727 THE WAY FORWARDTHE WAY FORWARD This paper is inclined to treat theThis paper is inclined to treat the issue ofissue of the way forwardthe way forward throughthrough an analysis of the definition,an analysis of the definition, objectives and implementationobjectives and implementation strategy of our cultural policy.strategy of our cultural policy.
  28. 28. 2828 Cultural PolicyCultural Policy Cultural policyCultural policy as that area ofas that area of public policymaking concernedpublic policymaking concerned with activities related to culturewith activities related to culture as instrument of development.as instrument of development. - Kevin (2006)- Kevin (2006)
  29. 29. 2929 Cultural Policy of NigeriaCultural Policy of Nigeria (CPN) 1988(CPN) 1988 Defines culture as the totality ofDefines culture as the totality of the way of life evolved by athe way of life evolved by a people in their attempts to meetpeople in their attempts to meet the challenge of living in theirthe challenge of living in their environment, which gives orderenvironment, which gives order and meaning to their social,and meaning to their social, political, economic and religiouspolitical, economic and religious norms and modes ofnorms and modes of organization.organization.
  30. 30. 3030 Objectives of the CPNObjectives of the CPN To mobilise and motivate the people byTo mobilise and motivate the people by disseminating and propagating ideas which promotedisseminating and propagating ideas which promote national pride, solidarity and consciousness;national pride, solidarity and consciousness; Evolve from our plurality, a national culture, theEvolve from our plurality, a national culture, the stamp of which will be reflected in African and Worldstamp of which will be reflected in African and World affairs;affairs; Promote an educational system that motivates andPromote an educational system that motivates and stimulates creativity and draws largely on ourstimulates creativity and draws largely on our tradition and values, namely:tradition and values, namely: a. Respect for humanity and human dignity;a. Respect for humanity and human dignity; b. Respect for legitimate authority;b. Respect for legitimate authority; c. Respect for the dignity of labour; andc. Respect for the dignity of labour; and d. Respect for positive Nigerian moral society.d. Respect for positive Nigerian moral society.
  31. 31. Objectives of the CPN (Contd…)Objectives of the CPN (Contd…) the promotion of creativity in the fields of arts, science andthe promotion of creativity in the fields of arts, science and technology, ensure the continuity of traditional skills and sportstechnology, ensure the continuity of traditional skills and sports and their progressive updating to serve modern developmentand their progressive updating to serve modern development needs as our contribution to world growth of cultures and ideas;needs as our contribution to world growth of cultures and ideas; the establishment of athe establishment of a code of behaviourcode of behaviour compatible with ourcompatible with our tradition of humanism and disciplined moral society;tradition of humanism and disciplined moral society; sustain environmental and social conditions which enhance thesustain environmental and social conditions which enhance the quality of life, produce responsible citizenship and an orderedquality of life, produce responsible citizenship and an ordered society;society; enhance the efficient management of national resources throughenhance the efficient management of national resources through the transformation of the indigenous technology, design-resourcesthe transformation of the indigenous technology, design-resources and skills; and,and skills; and, enhance national self-reliance and self-sufficiency, and reflectenhance national self-reliance and self-sufficiency, and reflect through our cultural heritage and national aspiration in the processthrough our cultural heritage and national aspiration in the process of industrialization (or national development).of industrialization (or national development). 3131
  32. 32. 3232 Cultural Agencies or ParastatalsCultural Agencies or Parastatals National Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM);National Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM); National Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC);National Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC); Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC);Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC); National Gallery of Arts (NGA);National Gallery of Arts (NGA); National Institute of Cultural Orientation;National Institute of Cultural Orientation; Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization (CBAAC);Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization (CBAAC); National Troupe and National Theatre of Nigeria (NTNTN);National Troupe and National Theatre of Nigeria (NTNTN); National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism (NIHT);National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism (NIHT);
  33. 33. 3333 Review of the CPNReview of the CPN Cultural policy as the instrument for utilizingCultural policy as the instrument for utilizing culture for socio-economic transformation.culture for socio-economic transformation. - Obafemi (2009)- Obafemi (2009) Culture as theCulture as the fountain springfountain spring of all policiesof all policies and strategies of national development, itsand strategies of national development, its implementation strategy based on theimplementation strategy based on the preservation, promotion and presentation ofpreservation, promotion and presentation of culture through the establishment ofculture through the establishment of administrative structures and provision ofadministrative structures and provision of funds, leave much to be desired in the wayfunds, leave much to be desired in the way of promulgating statutory backing by meansof promulgating statutory backing by means of Laws or Acts of the National Assembly forof Laws or Acts of the National Assembly for its objectives.its objectives. - CPN (1988)- CPN (1988)
  34. 34. Review of the CPN (Contd…)Review of the CPN (Contd…) Lip-service intendmentLip-service intendment ofof government, in the existence, propergovernment, in the existence, proper functioning and survival of culture asfunctioning and survival of culture as a viable corner-stone of nationala viable corner-stone of national development.development. The arts are hardly prominent in theThe arts are hardly prominent in the political agenda of Nigeria and Africa,political agenda of Nigeria and Africa, which is in clear contrast to whatwhich is in clear contrast to what obtains in other countries withobtains in other countries with regards to social and economicregards to social and economic development.development. 3434
  35. 35. Review of the CPN (Contd…)Review of the CPN (Contd…) The CPN’s definition of culture requires urgentThe CPN’s definition of culture requires urgent revision to reflect the reality of present dispensationrevision to reflect the reality of present dispensation ofof global cultureglobal culture and the need to harmonize theand the need to harmonize the multi-cultural diversitymulti-cultural diversity of Nigeria.of Nigeria. Africa as a whole is, for better or for worse, part ofAfrica as a whole is, for better or for worse, part of the global world that is inextricably inter-connectedthe global world that is inextricably inter-connected as a result of new means of communication, rapidas a result of new means of communication, rapid movements of people, new technologies and othermovements of people, new technologies and other items that make the entire world aitems that make the entire world a global villageglobal village.. - Ojaide (2010)- Ojaide (2010) 3535
  36. 36. CULTURAL REMEDIESCULTURAL REMEDIES FORFOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 3636
  37. 37. Global Cultural AnarchyGlobal Cultural Anarchy There is already great fear of an impendingThere is already great fear of an impending globalglobal cultural anarchycultural anarchy among weaker societies and smalleramong weaker societies and smaller groups facing domination, cultural erosion andgroups facing domination, cultural erosion and possible extinction under overwhelming influence ofpossible extinction under overwhelming influence of stronger societies and groups.stronger societies and groups. Anthropologists are now interested in how dominantAnthropologists are now interested in how dominant societies can shape the culture of less powerfulsocieties can shape the culture of less powerful societies, a process some researchers callsocieties, a process some researchers call culturalcultural hegemony.hegemony. - Bodley (2009)- Bodley (2009) Zamanin Annabi Shaho, kowa ya yagi nashiZamanin Annabi Shaho, kowa ya yagi nashi (In the era of the hawk, it is free for all)(In the era of the hawk, it is free for all) 3737
  38. 38. Universal EthicsUniversal Ethics Within the chaos ofWithin the chaos of globalizationglobalization runs a commonruns a common thread that weaves across and sustains thethread that weaves across and sustains the globalglobal cultureculture for the entire humanity – called ‘Universalfor the entire humanity – called ‘Universal Ethics’ based on the principles that:Ethics’ based on the principles that: All beneficial acts are good;All beneficial acts are good; All harmful acts are evil; andAll harmful acts are evil; and All other acts are neutral.All other acts are neutral. –– Wikipedia (2007)Wikipedia (2007) Appealing to humanity, and useful as formidableAppealing to humanity, and useful as formidable currency, for self-determination, struggle for equalitycurrency, for self-determination, struggle for equality and claim to liberty and freedom.and claim to liberty and freedom. 3838
  39. 39. Re-BrandingRe-Branding Within the realm of the CPN,Within the realm of the CPN, cultural remediescultural remedies toto national development, like the currentnational development, like the current re-brandingre-branding campaign conducted by the Information Ministry, cancampaign conducted by the Information Ministry, can be a veritable tool forbe a veritable tool for attitude changeattitude change and progress.and progress. National image re-brandingNational image re-branding has always been part ofhas always been part of the culture of every society, guiding people’sthe culture of every society, guiding people’s behaviour towards the positive side of life.behaviour towards the positive side of life. - Monyeh (2010)- Monyeh (2010) By selecting the correct path, we can strategize ourBy selecting the correct path, we can strategize our way to achieve whatever goals we set for ourselves,way to achieve whatever goals we set for ourselves, our communities, our nation and humanity at large.our communities, our nation and humanity at large. 3939
  40. 40. Sense of Patriotism and Civic EducationSense of Patriotism and Civic Education TheThe sense of patriotismsense of patriotism in the citizenry canin the citizenry can be aroused in the joint act ofbe aroused in the joint act of nationalnational building,building, if government endeavours toif government endeavours to truthfully educate its citizens on hertruthfully educate its citizens on her expectations and civic responsibilities.expectations and civic responsibilities. - Akinde (2002)- Akinde (2002) Civic educationCivic education at all levels, from the familyat all levels, from the family to education, media, work and nationalto education, media, work and national campaigns, should be employed to sanitizecampaigns, should be employed to sanitize and propel Nigeria.and propel Nigeria. 4040
  41. 41. Traditional InstitutionsTraditional Institutions Constitutional roleConstitutional role for our teeming and vibrantfor our teeming and vibrant Traditional Rulers,Traditional Rulers, considered as custodians ofconsidered as custodians of culture, may be theculture, may be the magic wandmagic wand for using ourfor using our traditional basestraditional bases to recover and re-align with our lostto recover and re-align with our lost historical linkshistorical links.. Culture Ministry may become for traditional rulersCulture Ministry may become for traditional rulers and institutions, what the Defence Ministry is to theand institutions, what the Defence Ministry is to the Military; in the quest for proper control andMilitary; in the quest for proper control and regulation ofregulation of cultural construction,cultural construction, to harness ourto harness our multi-cultural groupsmulti-cultural groups in favour of nationalin favour of national development.development. 4141
  42. 42. Cross-Cultural CompetenceCross-Cultural Competence Inter- orInter- or cross-cultural competencecross-cultural competence as aas a process in which people of variousprocess in which people of various backgrounds can capture and understand, inbackgrounds can capture and understand, in multicultural interaction, the specificmulticultural interaction, the specific concept in perception, thinking, feeling andconcept in perception, thinking, feeling and acting, free from prejudice.acting, free from prejudice. - Selmeski (2007)- Selmeski (2007) This should be employed, as an idealThis should be employed, as an ideal national aspiration, in ournational aspiration, in our multi-culturalmulti-cultural realitiesrealities.. 4242
  43. 43. A ChallengeA Challenge This Conference covering all aspects of our nationalThis Conference covering all aspects of our national life, this is an opportunity for a thorough review oflife, this is an opportunity for a thorough review of the existing Cultural Policy of Nigeria.the existing Cultural Policy of Nigeria. Results should be compiled and forwarded to theResults should be compiled and forwarded to the National InstituteNational Institute (NIPSS), for preparation of(NIPSS), for preparation of policypolicy paperpaper, for consideration by the highest offices of the, for consideration by the highest offices of the Land.Land. Without prejudice to the review carried out under theWithout prejudice to the review carried out under the Culture Ministry, and which awaits being made into aCulture Ministry, and which awaits being made into a BillBill by the National Assembly.by the National Assembly. 4343
  44. 44. 4444 CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION This Lead Paper attempts to present culture asThis Lead Paper attempts to present culture as - the main hub for national development;- the main hub for national development; - reviewed the prime, but dangerously- reviewed the prime, but dangerously neglected, instrument of nationalneglected, instrument of national development, the Cultural Policy of Nigeria;development, the Cultural Policy of Nigeria; - discussed the way forward; and- discussed the way forward; and - offered some modest suggestions on how to- offered some modest suggestions on how to overcome identified obstacles.overcome identified obstacles.
  45. 45. CONCLUSION (Contd...)CONCLUSION (Contd...) As we go into the detailed proceedings of thisAs we go into the detailed proceedings of this important Conference, this discourse on culture andimportant Conference, this discourse on culture and development would generatedevelopment would generate bold questionsbold questions to whichto which we mustwe must find practical answersfind practical answers that can help us tothat can help us to understand what it means to be human.understand what it means to be human. It also requires us to device ways to meetIt also requires us to device ways to meet current and future needs and challenges, so as tocurrent and future needs and challenges, so as to plan and have a progressive future, for ourselves andplan and have a progressive future, for ourselves and everyone around us.everyone around us. 4545
  46. 46. 4646 THANK YOU!THANK YOU!
  47. 47. 4747 REFERENCESREFERENCES ADEDOKUN, Remi, A and OAMEN, David O (2010):ADEDOKUN, Remi, A and OAMEN, David O (2010): Managing Creative arts and Cultural Construction for PeaceManaging Creative arts and Cultural Construction for Peace in ODODO, S. E and BODUNDE, C. (2010)in ODODO, S. E and BODUNDE, C. (2010) ObafConfab Book of ProceedingsObafConfab Book of Proceedings. International Conference on African Literature and Theatre, University of Ilorin, 1 – 4 April 2010.. International Conference on African Literature and Theatre, University of Ilorin, 1 – 4 April 2010. AJAIDE, Tunare (2010):AJAIDE, Tunare (2010): The Dreamer’s Distant Love: Contemporary African Literature, Globalization and the Quest for PeaceThe Dreamer’s Distant Love: Contemporary African Literature, Globalization and the Quest for Peace in ODODO, S. E andin ODODO, S. E and BODUNDE, C. (2010)BODUNDE, C. (2010) ObafConfab Book of ProceedingsObafConfab Book of Proceedings. International Conference on African Literature and Theatre, University of Ilorin, 1 – 4 April. International Conference on African Literature and Theatre, University of Ilorin, 1 – 4 April 2010.2010. AKANDE, Ade B (2002):AKANDE, Ade B (2002): The Role of Advertising and Public Relations in Nation Building: The Nigerian ExperienceThe Role of Advertising and Public Relations in Nation Building: The Nigerian Experience. (Unpublished) Research Project, National. (Unpublished) Research Project, National Institute (NIPSS), Kuru Senior Executive Course, No. 24, November 2002.Institute (NIPSS), Kuru Senior Executive Course, No. 24, November 2002. BODLEY, John H.BODLEY, John H. CultureCulture. Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA:. Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: GONYOK, C. K (1999):GONYOK, C. K (1999): Culture and National Development: The Third Millennium in PerspectiveCulture and National Development: The Third Millennium in Perspective. A Research Project for the National Institute (NIPSS),. A Research Project for the National Institute (NIPSS), Senior Executive Course No. 21/1999. Kuru-Jos, Unpublished.Senior Executive Course No. 21/1999. Kuru-Jos, Unpublished. HILBORN, RC quoted in M Cross.HILBORN, RC quoted in M Cross. The Butterfly Effect.The Butterfly Effect. (Internet: 2001)(Internet: 2001) file://Africlick06eBUTTERFLYfile://Africlick06eBUTTERFLY II.htmII.htm KEVIN, M (2006):KEVIN, M (2006): What is Cultural Policy?What is Cultural Policy? Retrieved from "Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whathttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/What is culture?”is culture?” MONYEH, P. M. (2010):MONYEH, P. M. (2010): Re-branding the Nigerian State: General OverviewRe-branding the Nigerian State: General Overview in ODODO, S. E and BODUNDE, C. (2010)in ODODO, S. E and BODUNDE, C. (2010) ObafConfab Book of ProceedingsObafConfab Book of Proceedings.. International Conference on African Literature and Theatre, University of Ilorin, 1 – 4 April 2010.International Conference on African Literature and Theatre, University of Ilorin, 1 – 4 April 2010. Microsoft Corporation, 2008.Microsoft Corporation, 2008. OBAFEMI, O (2005):OBAFEMI, O (2005): Public Discourse on HumanitiesPublic Discourse on Humanities. University Press, Ibadan – Nigeria.. University Press, Ibadan – Nigeria. OBAFEMI, O (2009):OBAFEMI, O (2009): Nigerian Culture: An OverviewNigerian Culture: An Overview. A Lecture delivered at the 3. A Lecture delivered at the 3rdrd National Workshop on Reposition Nigerian Cultural Workers for ImprovedNational Workshop on Reposition Nigerian Cultural Workers for Improved Productivity organized by the National Institute of Cultural Orientation, 1 December 2009.Productivity organized by the National Institute of Cultural Orientation, 1 December 2009. PARA-MALLAM, J. O (2010):PARA-MALLAM, J. O (2010): Basic Concepts and Trends in Development Studies: An OverviewBasic Concepts and Trends in Development Studies: An Overview. A Lecture Paper presented to the National Institute Senior. A Lecture Paper presented to the National Institute Senior Executive Course No. 32/2010 Participants on Monday, 24 May 2010.Executive Course No. 32/2010 Participants on Monday, 24 May 2010. SELMESKI, BR (2007):SELMESKI, BR (2007): Military Cross-Cultural Competence and Individual DevelopmentMilitary Cross-Cultural Competence and Individual Development. Kingston. Royal College of Canada Centre for Security, Armed. Kingston. Royal College of Canada Centre for Security, Armed forces and Society. Retrieved from "forces and Society. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercultural_competencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercultural_competence”” The Encyclopaedia Americana, International Edition, Vol. 8 (1978)The Encyclopaedia Americana, International Edition, Vol. 8 (1978) TODARO, MP and SMITH, SC (2001-2010):TODARO, MP and SMITH, SC (2001-2010): Economic DevelopmentEconomic Development (10(10thth Edition), Pearson, New YorkEdition), Pearson, New York

×