In this presentation you will learn some of the finer points about the game of football. This outline will provide the basics necessary to be successful asa coach and mentor to those that play the game. You will become familiar with technical and tactical skills, strategies, teaching methods, commonerrors and how to correct them, planning for practice and games, leadership, the evaluation process, and the teaching element associated with football.These methods, strategies and lessons apply to all levels of experience and ability.
Every great program starts out with positive Coaching and Leadership. These two concepts can be the keyto a successful program. Coaching is the one thing that a team needs to help them build on the talents thatthey already have. Leadership will allow a team to rally behind the goals of the team to fulfill a winningseason.
LEADERSHIP What is leadership?Leadership-a person who guides or directs agroup.Leadership in sports can take on manyforms, but the two most visible are the coachesleadership skills and a players leadership skills.
Coaching Is Leading• A coaches leadership qualities are another aspect of developing a good football program besides teaching the technical and tactical skills.• A coach needs to lead by example, because the players and even the community look to them for guidance and accountability.• A coach needs to let their players know that they are putting the maximum amount of effort into doing their job, so that the players will want to perform at their best.
Player LeadershipLEAD BY EXAMPLE versus RAH! RAH! Types
Leadership Types• Best Players-If the best players are going to be leaders, they have to show it each and every day. This type of leader needs to prove it to the team all the time. This type of leader is a great leader because they can teach the other players things because their skills are generationally above the rest of their teammates. They can help the team like a coach, as long as their teammates are willing to listen.• Most Respected Players-A respected leader is someone that can be a great person or someone that everyone gets along with. This leader is a great leader both on and off the field, and a great role model to their teammates. This type of leader shows their teammates how to work hard and how to make the right decisions.• Most Vocal Leader-A a vocal leader can be good as long as they are able to inspire and rally their teammates behind them, all the while letting their performance on and off the field back up their talk.
5 Keys to being a leader1. Responsibility: Leaders assume the responsibility of representing the coaching staff and their fellow teammates.2. Morale: Leaders have insatiable morale. Morale can be heard in the voice of a player who is determined not to give up.3. Work Ethic: Team leader should have outstanding work ethic. The team leader should be the first to practice in the last to leave.4. Skill: Skill is an undeniable trait for a leader. Leaders possess both physical and mental skill sets that teammates respect.5. Respect: Respect must be earned. A leader should look to earn the respect of coaches and players on the first day of practice. Respect can sometimes take a long time to earn and just a second to lose.
Traditional Versus Games Approach• There are two ways to approach coaching, the traditional approach and the games approach.• Each approach has it benefits and can be used in combination with each other to get the most out of your players with each practice session.• Using both together can keep your team interested while maximizing output in each practice session
Traditional Approach• Begins with a warm-up period, followed by individual drills, group drills, and ending with a scrimmage.• Useful for teaching your players the technique associated with each position skill.• This approach is not effective if it is not reinforced by games approach type practice where less emphasis is put on technique and more is placed on application of the learned skill.
Games Approach• Three major components: Shaping, focusing, and enhancing.• Uses mini-games and scrimmages to simulate game situations.• Allows coaches to set up different scenarios (goal line, red zone, two minute drill, clock management plays, etc.)• Each scenario presents unique coaching moments to stop the play and redirect your players into solid decision making on each play
Coaching and Leadership will play a huge role in a teams season. The areas that will help aCoach and a team build is their practice planning. Each team should have a solid plan before theseason starts to get ready. The preparation to a great season is important to condition andteach the players.
Season PlanningStep 1: Identify the skills that your athletes need ID specific skills your athletes need to be successfulStep 2: Know your athletes Know the strength, weaknesses, and abilities of your athletesStep 3: Analyze your situation Know the external factors that guide and limit youStep 4: Establish priorities Where to start and how to progress in the teaching of skillsStep 5: Select the methods for teaching Traditional vs. Game ApproachStep 6: Plan Practices Determine what you want to accomplish during each practice
Practice Planning1. Date, time of practice and length of practice When, where, and how long are you going for2. Objective of practice What are we working on today3. Equipment needed What items do we need to execute today’s plan4. Warm-up How are the athletes going to prepare theirbodies for today’s practice
Practice Planning5. Practice of previously taught skills Go over skills that need refining6. Teaching and practicing new skills Introduce new tactics to get better7. Cool down End of practice8. Coaches’ comments Huddle around coaches and talk about today and what is upcoming9. Evaluation of practice Sit down with other coaches and discuss howpractice went
Practice Planning will allow the coach to break down practices to ensure adequate practicebefore the season. Each practice will be broken down to allow specific positions an allottedtime to work. Offense is an important part of the game; allowing the players the opportunity todrive down the field towards the end zone.The focus here is on the Quarterbacks, Offensive Line, Running Backs and Wide Receivers.
NECESSARY SKILLS• Weight distribution: The Quarterback must make quick and sudden movements in any direction. This is achieved by the quarterback taking a quarterback two point stance, with his weight evenly distributed between his feet.• Eyes: Must be up and reading the defense and not staring at his receivers. Helmet should be facing directly up and down the field until the last possible moment before the ball is thrown.• Center and quarterback exchange: Exchange can be a challenge for both the center and quarterback. This skill should be practiced regularly. When performing this action the quarterback’s hands should completely be under the center’s bottom. There should be minimal separation between the quarterbacks hands with the heels of his hands always touching. The quarterback’s passing hand should be positioned as the top hand.• Ball security: Once the quarterback receives the ball from the center he must secure the ball by bringing the ball sharply to his midsection, on the numbers, with both hands.• Drop steps: Establishes proper timing between quarterback and receivers by the quarterback taking a particular number of steps back from the line of scrimmage.• Three step drop: One long step and two short steps, the crossover step, and a the plant step.• Five step drop: Three long steps backward and two short steps, the crossover step and the plant step.
NECESSARY SKILLS• Throwing: The quarterbacks hips and chest should face the targeted receiver. Plant the foot opposite his throwing arm and follow through with the opposite leg. Feet should be shoulder width apart. When the throw begins the quarterback should push off his back leg and step toward the target. Once pass has left the quarterbacks hand his arm should follow through with the plant foot and leg moving forward towards the target. Remember that a soft and tight spiral is much more accurate and easier to catch.• Hit and throw: The hit and throw is used at the immediate end of a three or five step drop. This is a very quick action due to the route that is run being short. If the timing of the route is off the quarterback will use a hitch step to buy time for the receiver.• Hitch step: provides additional time for receivers to try and get open in addition to helping the quarterback bring his body momentum forward prior to attempting a long pass. This is done by the quarterback taking a bounce step back toward the line of scrimmage.• Extra step: Every extra step a quarterback makes allows a defender to move approximately three yards closer to the receiver.• Progression: Determined by the primary defender, then the secondary defender. Accomplished by scanning the playing field for open receivers in sequence. If the defender is in the passing lane or in any way impeding the pass, quarterback checks down in his progression.• Football knowledge: Understand the game, your opponents strengths and weaknesses as well as your own. Be able to make quick decisions.
COACHING QUARTERBACKS Throwing and Footwork Five Step Drophttp://youtu.be/RYKh-4s5HfI http://youtu.be/C1--pmXE7H0 Seven Step Drop http://youtu.be/MmhI6NNR088
• Drive, Reach, Cutoff, Down blocks are treated the same. The footwork may be a little different.• Offensive linemen and tight ends must have a good base of power to execute a solid run block.• Proper footwork is also key. He should take a short step toward the defender in the direction he is going to block. The other step should be just long enough to form a good base but not cross feet.• Contact the defender at the point just between the two numbers on the jersey with a good punch, followed by the nose of the helmet. Remember to stay low as the low man always wins.• Follow through with short, powerful steps. Fight to keep hands inside defenders and win the battle
• Pass blocking is crucial to get passes off and protect the Quarterback.• A balanced stance is key. The weight needs to be balanced on both feet and the down hand.• Pop and set is when the lineman comes out of the stance and pops head and shoulders back quickly while the hands go up in a ready position to deliver a blow. Feet need to be shoulder width apart with a straight back.• The lineman needs to keep his body parallel with the line of scrimmage and never let the defender inside by staying on their inside half. Must always keep a wide base to stay powerful.• The punch is important. When a defender approaches, he must keep thumbs up and deliver a blow into the defenders chest. Repeat this step until the Quarterback has released the ball. Keep the balance.
Receivers and Backs Technical Skills Practice Drills
Technical Skills• Stance and start for offense• Ball Security• Faking• Catching• Running Deep Routes• Running Shallow and Intermediate Routes
Start and Stance for Offense Players• Stance and Start for offense is important for both receivers and backs: this allows an advantage over defense (Remember head and eyes up! And Be Comfortable) – 3 point stance used by full backs – 2 point stance used by wide receivers and tailbacks *ALL STANCES ALLOW THE ATHLETE TO BE EXPLOSIVE*
Ball Security• BALL SECURITY: Consistency, most important thing after running back receives the ball 1. Form a Pocket on Handoffs 2. Securing The ball 3. Catching The PitchKeep your Eye on the Block, keep inside elbows up, twohanded ball security a must when surrounded bydefenders, squeeze against body to avoid ball being punched
Faking• Initial positioning and movement• Back Faking1. Set defense off2. Run hard to the line of scrimmage3.This occupies several defenders at one time• Receiver Faking1.Come off the line 3 quarter speed2.Simulate the stalk block
Catching*more Receivers then Back but a skill needed for both• Hand Positioning- – Thumbs together for high – Pinkies together for low and over the shoulder• Watching the Body-Watch the ball hit your hands, know the balls path• Secure the ball- both points on ball covered, ball pressed against body
Routes Shallow and Intermediate Deep • Creating Hesitation- Being able to• Understanding Defenses- Know change speeds, Creating Wrong Turns- what coverage defense is playing Using jab steps, Using the weave• Route Stem- Ability for the technique (just before closing receiver to recognize how the gap, attack defenders shoulder on side defense Is playing and make where run is attended, take ½ steps adjustments receiver burst back to opposite shoulder of defender)• Breaking Down- Possession and • Hand Positioning- good timing to raise being able to get separation as a hands so run is not slowed down receiver • Erasing the Cushion Ash,2006
Practice Drills for Receivers• Side to Side- Body Control• Tap Dance- Improves Catching Ability• Shoulder Club Release- Create Separation from defender• Funnel drills- develop concentration• Bag attack-Teach concentration, catching in a crowd, running after the catch, proper ball maintenance (fumble drill also).
Practice Drills for Running Backs• Strip Drill- proper ball carrying• Pass Blocking Drill-helps practice blocking for quarterback• Pitch Drill- practicing catching pitch (Patterson, 2010)
Everyone expects an Offense to make all the points in a game. The reality is that a GreatOffense requires a Great Defense. There are situations where the Defense will make the gamechanging plays. Here we will focus on the Defensive Line and Line Backers.
Defensive Linemen Technical Skill• Teach skills through traditional coaching method• Choosing appropriate stance – three types to choose from • Three-point stance • Four-point stance • Two-point stance• Footwork for linemen • Eliminate false steps by moving down hill and keeping majority of weight on down hand • Explode out of stance on movement of ball • Stay low and drive with legs• Tackling – only true way to stop the play • Come to balance by shorting stride • Square up shoulders and keep back straight • Hit ball carrier across the bow – head across the body of ball carrier • Wrap arms around ball carrier and drive to ground with legs
Keys to Defending Against the Run• Teach these skills through games approach coaching method.• Experienced players/team leaders should be able to recognize play trends and make on field adjustments.• Look for obvious signs by offensive lineman that might give away play type, such as leaning and foot position.• Recognize the block after the snap – drive block, reach block, double team, down block, or pulling by lineman.• Establish leverage – hand placement, footwork, and staying low.• Gaining leverage neutralizes blocker rendering him ineffective and collapses gap.
Defensive Linemen Tactical Skill• Tactical skills taught through a games approach coaching method.• Control the gap • React to ball movement • Slap away the offensive linemen hands – can rip or swim as well to get by offensive linemen • Learn strengths and weaknesses through game film – speed, tells, quickness, and blocking ability • Know own ability and decision making process – where to line up, understanding blocking schemes, aggressiveness or patience• Learn to read and react to inside, outside, draw, or option runs – look for cues like a pulling guard leaning, always move towards the ball, don’t over react and try and force plays.• Finish the play – make the tackle and disrupt the offense
Pass Rush Technical Skills• Teach technical skills through traditional coaching method.• Goal is to disrupt pass play and/or sack the quarterback.• Defensive linemen must be able to successfully complete the crucial components of pass rushing. • Recognize the protection – look for cues of pass blocking (linemen leaning on the heels of their feet), know the down situation on the field (third down and long traditional pass play), ineffective running game. • Staying in the lane – ends rush outside in, tackles hit their gaps • Use rip and swimming movements to get away from blockers • Use other moves - change up lanes (don’t always hit the same shoulder), use push-pull move, and bull-rush
Pass Rush Tactical Skills• Teach tactical skills through games approach coaching method.• Experienced players/team leaders should be able to recognize trends and make adjustments on the field.• Goal is to disrupt pass play and/or sack the quarterback.• Defensive linemen must be able to successfully recognize pass plays. • Know defensive plays – zone or man coverage, blitz, contain • Ends rush outside in to disrupt rolling plays and scrambling QBs • Play action pass – play run first, watch linemen (if they stand up it is generally a pass) • Pursuit angles – if the pass gets off, know where it is going and head for the ball being careful not to over pursue.
• Linebackers must pay attention to the Quarterback when putting pressure on the rush• Pressing through the line to get to the Running back the LB must be familiar with the swim move, spill block, getting through a blocker.• Keeping an eye on the ball throughout the entire course of the pressure is key.• Attacking the ball once through the line of scrimmage will break up the play intended by the offense and allow assistance from teammates.• It is key to adjust to the Quarterbacks posture in case he changes the play to a pass.
• Controlling the Gap where the running back is crucial to stopping the run.• This is done by watching the Offensive Linemans stance, shoulder pad level and the lineman’s first steps.• It is important not to get caught up in the play and over rush a play action pass. Keeping a level head and reading the situation all the way through, will allow the play unfold to the Defense advantage. • Keeping a watchful eye on the play will not allow a Linebacker to get sucked into a fake play. • Maintaining the right angles pursuing the running back will enhance stopping capabilities of the defensive linebackers.
• Linebacker Pass Defense is crucial to stopping the short passes.• Knowing your role in the defensive scheme can make or break the defense. Coaches and players must be on the same page every play.• Linebackers must understand the coverage they are in. In the event that the backer was supposed to rush the QB, and notices it is a pass play they must be able to adjust. Returning to their assignment for pass coverage.• They then need to get to their respective zone of coverage that they are responsible for. They should always keep their eye on the QB, using crossover steps to get into position to defend the pass play.• Impeding and or disrupting the receivers route is important in defending the pass. This can cause deep receivers to slow down.
• Defenders need to level off in their zone. Meaning they need to ensure they don’t drop back too deep. If the QB continues to drop back the defenders will continue to drop, once the QB stops then the defender needs to stop dropping back.• Keeping an eye on the receivers after the drop can help the linebackers judge the right distance.• Two Common Errors that Linebackers do are:1. Looking at the receivers before getting to their zone first. Getting to their zone first then defending the pass will allow greater advantage to the defense.2. Defender bites on a short route ignoring the shallow route and maintaining zone integrity, can force the QB to take the short pass attack the short route if ball is thrown to that receiver.• Pass Defense is key to stopping the long yardage plays. Maintaining area of responsibility is key to defending the play.
If the Offense does their job and gets into the End Zone then there will be a Kickoff, and if theDefense does their job right there will be a Punt. These are two key Special Teams formationsthat will make a difference in a game.Kickoffs follow a Touch Down and Punts follow a defensive stop. Here we will focus on thesetwo.
Technical Skills Required For Kick Off• The kick is the most vital part of the kick off. With an arrant kick the kicking team may give up field position.• The first aspect the kicker must acknowledge is alignment.• Kickers typically align themselves 8 to 12 yards from the ball and roughly 4 to 6 steps laterally, in the direction away from the kicker’s dominant foot.• The kicker’s approach to the ball is an aspect of this play that must remain consistent time in and time out. The slightest variation in the approach speed may cause a player covering the kick to be called off sides.• Upon the final steps of the approach is when a kicker must begin to determine where they are going to plant their off foot. The location of the plant depends on the kicker’s preference. A misstep or a slip in this step may result in a poor quick or worse a kick that goes out of bounds.
• Note the placement of the defender next to the kicker. By remaining slightly behind the kicker the defender remains within the rules.* Also note the placementof the kickers feet. Byplacing the off foot near thefootball he gains maximumleverage.
TACTICAL SKILLS REQUIRED FOR KICK OFF * Players must know the rules, all players must be behind the kicker prior to the kick. * Kickers must know the game plan, and which section of the field to kick towards. * If the kick goes out of bounds, the receiving team may elect to receive the ball on the 30 yard line, or have the kickoff repeated, but from 5 yards deeper.• If the kick goes into the end zone the opposing team starts on the 20 yard line.• The most important factor for those covering the kick is to remain in their respective lanes.* Upon converging to the ball, those in coverage shall breakdown and attempt tomake the tackle with proper form.
* Above the Minnesota Vikingsbegin their kickoff in a standardformation.* To the left is a diagram of whatone of many lane assignmentsmay look like.
Technical Skills Required For Kick Return• The most important part of receiving a kick off is catching the ball. There are numerous factors to take into account when attempting to do so.• Judging the ball is where the process begins. Players must take in several varying factors when doing so, considering wind, rotation of the ball, and position of the sun.• When the ball finally reaches the player they must remember several things to ensure a secure catch. First is keeping the elbows in, by doing so the player prevents the ball from going all the way through.• Next, the return man should “cushion” the kick by bending at his knees and waist.• Finally, the return man should look the ball all the way in and squeeze the ball once it finally makes contact.
• One of the greatest returners the game has ever seen, Devin Hester, demonstrates the proper form to catch a kick.* Notice the bend in hisknees creating a cushion forthe ball.* Also the elbows are intight against his body toprevent the ball from goingall the way through to theground.
Attempting An Onside Kick• As an attempt of trickery, or in a last effort to retrieve the ball with the game on the line, teams will attempt an onside kick.• The most crucial part of perfecting an onside kick is the kick. Having to go 10 yards before the kicking team must contact the ball, the kicker must have perfect form.• Kickers must position themselves closer to the ball than they would on a regular kick off. The ball should have a slight lean towards the ground, while the laces face the receiving team.• Whereas on a regular kick the contact should be made at the base of the football, on an onside attempt the contact should be made at top of the football, driving it into the ground.• Timing is extremely critical in this play.
Recovering An Onside Kick Attempt• The number one thing players on the “Hands Team” should remember is, the ball must travel 10 yards before the kicking team can recover it. By attempting to recover the ball prematurely a player is simply putting his team at more risk.• Hands teams are typically comprised of specialty players who can secure the ball safely and quickly. Wide Receivers, Running Backs, Defensive Backs and even Tight Ends are called upon to not only secure the ball, but also protect their player who attempts to secure the ball.
• The onside kick is one of the biggest bone crunching plays of the game. With the game usually at stake at this point players will sacrifice their bodies to recover the ball.• Pictured right, a Philadelphia Eagle attacks the ball at its highest point to ensure his team recovers the ball
Punt Protection & Punt Coverage• The primary job of the Punt Team is to make sure the Punter has enough room and time to punt the ball, this is called Punt Protection.• After the ball has been kicked away successfully, the punt team becomes a coverage unit, known as Punt Coverage.
Punt Protection• 2 types of protection commonly used, Tight and Spread.• Tight Punt – all players are lined up close together. This formation is used to protect against a potential block.• Spread Punt – 2 split ends (called bullets) align out wide to cover punt.• Copy and paste the link below to view an unsuccessful punt protection.• http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=q78vdME_hqQ
Coaching Punt Protection• Defensive players are allowed to move around before the ball is snapped, but the punt team must remain still for a full second before the ball is snapped. Focusing on having your players watch the ball and not the defenders is key in order to avoid false start penalties.• Coaches must understand protection schemes when it comes to Punt team. Zone blocking is an all around favorite for many teams. Players must understand their zones of responsibility in this scheme.• Coaches must prepare their team to ignore twists, slants, angles and other defensive movements and have their players focus on their zone assignment.
Punt Coverage• After the punt has been kicked away successfully, the punt team players become a coverage unit.• This unit must prevent the other team from scoring or gaining positive yardage by executing a proper punt coverage.• Players are given lane assignments to shorten returners ability to return the kick.
Coaching Punt Coverage • Coaches need to have their players recognize when the rush threat ends so that they are not holding blocks to long that prevents them from covering their lane. • By coaching your player to plant their feet and sink their hips, this will prevent them from being driven backwards into the punter. • Coaches must teach the unit how to fan out into coverage once the ball has been kicked. Players must first release on an angle towards the sidelines then look for the ball to adjust their lane coverage.
Punt Return• Another aspect of the Punt Team is the Punt Return team.• This team receives the ball on an opponents 4th down kick. The man purpose of this team is to field the ball safely and to gain as many yards as possible to put a teams offense in a great position to score. Or they can score themselves.
The Wall Return• A commonly run play for the punt team is called “Wall Return Right/Left”.• A wall return is a punt return in which some of the players on the return team peel off to the left or right once the ball has been kicked to provide the punt returner with a lane to run the ball.• Defenders must be coached to slow down “Bullets” or return cannot be set up.• Coaches must stress the importance for their players to sprint down field to set up blocks.• Coaches must teach players how to communicate with one another during this coverage, to let each other know who they plan on blocking.• Copy and paste the link below to view a wall return left.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iY34k7xIf lM&feature=related
Football is a great sport to Coach and Play. It is important that the Coaching staff has agame plan to teach the players. This is just a basic run down of what can be done tomake a program successful.This game plan will allow a Coach to get a program up and running. Building on aprogram from start to finish of a season is an important concept all Coaches shouldimplement.
Produced By: Introduction: James BabinLeadership: Brian Martin Coaching: Tommy Vallejos Practice Planning: Elizabeth StuartQuarter Backs: James Babin Offensive Line: Brandon Paul Running Backs & Receivers: Kenyetta WilliamsDefensive Line: Jonathan Brewer Line Backers: Paul TancrediKickoffs: Matt Smith Punt: McSolomon Dahn Transitions & Conclusion: Paul Tancredi