Definition: A Condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two simple molecules are joined together to form a larger molecule with the removal of one molecule of water . glucose glucose maltose water
Digestion of disaccharides by hydrolysis maltose glucose glucose maltase Definition: Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which a water molecule is needed to break up a complex molecule into small molecules.
Polysaccharides( Complex Sugars): consist of many monosaccharides (simple sugars)
Eg. Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen
By which process is polysaccharides formed?
Test for reducing sugars (Benedict’s Test)
Blue to orange-red precipitate
Blue to yellow or orange precipitate.
Blue to green precipitate.
Large amount of reducing sugar is present.
Moderate amount of reducing sugar is present.
Traces of reducing sugar is present.
This equipment is used to find out nutrients found in food products .
Applications of Food Test
In food, dairy and agricultural industries.
Used by food biotechnologists, nutritionists
Functions of carbohydrates
A substrate for respiration , to provide energy for cell activities;
Form s upporting structures e.g cell wall
Converted into other organic compounds such as amino acids and fats
Formation of nucleic acids e.g. DNA
Synthesis lubricant s e.g. mucus
Synthesis nectar in some flowers
Where can we find carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are found in:
-Starch: Bread, Rice, Pasta, Potatoes
-Sugars: Soft drinks, sweet fruits, sweets
They are organic compounds made up of the elements carbon , hydrogen and oxygen .
Fats contain much less oxygen in proportion to hydrogen.
E.g. tristearin C 57 H 110 O 6
A fat molecule
GLYCEROL FATTY ACIDS
What make up fats? Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) 3 fatty acids glycerol
It can be broken down into fatty acids and glycerol by hydrolysis.
Fat molecule 3 water molecules glycerol three fatty acid molecules
Differences between saturated fats and unsaturated fats
Found mostly in animals
Solid at room temperature
Fatty acid chains are straight
Found mostly in vegetables
Liquid at room temperature
Eg. Olive oil
Fatty acid chains are bent in some places
-A fatty substance called cholesterol is usually found together with polysaturated fats. Too much polysaturated fats and cholesterol in the diet may cause coronary heart disease.
Test for Fats (Ethanol Emulsion Test)
Functions of fats
Source and store of energy
Insulating material preventing excess heat loss.
A solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and other vital substances such as hormones.
An essential part of the protoplasm , especially in cell membrane.
To reduce water loss from skin surface.
Where can we find fats?
Fats are found in:
Butter, nuts, certain parts of meat.
Types of fats:
Found in animals fats
Usually found with cholesterol
Found in vegetable fats
The chemical elements in proteins are carbon , hydrogen , oxygen and nitrogen .
Often sulphur and phosphorus are present too.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
T here are 2 types of amino acids, essential and non-essential .
There are 9 essential amino acids that must be supplied by the food you eat.
An amino acid is made up of a amino group (-NH2), and acidic group (-COOH) and a side chain (-R)
Two amino acids link up in a condensation reaction. The bond formed is called a peptide bond .
Many amino acids linked up by peptide bond to form a peptone or polypeptide .
Polypeptides may link up to form long chains of amino acids. Protein molecule is formed when the chains fold together.
Coiled , folded , three-dimensional shape.
Coil held by weak hydrogen bonds .
Test for Proteins (Biuret Test)
Proteins are needed for:
growth and repair of tissues
synthesis of enzymes, antibodies and hormones
supply of energy
Functions of proteins
Where can we find proteins?
Proteins are found in:
Fish, meat, eggs, milk and milk products, beans
What is a Balanced Diet?
A balanced diet should contain the right amount of:
water and roughage
to meet the daily requirements of the body.
Leads to Kwashiorkor
Symptoms: Swollen stomachs, skin crack and become scaly.
Carbohydrates NUTRIENTS may be Functions of water In animals, water: • is a medium for chemical reactions to occur; • transports digested food products, excretory products, and hormones from one part of the body to another; • is an essential part of protoplasm, lubricants, digestive juices and blood; • is essential for hydrolysis; and • helps to control body temperature. Monosaccharides (single sugars), e.g. glucose, fructose and galactose In plants, water: • is essential for photosynthesis; • is needed to keep plant cells turgid; • transports mineral salts from the roots to the leaves; and • transports food substances from the leaves to other parts of the plants. Water Fats Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but they contain much less oxygen in proportion to hydrogen. Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulphur may also be present. Inorganic nutrient. Water does not contain carbon. Proteins Disaccharides (double sugars), e.g. maltose, lactose and sucrose Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) made up of many monosaccharides e.g. Starch Glycogen Cellulose • forms the cell walls in plants; and • cannot be digested by mammals, but is used as fibre in their diet. Identification Test for reducing sugars: A reducing sugar gives a brick-red precipitate when boiled with Benedict’s solution. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar. • serves as the main form of storage for carbohydrates in green plants; and • gives a blue-black colour with iodine (test for starch). • serves as the main form of storage for carbohydrates in animals and fungi. Basic units Fats are hydrolysed to form fatty acids and glycerol. Identification Test for fats: A cloudy white emulsion is formed in the ethanol emulsion test. Basic units Proteins consist of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Identification Test for proteins: Proteins give a violet colouration with Biuret reagent. amino acids polypeptides proteins