1. “UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DELECUADOR” facultad de filosofía, letras y ciencias de la educación ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS TANIA AGUIRRE PHONOLOGY/PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES/
2. TANIA AGUIRRE
3. DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGAN OF SPEECH THE PAIRED VOCAL “THE vocal folds vibrate to create FOLDXS ARE LOCATIONS sounds for vowels and voiced IN THE LARYN consonants”UVULA, shape like a U THONGUE THE PALATE Comes from latin “grape” Is segmented in Is segmented in three three sections sections Part of the tongue The tongue tip Know as apex lying closest to the front teeth
4. Is a speech sound VOWELS Produced by human beings Vowells occur in combinationsT I DIPHTHONGSH NE They are called V diphthongs E 1. VoicingV N 2. VowelOW T VOWEL Determine the vowel quality features are asE O PRODUCTIONS follow 3. Simple/L R comple ENGLISH VOWEL x The position of the 4. ᴂ/ᴐ PHONEME articulatory organs QUADRANT SPANISH VOWEL No more than two vowels PHONEME can occur together in QUADRANT spanish
5. SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT T O A E R A N G U /I/ E /u/ P O S /o/ I /e/ T I /a/ H S A E P P L O I NENGLISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT
6. Is the difference in CONTRAST pronunciation which is used by the speakersPhonetic and phonemic vowel Vowels sounds are sorted monophthongs MONOPHYHONGS contrast And diphthongs Is a single vowel <pet> /pɛt/ articulated witout change in quality <team> /tIym/ A front vowel is pronunced with the Part of the tongue from ts highest neutral position
7. /SPANISH/i/with ENGLISH/Iy/and/I/ THE /i//i/ /I/ /Iy/ The fronto The tongue is The tongue issection of the positioned positioned tongue rises forward forward To make And high in the And slightly contact both oral cavity lower sides. Than in the Of the upper with the sides in oral cavity for lateral teeth contact. /i/
9. The tongue is The tongue is The dorso section positioned forward positioned forward And high in the oral and high in the oralOf the tongue reaches cavity with its sides. cavityThe borders of the hard In contact with the lateral With thw sides in contact palate. teeth. with the lateral teeth. Making a groove Lips are spread and The jaw moves upbetween tongue/ palate. retracted.
10. SPANISH ENGLISH /e/ /ey/ /ɛ/ <tren /‟tren/ <came /‟keym <let> /‟lɛt/ > > / <sleig /‟sley/ <said /‟sɛd/ h> > PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES SPANISH ENGLISH /e/ /ey/ /ɛ/Voiced, Voiced,complex,te Voiced,simple,high n simple,high /e/ /ɛ/ /ei:/ /ei/ [ɛ:] [ɛ] [‘neto] [ texa [‘plei:/] [‘skeit] [‘sɛ:d] [‘sɛt]
11. The dorso section of The thongue The tongue is the tongue positioned slightly slightly Upwards gently to Forward and low in Back and low in the the central area the oral cavity oral cavity With the apex With the tip of the Of the oral cavity positioned. tongue placing
12. SPANISH ENGLISH /a/ /a/ /ᴂ/ <cárce /‟/kars <calm /‟kam/ <hat> /‟hᴂt / l> el > <not > /‟nat/ <laugh /‟lᴂf / > PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES SPANISH ENGLISH /a/ /a/ /ᴂ/Voiced, Voiced,complex,t Voiced,simple,high en simple,high /a/ /ǟ/ /a:/ /a/ [ᴂ:] [ᴂ][‘palma] [ mǟno] [‘fa:ɹ] [‘hat] [‘bᴂ: d ] [‘hᴂt ]
13. Is the most common vowel in spoken english. Ant it is a quite short vowel sound TheIN MANY LIGHTLY Unstressed pronunciation is PRONUNCED. syllables “uh” In english but it The tongue is Inmultisyllabic does not in positioned in the words spanish middle.
14. The tongue isretracted backwards The tongue is positioned back . The dorsoThe oral cavity. Lips section of the are rounded tongue In a low-mied position Is moved The tip of the backwlowerards tongue moves up. but With respect to the height.
16. DIPhTHONGS A dipthong is a complex vowel ENGLISHPhonological group DIPHTHONGS of a vowel sound Made of two componentsFollowed by a non FOR EXAMPLE: the adjacent glide diphthong transcribed within the same phonetically. sylable. The vowels can be classified as either weak i,u SPANISH Strong vowel a, e, o DIPHTHONGS Two strongs vowels can‟t be in the same syllable
17. SPANISH FALLING SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS DIPHTHONGS weak /ya/ low central position SPANISH /ye/mid front position Strong /ay/ tongue moves /yo/ high front position. upwards recurrently /yw/ high back position /ey/ upwards gently /wa/low central position mid front section. /we/rounded to spread /ew/ backwards /wy/high front position smoothly from position. /wo/keep rounded.
18. MacMillan IPA symbolsDictionary Broad Narrow j /y/ [j] i /ɪy/ [ɪɪ̯̯] e /ɛ/ [ɛ] ɑ /a/ [a] ʌ /ə/ [ʌ] if stressed u /uw/ [uu̯] ɜr /əɹ/ [ɝ] if stressed [ɚ] if unstressed eɪ /ey/ [eɪ̯̯] aɪ /ay/ [aɪ̯̯] ɔɪ /ɔy/ [ɔɪ̯] oʊ /ow/ [ou̯] aʊ /aw/ [au̯] ɪr /ɪɹ/ [ɪɹ] or [ɪəɹ]
19. ARTICULATOR ANDTHE VOCAL TRACT Articulatory basis POINT OF ARTICULATION. How describe VOICING consonant sound. Produced by Sound quality THE partially ARTICULATOR Vocal cords ACTIVE IN THE Association is SPEECH apico-alveolar The lower lip Voiced-otherwise /m,p/ Fronto-palatal The tongue as for/k,t,tʃ/ Voiced POINT OF Dorso-velar ARTICULATION consonants Difference Voiceless Is any part in dialects consonant the mouth
20. Upper and lower surface POINT OF MANNER OFTHE ARTICULATOR ARTICULATION ARTICULATION Any part in themoves freely enough to mouth Air flows out be active Major Passive Articulator During the production In the speech of a sound The upper Alveolar teeth (v) ridge(t) Hard The velum Stop, fricative,nasal, Major Active palate ʤ k lateral, vibrant, Articulator affricateor a continuant
21. PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST CONSTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH STOPS Stop or plosive HOMORGANIC SOUNDS Passive articulator This refers to soundsand completely cuts. English and spanish Made at the same place stops P,t,k,b,d,g of articulation.
22. /p/CONTRASTIVE TRANSFER AANALYSIS Contextualized phonetic P transcription. R P O/ I Dp U C /b/voiced- T Strong and weak forms.b C U /p/voiceless T/ R I E O Phonemic adn phonetic features N and distribution.. /p/[p] [ph] [p’][p-]
23. /p-b/ PRODUCTION PICTURE /b/voiced /p/CONTRASTIVE TRANSFER AANALYSIS/p/voiceless International Contextualized phonetic Phonetic transcription. Transcription EXAMPLES: both Strong and weak forms. language Phonemic adn phonetic <strap> /stɹᴂp/ features and distribution.. /b/[b] <bob> /bab/
24. Despite the fact that spanish and english. /t/ /t/is voiceless, apico- dental,oral,stop. FEATURES /t- /-t-/[.t][r][ţ][ʔ]d/PRODUCTION PICTURE Phonemic and Same phonological phonetic symbol/d/ /d/ English:/d/[ʔ][r] distribution Spanish:[δ][Φ] /d/
25. /k-g/PRODUCTION PICTURE/k/voiceless /k/ /g/ /g/voiced Phonemic the same features distribution,/g/the spanish spelling: in both languages. same sound. <acosar>/ako‟sar/ English Voiceless, dorso- Voiced,dorso- spelling:examples velar,oral, stop. velar,oral,stop, <clear>/‟kliyəɹ/ Phonemic and phonetic Spanish:[Ɣ] [g] Oral, dorso- velar,stop distribution./k/[r][r] english: [g] [r] [r]
26. /f-v/ PRODUCTION PICTURE Phonemic and phonetic features Labio- dental,oral,fricativeSpanish,has two /f/ /v/ allophones [f] voiceless Free <„fɹiy> Special emphasis has to be givenLabio dental, oral, /f/[ɸ] Sound its absence. fricative, [ɸ]
27. /S- /z/ voicedZ/PRODUCTION PICTURE /s/voiceless Both english and spanish have Phonemic and REMINDER /s/sound which is phonetic features. voiceless PRODUCCION: Phonetic and phonemicPRODUCCION:/Z/happens ENGLISH spelling features /z/ sound occurs isas an allophone of /s/<z> <z>razor /‟reyzƏr/ voiced. and s /s/
28. /z/ /s/ Sound which is voiceless Sound wich is voiced The diference is marked greatly. Apico –alveolar, oral,fricative REMINDER:Positional variation, and it voiced /z/voiced, apico- [s]h, position, initial, alveolar meddle and final.
29. /ð-θ/ production picture /ð/voiced, /θ/ voiceless/θ/ Phonetic and phonemic features: /θ/ Apico, interdental,oral, fricativ e in both languages: in Exist english phoneme and spanish allophonedistribution The english:/θ/ is not used in America /θ/ REMIND it occurs in a low.
30. /ð-θ/ production picture /ð/voiced, /θ/ voiceless/ð/ Phonetic and phonemic features: /ð/ Apico, interdental,oral, fricative in both languages: Exist Voiced, apico- interdental, oral, /ð/ fricative. In spanish is allophone In english it is phoneme,Position between vowels. voiced, apico- interdental.
31. /λ-r/ production picture /λ/voiced, /r/ voiceless/λ/ Phonetic and phonemic features: /λ/ Apico, interdental,oral, fricative in both languages: Exist Voiced, apico- interdental, oral, /r/ fricative. In spanish is allophone In english it isPosition between phoneme, voiced, apico- vowels. interdental.
32. As an Allophone /ʒ/ of This /ʒ/ sounds as a the FRONTO- Phoneme in English. PALATAL LATERAL /λ/ in Spanish. EXAMPLES <ge> garage /gəɹaʒ/The /ʒ/ sound occur in <si> occasion /ə‘keyʒən/English only middle and <s> measure /mɛʒəɹ/ final position. <g> regime /ɹeyɪʒiym/ <z> azure /æʒəɹ/
33. VOICED FRONTO-PALATAL ORAL GROOVE FRICATIVE THE VIOCED FRICATIVE /ʒ/ENTERED THEENGLISH PHONEME INVENTORY THROUGH FRENCH WORDS
34. The voicelessDORSO-VELAR /x/ is sound which existx particulary in Spanish A common EXAMPLES confusion is <j> jarabe made with the /xaˈrabe/ glottal English<g>girasol /xiɾaˈsol/ /h/ when English<x>xavier /xabieɾ/ speaker utter the velar sound
35. THIS PHONEME /X/ HAS THREE ALLOPHONE WHICH MAY OCCUR IN FREE VARIATION REGARDING VOICELESSDORSO-VELAR ORAL [x] voiceless, dorso- FRICATIVE velar, oral,fricative [h]voiceless, glottal, oral fricative [ø] zero allophone
36. The /h/ is another The /h/ sound neversound which happens in occursin final position partial distribution Spanish speaker same This phoneme not existspronounce as the english in Spanish but it‟s an /h/ allophone of sound /x/ EXAMPLES <h> holiday /halɪdey/ <wh>whole /ˈhowl/
37. phoneme /h/ has twoallophones in English:[h] voiceless, glottal, oral,fricative[-ɦ-]voiced,glottal,oralfricative VOICELESS GLOTTAL ORAL FRICATIVE THE ENGLISH WORDS <when>,<why>,<what> are pronunced by some speakear with the initial consonant cluster /hw/
38. ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATORE /ʧ/ /ʤ/ AFFRIC ORAL ATES [ʧ] [ʤ] VOICELESS VOICED VOICING HOMORGANIC SOUNDS AFFRICATES have the same place of articulation They are transcribed using the symbols for the stop and the fricative creating a diagraph
39. /ʧ/ FEATURES VOICELESSAPICO-ALVEOLARLAMINO FRONTO- PALATE ORAL AFFRICATE THE / ʧ/ SOUND IS A COMMON ELEMENT IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH BESIDES THR BOTH LANGUAGES HAVE ONE ALLOPHONE WITH THE SAME FEATURES
40. VOICED APICO-ALVEOLAR LAMINO FRONTO- PALATE ORAL AFFRICATE IN SPANISH IT IS ALLOPHONE OF THE PALATALAPPROXIMAT /y/ UTTERED BY FEW PEOPLE OF THE COAST REGION
41. CONTRAST NASAL SOUNDThe nasals ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATIONconsonants are continuan Occlusiveproduced when the BILABIA APICO DORSO DORSOair to flow out L ALVEOL VELAR PALATAL Nasal E ARthrough the nasal Scavity /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ ---- t - /n/ /m/ /ŋ/ /m/ /n/ [ŋ] /ɲ/ voiced voiced voiced voiced VOICING EXAMPLES <m> message /ˈmɛsəʤ/ <mm> mammal /ˈmæmə/
42. ENGLISH SPANISHIt has three allophones:[m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, It has just oneocclusive,continuant allophone[ɱ]voiced,labiodental,nasal, [m]occlusive,continuant voiced,bilabial,nasal,[mͅ] voiced,bilabial,nasal, occlusive,continuantocclusive,continuant,syllabic ENGLISH NASAL CONSONANTS MAY BECOME SYLLABIC WHEN OCCURING IN FINAL-WORD POSITION AS PART OF AS UNSTRESSED SYLLABLE AND BESIDES WHEN THE REDUCED VOWEL SOUND IS DROPPED
43. /Y//W/ PRODUCTION PICTURE Fronto palatal, oral, voiced, fricative /W/ Aproximat sound Features distribution Both language Spanish: there are ENGLISH [_ų] bilabial Voiced bilabial- dorso velar [w-]dorso velar Allophones [w-]Oral, approximant [g]semiconsonant semiconsonant[_ų] color
44. /y/ Production picture features distributionPhoneme, voiced, ENGLISH: /Y-/fronto-palatal, ora. SPANISH:ʤ, /j-/Differents allophones and phonemes in both Two happen in free variation. languages.
45. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CONNECTED SPEECH What occurs when a non.native speakers lacked of experience in tha language.THE PHONETIC TEACHING DIFFERENT CONNECTED SPEECH PROCESSES PROCESSES Learners of foreing CHANGES IN Common both spanish languages try to PRONUNCIATION and english.. pronounce Depend on the Within and between words. Each single word. formality of the situation. Position with LINKING(connectin They fail to blend words. neighboring sounds. g)