Organic Chemistry Objectives – To describe the difference between monomers and polymers. – To list the basic elements found in living things. – To describe the general structure of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. – To describe enzymes and discuss their importance to all living things.
Elements Found in Living Things Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon NitrogenThese are the most basic components of all living things.They can be combined in an infinite number of ways to formthe major components of all living things!
Percentage of elements found in animals Hydrogen = 10% Oxygen = 63% Carbon = 19% Nitrogen = 4%Why is there so much hydrogen and oxygen?
Percentage of elements found in Plants Hydrogen = 10% Oxygen = 77% Carbon = 12% Nitrogen = <1%
Organic Compounds Compounds found in living things that contain Carbon. May also contain Hydrogen, oxygen, and Nitrogen Methane Amino acid
Forming Organic Compounds Formed by the process of polymerization – the forming of large compounds with many smaller parts. Small molecules = monomers They combine to make… Large molecules = polymers
Dehydration synthesisJoins monomers together by removing a water“De” = loss “hydration” = waterEvery time 2 monomers join a water is removed.The water is added to break molecules in a process called hydrolysis.
Did you know?Silly Putty is one big long polymer formed from many smaller monomers
Carbohydrates Commonly called sugars and starches. “Carbo” for carbon, “Hydrates” for water Made of CHO Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 2:1 Ratio (twice much hydrogen as oxygen, just like H2O).
Carbohydrates Monomers = Monosaccharides • Glucose • Fructose • GalatoseThey combine to make other, larger carbohydrates
Disaccharides Two monosaccharides combine to form Disaccharides – Glucose + glucose maltose (malt sugar) + water – Glucose + fructose sucrose(table sugar) + water – Glucose + galactose lactose (milk sugar) + water What do you notice that all Carbohydrates have in common?
Disaccharides Two monosaccharide combine to form Disaccharides – Glucose + glucose maltose (malt sugar) + water – Glucose + fructose sucrose(table sugar) + water – Glucose + galactose lactose (milk sugar) + water They all end in -ose
Polysaccharides “poly” = many; “saccharides” = sugar Formed by dehydration synthesis Storage form of glucose (energy) in organisms. 1000’s of glucose molecules join to form one polysaccharide!
Polysaccharides – glucose storage Plants = 2 forms Starch – storage form , digestible by humans Cellulose- same as starch, but different bonds- can not be digested by humansThe stringy part of celery is mostly cellulose
Polysaccharides – glucose storage Animals – store glucose as glycogen •Glycogen is a highly branched molecule made of 1000+ molecules of glucose. •This is our short term storage of the glucose molecule
Lipids Organic compounds that are oily or waxy Form cell membranes Chemical messengers
Formation of LipidsMonomers = fatty acids (2 or 3) andglycerol (1)Formed through dehydration synthesis
Fats and EnergyFats are your bodies long term storage of glucoseProduce more energy/gram than carbohydrates
Proteins Contain nitrogen Monomers = 20 different amino acids, combine to form 1000’s of different proteins! The bond that joins two amino acids is a peptide bond. Have a very specific shape when formed.
Amino acids- monomers of proteins Four sample amino acids.What do they have in common?How are they different?What do you think is removed every time twoamino acids are joined?
Protein ShapesBased upon their sequence of amino acids, proteins will fold into very intricate and unique shapes.
Did You Know? Protein’s are very sensitive to heat If your body temperature gets above a certain level, your proteins “denature.” In other words they change shape, and stop working.
Protein in your body BONESBLOOD HORMONESENZYMES LIGAMENTS
Enzymes – special proteins Facilitateall reactions that happen in cells With out them reactions would occur very slowly Enzymes are reusable! Diagramed in the lock and key model.