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MODELS OF THE ATOMS
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MODELS OF THE ATOMS

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TEMA PARA LA MATERIA DE QUÍMICA...t/t

TEMA PARA LA MATERIA DE QUÍMICA...t/t

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  • 1. Electrons QBA Miguel A. Castro Ramírez
  • 2. Models of the Atom Red Book: Section 5.1 Blue Book:13.1
  • 3. Rutherford’s FailureRutherford’s model could not describe behavior of atoms Think About It: Why do certain atoms react while others don’t? Why do some fireworks glow red and others green?
  • 4. Bohr’s Atom Hypothesis: each electron exists in a certain “orbit” or “energy level” Electrons can never exist in between Higher energy levels are further from the nucleus
  • 5. QuantaA quantum (pl. quanta) is the amount of energy required for an electron to move up an energy level
  • 6. Quantum Mechanical ModelAlso called “electron cloud model”Mathematically-based
  • 7. Quantum Mechanical Model Determines allowed electron energies and how likely it is to find an electron in various locations around the nucleus Dense cloud = high probability
  • 8. Atomic Orbitals Region of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electronWhy It’s Important: The exact location of each electroncontrols the atom’s properties!
  • 9. “Address” of ElectronEach electron will be found  On a PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVEL  In one of several SUBLEVELS  On an ORBITAL
  • 10. Principal Quantum Numbers Each energy level is assigned a principal quantum energy number, n n can be 1, 2, 3, or 4, etc…
  • 11. Sublevels Each principal energy level has specific sublevels where an electron can be found # of sublevels corresponds to principal quantum number  Level 1 has 1 sublevel  Level 2 has 2 sublevels…
  • 12. SublevelsSublevels are given letter designationsspdf
  • 13. The orbital names (s,Why s, p, p, d, f, g, h,...) ared, and f? derived from the characteristics of their spectroscopic lines: sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental, the rest being named in alphabetical order. For mnemonic reasons, some call them spherical & peripheral.
  • 14. Atomic Orbitalss sublevel – 1 orbitalsp sublevel – 3d sublevel – 5f sublevel – 7
  • 15. Atomic Orbitals Each orbital can hold one pair of electrons Each member of the pair has an opposite spin
  • 16. How many totalelectrons in each?
  • 17. 1 Principal Energy Level st• 1 sublevel (s)• 2 electrons in s orbital• 2 total
  • 18. 2 Principal Energy Level nd• 2 sublevels (s and p)• 2 electrons in s orbital• 6 electrons in p orbitals• 8 total (10 combined with 1st)
  • 19. 3 Principal Energy Level rd• 3 sublevels (s, p and d)• 2 electrons in s orbital• 6 electrons in p orbitals• 10 electrons in d orbitals• 18 total (28 combined with 1st and 2nd)
  • 20. 4 Principal Energy Level th• 4 sublevels (s, p, d and f)• 2 electrons in s orbital• 6 electrons in p orbitals• 10 electrons in d orbitals• 14 electrons in f orbitals• 32 total (50 combined with 1st, 2nd, and 3rd)
  • 21. Electron Arrangement Blue Book: 13.2 Red Book: 5.2
  • 22. Electron ConfigurationWay that electrons are arranged in various orbitalsArrangement governed by three rules
  • 23. Aufbau PrincipleElectrons first occupy orbitals of lowest energySublevels from some principal energy levels overlap others
  • 24. Aufbau Diagrams Display the order in which orbitals are filled (to achieve the most stable configuration)
  • 25. Aufbau Principle
  • 26. Pauli Exclusion PrincipleEach orbital holds, at most, two electrons.Two occupy the same orbital, two electrons must have opposite spins.This is written or
  • 27. Hund’s Rule In each sublevel, one electron enters each orbital until each has one with the same spin direction Not until all orbitals have one electron can any have two
  • 28. Orbital Filling DiagramsShow which orbitals are filled by electrons
  • 29. Writing Electron Configurations
  • 30. Electron Configurations Sublevels are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s
  • 31. Electron ConfigurationsContain 3 items: Number represents energy level Letter represents sublevel Superscript represents number of electrons 1s 2
  • 32. Electron ConfigurationsAdditional segments needed for each sublevel 1s 2s 2 2
  • 33. Electron Configurations1s 2s 2p2 2 6
  • 34. Electron Configurationsof Specific ElementsIn a neutral element, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons.
  • 35. Electron ConfigurationsHydrogen SiliconOxygen CalciumNeon Superscripts add up to the total number of electrons!