17/10/2012                                                  MLEARN 2012    Mobile Learning in Secondary School         The...
17/10/2012                          Acknowledgements•   Byrne P. , Tangney B., Animation on Mobile Phones, IADIS Internati...
17/10/2012   1           My Philosophical Outlook   A Self Confessed Techno-ScepticThis technology “is destined to revolut...
17/10/2012        2 Philosophers, 1 Poet           & 2 Researchers                Aristotle"For the things we haveto learn...
17/10/2012                             Kahlil Gibran“If he (the teacher) is indeed wisehe does not bid you enter thehouse ...
17/10/2012                 Papert and Jonassen• Learning as “hard fun”.• “...technologies should not  support learning by ...
17/10/2012      The type of learning experiences we                 wish to create “…when learners are active and motivate...
17/10/2012             A Seminal Example                  Cooties     •                                        Soloway, E....
17/10/2012                   Other Early Ones                                  DRUMSTEPS                                  ...
17/10/2012      Two Player PONG(Sergey Slashchev, Vicki Wisuri, Jiachuan Wang)      PONG Video Clip                       ...
17/10/2012       Augmented RealityMulti-player Draughts (Checkers)    Hugh Lardner & Stefan Weber       Augmented RealityM...
17/10/2012                   Set Up IPlayer’s currentlocation                                  Player’s piece Set Up II – ...
17/10/2012              How to move         Turn taking is controlled by the players         themselves talking to each ot...
17/10/2012           Game in action!    The Verdict on App InventorQ. Can non techies create interestingmobile (AR) learni...
17/10/2012       Designing 21C “classroom” 3         learning experiences.            Collaboration                      “...
17/10/2012Aspect                  Pedagogy in an industrial   Pedagogy in the information                        society  ...
17/10/2012         A Model of Team Based, Technology         Mediated, Project Oriented Learning              - Outside th...
17/10/2012            Experience to date• Since Nov 2007 working in partnership with an  NGO (SUAS Educational Development...
17/10/2012Themes emerging from                                                                                            ...
17/10/2012Systemic Change in Irish Schools                                (12-16 age range)Being creative                 ...
17/10/2012                                                         Challanges                                        Assim...
17/10/2012                                             Key Skills      Being creative                         Working with...
17/10/2012                           The MobiMath                               Toolkit(Tangney B., Weber S. , OHanlon P.,...
17/10/2012How long would it take you to fill the pond in the local park withwater using only buckets filled from the tap i...
17/10/2012                          Video Clip  The Bridge 21 model and (mobile) technology  can help us create learning e...
17/10/2012                  Going forward• Working with 12 schools in 2012-13    – Working with 3 schools opening in 2014....
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Mlearn 2012 Keynote

  1. 1. 17/10/2012 MLEARN 2012 Mobile Learning in Secondary School The Case for Educational Transformation? Brendan Tangney Centre for Research in IT in Education School of Education and School of Computer Science & Statistics Trinity College Dublin tangney@tcd.ie www.slideshare.net/tangney Bibliography All videos available on https://vimeo.com/user10137243 Bruner, J. S. (1961). "The act of discovery". Harvard Educational Review 31 (1): 21–32 Dror, Itiel E. 2008. Technology enhanced learning: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Pragmatics & Cognition 16:2 215–223. Galton, M., L. Hargreaves, and T. Pell, Group work and whole‐class teaching with 11‐ to 14‐year‐olds compared. Cambridge Journal of Education, 2009. 39(1): p. 119-140. Jonassen, D., C. Carr, and H.-P. Yueh, Computers as mindtools for engaging learners in critical thinking. TechTrends, 1998. 43(2): p. 24-32. Jonassen, D., Mayes, T., & McAleese, R. (1993). A manifesto for a constructivist approach to uses of technology in higher education. In T.M. Duffy, J. Lowyck, & D.H. Jonassen (Eds.), Designing environments for constructive learning (pp. 231–247). Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Papert, S. & Harel, I. (eds). (1991) Constructionism: research reports and essays 1985 - 1990 by the Epistemology and Learning Research Group, the Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ablex Pub. Corp, Norwood, NJ Piaget, Jean. (1950). The Psychology of Intelligence. New York: Routledge. Ruben R. Puentedura. Transformation, Technology, and Education. (2006) http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/ Soloway, E., et al., Log on education: Handheld devices are ready-at-hand. Communications of the ACM, 2001. 44(6): p. 15- 20. Voogt & Pelgrum, Pedagogy in a knowledge-based society, Human Technology : 2005, Volume 1, Number 2 [9] Vygotskii, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1
  2. 2. 17/10/2012 Acknowledgements• Byrne P. , Tangney B., Animation on Mobile Phones, IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning, July 2006, pp365 – 369• Conneely, C., Lawlor, J., Tangney, B., Technology, Teamwork and 21st Century Skills in the Irish Classroom in, editor(s)Marshall, K., Shaping our Future: How the lessons of the past can shape educational transformation, Liffey Press, to appear 2013• Johnston K., Murchan D., Conneely C., Tangney B. Enacting Key Skills-based Curricula in Secondary Education: Lessons from a Technology-mediated, Group-based Learning Initiative. European Conference on Educational Research, 2012.• Lawlor J., Conneely C., and Tangney B., Towards a pragmatic model for group-based, technology-mediated, project- oriented learning – an overview of the B2C model, in Proceedings of the TechEduca Conference 2010, pp. 602-609.• McCarthy, C., Bligh, J., Jennings, K., Tangney, B., Virtual Collaborative Learning Environments for Music: Networked Drumsteps, Computers & Education, 44, (2), 2005, p173 - 195• Patten B., A C4 Toolkit for the Teaching and Learning of Concurrency, M.Sc. Thesis, TCD, 2007• Patten, B., Arnedillo Sánchez I., Tangney B., Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 2006. 46(3): p. 294-308.• Reardon S. and Tangney B., Studio-Based Learning with Smartphones for Novice Programmers, in Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning2011: Beijing. p. 32-39.• Tangney B., Oldham E., Conneely C., Barrett S., Lawlor J., Pedagogy and Processes for a Computer Programming Outreach Workshop—The Bridge to College Model. IEEE Transactions on Education, 2010. 53(1): p. 53-60.• Tangney B., Weber S. , OHanlon P., Knowles D., Munnelly J., Salkham A., Watson R., Jennings K, MobiMaths: An approach to utilising smartphones in teaching mathematics, Proceeding of the 9th world conference on mobile and contextual learning, 2010, pp9 – 15 4 2
  3. 3. 17/10/2012 1 My Philosophical Outlook A Self Confessed Techno-ScepticThis technology “is destined to revolutionizeour educational system and ... in a few yearsit will supplant largely, if not entirely, the useof textbooks". – 1922 - Thomas Edison on motion pictures.“Taking full advantage of the benefits ofICT in teaching and learning willencourage and enable all students tobecome self-assured and self-directedlearners.” 2011 (Smart Schools = Smart Economy, Irish government policy document) 3
  4. 4. 17/10/2012 2 Philosophers, 1 Poet & 2 Researchers Aristotle"For the things we haveto learn before we can dothem, we learn by doingthem.“Ethics Book II 4
  5. 5. 17/10/2012 Kahlil Gibran“If he (the teacher) is indeed wisehe does not bid you enter thehouse of his wisdom, but ratherleads you to the threshold ofyour own mind.”From The Prophet, Kahil Gibran Socrates“Can it be, Ischomachus, that asking questions is teaching?” Socrates, quoted in Xenophons "Economics" 5
  6. 6. 17/10/2012 Papert and Jonassen• Learning as “hard fun”.• “...technologies should not support learning by attempting to instruct the learners, but rather should be used as knowledge construction tools that students learn with, not from.” (Jonassen, D., C. Carr, and H.-P. Yueh, 1998) Some Mobile Learning 2 Applications 6
  7. 7. 17/10/2012 The type of learning experiences we wish to create “…when learners are active and motivated, when they are involved, participating, engaged, and interacting with the material, then learning is maximised.” (Dror E. 2008) Constructivist learning An environment which is rich in information Learners performing authentic tasks in ill- structured domains Learning & problem solving in real-life contexts Learning through interactions with others An emphasis on learning rather than solutions An emphasis on reflective learning A cognitive apprenticeship teaching model Bruner, J. S. (1961; Jonassen, D., Mayes, T., & McAleese, R. (1993); Papert, S. & Harel, I. (eds). (1991) ; Piaget, Jean. (1950); Vygotskii, L.S. (1978). 7
  8. 8. 17/10/2012 A Seminal Example Cooties • Soloway, E., et al., 2001. 1st Attempt at supporting Learning ConversationsPatten B., A C4 Toolkit for the Teaching and Learning of Concurrency, M.Sc. Thesis, TCD, 2007 L3: Give me the Fork [to L4] L4: Fork is gone L3: GIMME! L4: Sorry buddy. L3: put down your damn fork. [to L5] [L2 and L7 start to communicate] L3: No, your fork has gone [to L2] L2: I’m just telling him to wait L3: Can you tell me to wait? [to L4] [L3 and L4 point PDAs at each other] L3: [reading from screen] ‘Fork is already being used’ L4: I’m just sending you a message. L3: [shouting] Conor [L5] relinquish the fork, I’m starving here! (Patten B., 2007) 8
  9. 9. 17/10/2012 Other Early Ones DRUMSTEPS (McCarthy, C., Bligh, J., Jennings, K., Tangney, B., 2005) Virtual Graffiti David O’Loghlin - www.vgraffiti.com SMART - (Byrne P. , Tangney B., 2006) Learner Created (AR) Mobile Applications Using App Inventorhttp://appinventor.mit.edu/ 9
  10. 10. 17/10/2012 Two Player PONG(Sergey Slashchev, Vicki Wisuri, Jiachuan Wang) PONG Video Clip 10
  11. 11. 17/10/2012 Augmented RealityMulti-player Draughts (Checkers) Hugh Lardner & Stefan Weber Augmented RealityMulti-player Draughts (Checkers) 11
  12. 12. 17/10/2012 Set Up IPlayer’s currentlocation Player’s piece Set Up II – Walk to the correct locationPlayer’s currentlocation Player’s piece 12
  13. 13. 17/10/2012 How to move Turn taking is controlled by the players themselves talking to each other – not the application! When a team agrees which of its pieces to move the appropriate player walks to their new location and selects “Choose to Move” which updates the location of the piece on the board.How to move - II Piece has followed player to new location and the screens of all other players are updated. 13
  14. 14. 17/10/2012 Game in action! The Verdict on App InventorQ. Can non techies create interestingmobile (AR) learning apps using AppInventor?A. Not there yet but getting close……… 14
  15. 15. 17/10/2012 Designing 21C “classroom” 3 learning experiences. Collaboration “Stationary desks and chairs are proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school” - Montessori (1912) 20091890 15
  16. 16. 17/10/2012Aspect Pedagogy in an industrial Pedagogy in the information society societyActive learners Whole class instruction Small groupsCollaborative Individual Working in teams Homogeneous groups Heterogeneous groups Everyone for him/herself Supporting each otherCreative Reproductive learning Productive learningIntegrative Discipline based Thematic Individual teachers Teams of Teachers The SAMR Model for Technology Adoption(Puentedura R., 2006) 16
  17. 17. 17/10/2012 A Model of Team Based, Technology Mediated, Project Oriented Learning - Outside the Classroom(Lawlor J., Conneely C., and Tangney B., 2010. ; Tangney B., Oldham E., Conneely C., Barrett S., Lawlor J., 2010; Conneely, C., Lawlor,J., Tangney, B., 2013) Technology -mediated Project- Reflection based Facilitator Learning and/or Space Mentor(s) Learning Model Social Team Learning work Protocols Skills- focussed 17
  18. 18. 17/10/2012 Experience to date• Since Nov 2007 working in partnership with an NGO (SUAS Educational Development)• ~3,500 participants in out of school workshops of 1-3.5 days.• Most from disadvantaged backgrounds.• Most participants ~16 years but also Primary, year 1 secondary, Masters, learners with intellectual disability.• Topics covered: MM production; Programming; Learning core curriculum without a teacher (Mitra like). Bridge 21 Video (bridge21.ie) 18
  19. 19. 17/10/2012Themes emerging from “I can do things I research didn’t think I could”1. Students developed a personal responsibility “You’re for learning responsible for yourself & for2. Teamwork is a positive contributor to the your own learning experience work”3. Evidence of development of meta-cognition “I learned how to & higher order learning interact with other4. Results resonate with the SPRinG project people & work together to build5. Skills students developed during programme anything” carried back to school “I like working in a team rather than by myself”(Lawlor J., Conneely C., and Tangney B., 2010. ; Tangney B., Oldham E., Conneely C., Barrett S., Lawlor J., 2010;) Systemic Change in Irish Secondary Schools? 19
  20. 20. 17/10/2012Systemic Change in Irish Schools (12-16 age range)Being creative Working with others Managing information and thinkingImagining Relating effectively and resolving Being curious conflictExploring options and alternatives Gathering, recording, organising, and Co-operating evaluating informationImplementing ideas and taking action Respecting difference Using information to solve problemsChanging and taking risks and create new ideas ContributingLearning creatively Thinking creatively and critically Learning with othersBeing creative through ICT Reflecting on and evaluating my Using ICT to work with others learning Using ICT to access, manage and share knowledge Key SkillsCan we adapt the Bridge21 Model for use in formal schooling? 20
  21. 21. 17/10/2012 Challanges Assimilating content/curriculum for Embedding key skillsAssessment of student-led learning Classroom & within subject content learning & school design achievement Teacher & The role of the student teacher development & training needs B21 Learning Bridge21 School Model Transformation Programme A 21st Century School Worked with 8 schools in 2011-12 Impact on Key Skills (n=134) Mean Key Skill Sub-Skill Difference SD t Alpha Effect Size Being Creative Exploring options & alternatives .27 .87 3.4 .001 .32 Implementing ideas & taking action .14 .56 2.9 .005 .26 Learning creatively -.06 .48 -1.43 .154 .13 Working with Others Co-operating .22 1.10 2.16 .03 .23 Contributing .04 .58 .67 .51 .06 Learning with others .12 .93 1.4 .17 .15 Using ICT to work with others .34 1.32 2.6 .01 .31 Managing information Gathering, recording, organising and evaluating .12 .82 1.68 .10 .17 and thinking information Using information to solve problems and create .11 .61 2.02 .05 .21 new ideas Thinking creatively and critically .12 .51 2.63 .01 .24 Reflecting on and evaluating my learning .00 .57 .67 .94 .02 Johnston K., Murchan D., Conneely C., Tangney B. 201219/9/2012 42 21
  22. 22. 17/10/2012 Key Skills Being creative Working with others Managing information and thinking Imagining Relating effectively and resolving Being curious conflict Exploring options and alternatives Gathering, recording, organising, and Co-operating evaluating information Implementing ideas and taking action Respecting difference Using information to solve problems Changing and taking risks and create new ideas Contributing Learning creatively Thinking creatively and critically Learning with others Being creative through ICT Reflecting on and evaluating my Using ICT to work with others learning Using ICT to access, manage and share knowledge Modest evidence of gain No evidence of gain19/9/2012 43 4 22
  23. 23. 17/10/2012 The MobiMath Toolkit(Tangney B., Weber S. , OHanlon P., Knowles D., Munnelly J., Salkham A., Watson R.,Jennings K, 2010) The Pond Example Exploring: problem solving; estimation; measurement; geometry & volume Students in year 1 secondary school ~ 12-13 years old 23
  24. 24. 17/10/2012How long would it take you to fill the pond in the local park withwater using only buckets filled from the tap in the school yard? School Pond Very nice pond! Irregular in shape and has little islands in it. 24
  25. 25. 17/10/2012 Video Clip The Bridge 21 model and (mobile) technology can help us create learning experiences which are... An environment which is rich in information Performing authentic tasks in ill-structured domains Learning & problem solving in real-life contexts Learning through interactions Problem based with others An emphasis on learning Open ended rather than solutions An emphasis on reflective learning Contextualised Team based 25
  26. 26. 17/10/2012 Going forward• Working with 12 schools in 2012-13 – Working with 3 schools opening in 2014.• Training for pupils• CPD for teachers• Co-operative planning with schools• Research Instruments – Case studies of different schools – Skills instrument – Standardised tests In Conclusion (Mobile) Technology Enhanced Learning in Secondary Schools?• “The task is not to understand the world but to change it.” Karl Marx• We wish to help transform the Irish Secondary School system. 26

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