Cal11 Mobi Maths

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Talk given at the CAL 11 conference, Manchester, April 2011

Talk given at the CAL 11 conference, Manchester, April 2011

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  • 1. Contextualisation, collaboration, constructivism and smartphones for teaching mathematicsBrendan Tangney, Patricia O’Hanlon, Stefan Weber, Elizabeth Oldham Centre for Research in IT in Education, School of Education and School of Computer Science & Statistics, Trinity College Dublin, IrelandDavid Knowles, Jennifer Munnelly, Ronan Watson National Digital Research Centre, Crane St, The Digital Hub, Dublin 8, Ireland /www.slideshare.net/tangney tangney@tcd.ie p-1
  • 2. Issues in Math Education An over emphasis on didactic teaching A behaviourist approach to learning Overemphasis on procedure Emphasis on content over literacy Decontextualisation Focus on assessment Teaching by non specialist teachers (Conway & Sloane, 2005; Lyons, Lynch, Close, Sheerin, & Boland, 2003; Papert, 1993; Blumenfield, Marx, Patrick, Krajcik, & Soloway, 1997) p-2
  • 3. How Many People On Grafton St?  Contextualised  Constructivist  Collaborative  (Patten et al, 2006) 1 3 2 p-3
  • 4. Irish Context p-4
  • 5. Traditional Math Tools p-5
  • 6. Mobimath Toolkit p-6
  • 7. Research Agenda To develop and validate the efficacy of an integrated smartphone based toolkit for the teaching of mathematics which follows a contextualised, constructivist, collaborative, philosophy. Align the learning activities and supporting instructional material with the formal curriculum  1st Year of the Irish Secondary School system (~ 12-13 years old). p-7
  • 8. Modes of Use 1/2? 1/4?1/8? 1/4! p-8
  • 9. Probability ToolsTeacher Console - Sample screenshot of class collaboration p-9
  • 10. Geometry Tools Measure distance – outside (GPS) Measure distance – inside (accelerometer) Measure angle of elevation (accelerometer) Measure angle of rotation (accelerometer) Visual mapping tool (camera) p-10
  • 11. Technical Architecture p-11
  • 12. User View Number &Geometry Algebra OperationCommon Functionality (voting, note taking etc) + Teacher console p-12
  • 13. In School Trial20 students, 5 activities, 2 hours per activity p-13
  • 14. Geometry Activities Measure the area of large irregular shapes on playing field Height of structures The music festival camping problem – how many tents can be pitched on the sports field How many hockey balls could fit into the (irregularly enclosed) hockey field. Investigate the Golden Mean in buildings and people’s faces. p-14
  • 15. Sample Learning Activity p-15
  • 16. Data Collection Instruments Usability  SUS (Brooke 1996)  MPUQ (Ryu 2006) Attitude – Mathematical and Technology Attitude Scale (Pierce 2007) Teacher observation Whole class discussions Student workbooks Interviews with students (Delayed tests for content retention) p-16
  • 17. Sample Comments “You are involved in the question, you are actually doing something, you are more engaged” “If you were working from the textbook, you get into a rhythm of doing the same sums every time, but out there you have to think about it more.” ‘It’s weird the question was a trig problem. Like one minute I was using sin, cos, tan and the next minute I was working out the average distance reading on my calculator-that’s not trig. It was good to see how different types of maths links together!’ “This is the way to do maths I felt I could calculate the height of anything” “We weren’t working from a book with pretend numbers; we were outside actually finding the numbers to solve the problem-it was more realistic this way”. “When you are doing it you can see it more clearly what it’s for rather than just working with triangles in the textbook.” “3 (problems tackled) outside (the classroom) was better than 10 in the book, because (with the book) you just repeat what you did rather than think about what you are doing.” “The hardest part was working out the way you had to do it....” ”It was funner but it wasn’t necessarily easier!” p-17
  • 18. Emerging Themes Exercising mathematical problem solving skills; ‘Real world’ mathematics awareness; Improved attitudes to mathematics; Smartphone affordances; Benefit of collaborative learning. p-18
  • 19. Two Issues The degree to which the teacher (is allowed to) embrace the pedagogical approach. Device ownership. p-19
  • 20. Selected Bibliography Brooke, J. (1996). "SUS: a "quick and dirty" usability scale". In P. W. Jordan, B. Thomas, B. A. Weerdmeester, & A. L. McClelland. Usability Evaluation in Industry. London: Taylor and Francis. http://www.usabilitynet.org/trump/documents/Suschapt.doc. Cobb, P., Yackel, E., & Wood, T. (1992). Constructivist Alternative To The Representational View Of Mind In Mathematics Education. Research in Mathematics Education, 23(1), 2-33. Conway, P. F., & Sloane, F. C. (2005). International Trends in Post-Primary Mathematics Education. Retrieved. from http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/mathsreview/intpaperoct.pdf Cuoco, A. (2001). Mathematics for Teaching. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 48(2), 168-174. Daher, W. (2009). Students’ Perceptions of Learning Mathematics with Cellular Phones and Applets International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 4(1). Ferrini-Mundy, J., & Schmidt, W. H. (2003). International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Education: Opportunities for Collaboration and Challenges for Researchers. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 36(3), 164-174. Goos, M. (2004). Learning Mathematics in a Classroom Community of Inquiry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35, 258-291. Lyons, M., Lynch, K., Close, S., Sheerin, E., & Boland, P. (2003). Inside classrooms : the teaching and learning of mathematics in social context. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Donald Norman, (1998) The Psychology of Everyday Things. Monaghan, J., & Sheryn, L. (2006). How do Secondary Teachers make Mathematics More Applicable. Journal of Mathematics in School(September 2006). Patten, B., Arnedillo Sánchez, I., N., Tangney, B. Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, Volume 46, Issue 3, pages 294-308, April 2006. Pierce Robyn, Stacey Kaye, and Barkatsas Anastasios, A scale for monitoring students attitudes to learning mathematics with technology. Computers & Education, 2007, 48(2): p. 285-300. Papert, S. (1993). Mindstorms Children ,Computers and Powerful Ideas (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. Ryu, Y. S., and Smith-Jackon, T. L. 2006. Reliability and Validity of the Mobile Phone Usability Questionnaire (MPUQ). Journal of Usability Studies, 2, 1, 39--53. Tangney B., et al., MobiMaths: An approach to utilising smartphones in teaching mathematics, in Mlearn2010 - 9th world conference on mobile and contextual learning. 2010: Malta. p. 9-15. Voogt, J., & Pelgrum, H. (2005). ICT and curriculum change. Human Technology; an Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments, 1(2), 157–175. Wijers, M., Jonker, V., Kerstens, K. (2008), MobileMath: the Phone, the Game and the Math 2nd European Conference on Game Based Learning, pp 507-516. p-20