In the late 18 th century, there was a Gothic revival, when the Middle Ages were no longer seen with disfavour but looked at with interest. One cause of this revival was a reaction against the Enlightenment Movement. This movement looked to reason to understand man and the world rather than religion. They explained everything scientifically and rationally according to classicistic ideals. This led some people to become interested in the opposite – the irrational – and an obvious period for ideas for this was Medieval times. GOTHIC REVIVAL
Philosopher Giving A Lecture at the Orrery (1765) Joseph Wright Image source: http://quizlet.com/5225507/test-2-new-flash-cards / GOTHIC REVIVAL
Another cause of the Gothic revival was the impact science was making, through the work of scientists like Newton and Darwin and new schools of scientific thought. In the 18 th century a scientific revolution began but this often came into conflict with existing religious beliefs and superstition. This created insecurity and was countered by a nostalgia for the Medieval past and its mysticism, religion, and superstition.
Image sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/soulmate02/4800670024/sizes/m/in/photostream / http://www.flickr.com/photos/soulmate02/4800791942/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Isaac Newton (waxwork ) Charles Darwin (waxwork ) GOTHIC REVIVAL
The migration of people from rural areas into towns began in the late Middle Ages. By 18 th & 19 th centuries industrialisation accelerated this process resulting in further dissipation of feudal powers. This also brought the growth of a new middle class who did not fit the old feudal model and these combined were to call into question the structure of society. In France this instability lead to revolution, in England the effect was less dramatic but aristocracy reacted to these changes by supporting medievalism which perceived medieval society as a golden age.
GOTHIC REVIVAL The Industrial revolution: the age of machines and factories Image source: http://apworldhistorywiki.wikispaces.com/B+-+The+Social+Impact+of+the+Industrial+Revolution
The Gothic Revival movement was initiated by landscape garden designers such as William Kent and Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown. They took the formal garden with its topiary, geometrically shaped planting and mathematical precision and changed it into an informal, asymmetric landscape which was less manipulative of nature. Their concept was a ‘gardenless garden’ to which they added follies such as artificial ruins, Gothic buildings and even Greek temples as representations of past times. GOTHIC REVIVAL
GOTHIC REVIVAL: gardens Image source: http://hercules.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/HamptonCourt/HC101.jpg A formal garden: Hampton Court , London
GOTHIC REVIVAL: gardens Image source: http://www.gardenvisit.com/assets/madge/stowe_grecian_vale/original/stowe_grecian_vale_original.jpg A Gothic revival garden: Stowe estate designed by William Kent
Gothic architecture was next to become in vogue. One of the leading advocates of this style was the Prime Minister’s son, Horace Walpole who remodelled his country house Strawberry Hill, Twickenham by adding arched windows and doors, towers, castellation, gargoyles and other decorative features in an attempt to imitate medieval structures.
GOTHIC REVIVAL: houses
GOTHIC REVIVAL: houses Image source: http://www.middlebrowmagazine.co.uk/home/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Strawberry-Hill.jpg Strawberry Hill, Twickenham
Sources: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3079/2393999700_10c18f04ae.jpg ‘ Big Ben’ London GOTHIC REVIVAL: public The Gothic revival style spread to public buildings during the 19 th century, many of which have survived through to today. You might recognise some of them!
GOTHIC REVIVAL: public Sources: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/pancras/2.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3224/2750089904_805cc31c18.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/simon_a_lee/2750090534/sizes/m/in/photostream/ St Pancras Station, London 1868 Prince Albert Memorial, London 1872 approx. Courts of Justice, London 1882 approx.
GOTHIC REVIVAL: public Image source: http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1283/1020276817_66a9d57191.jpg Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) London (approx. 1870)
GOTHIC REVIVAL: public Tower Bridge, London (1894) Image source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3265/5743763864_c853d1700b.jpg