Perhaps one of the most eye-catching features of Gothic architecture is the figures of the grotesques, the gargoyles. Although they fit every stereotype about evil creatures, they are instead guardians of the structures which they inhabit. A gargoyle is the carved termination of spouts which convey water away from the sides of buildings. However, similar sculptures that do not work as waterspouts are and simply ornamental are called chimera. Nowadays it is common for both types of carvings to be referred to as gargoyles. Perhaps one of the most eye-catching features of Gothic architecture is the figures of the grotesques, the gargoyles. Although they fit every stereotype about evil creatures, they are instead guardians of the structures which they inhabit. A gargoyle is the carved termination of spouts which convey water away from the sides of buildings. However, similar sculptures that do not work as waterspouts are and simply ornamental are called chimera. Nowadays it is common for both types of carvings to be referred to as gargoyles. Like Gothic architecture, Gothic literature focuses on humanity’s fascination with the grotesque, the unknown, and the frightening, inexplicable aspects of the universe and the human soul. The Gothic &quot;relates the individual to the infinite universe&quot; (Varma 16) and creates horror by portraying human individuals in confrontation with the overwhelming, mysterious, terrifying forces found in the cosmos and within themselves. Gothic literature pictures the human condition as an ambiguous mixture of good and evil powers that cannot be understood completely by human reason. Thus, the Gothic perspective conceives of the human condition as a paradox, a dilemma of duality—humans are divided in the conflict between opposing forces in the world and in themselves. The Gothic themes of human nature’s depravity, the struggle between good and evil in the human soul, and the existence of unexplainable elements in humanity and the cosmos, are prominent themes in Frankenstein . Sticking out along the cornices of many Gothic Cathedrals are little beastly beings with angry madcap faces known as Gargoyles. It is safe to say they are not poised there, eyes outward, gnarly teeth at the ready, for their health. They are certainly meant as sentries, presenting a sort of anti-evil force field to protect the precious and fragile faith of the mighty but not invulnerable Lord. Arising from the Latin word &quot;gurgulio&quot; the word literally means throat and also the sound water makes passing through the throat. It French is comes from the same root as gargle. Thus, a true Gargoyle is a fountain, or at least something that conveys water through itself, sucking it up-and spitting it out. Technically, those serried beasts we see lining up along the highest edges of Gothic structures are not gargoyles, since they don't spout for the most part, but rather they are called Grotesques. Over time the term gargoyles seems to have encompassed these grotesques, and so for the purpose of this entry on the subject, gargoyle may in fact be considered a synonym for a grotesque.
The gothic genre 2011 12
TTS SENIOR LIBRARY 2011 What are the origins of the Gothic novel?
<ul><li>To understand the Gothic novel you need to consider the background and history of the word </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Gothic’ </li></ul>GOTHIC NOVEL ORIGINS Dictionary meaning of Gothic: 1a. Of or relating to the Goths or their language. 1b. Germanic; Teutonic. 2. Of or relating to the Middle Ages; medieval. 3a. Of or relating to an architectural style prevalent in western Europe from the 12th through the 15th century and characterized by pointed arches, rib vaulting, and a developing emphasis on verticality and the impression of height. 3b. Of or relating to an architectural style derived from medieval Gothic. 4. Of or relating to painting, sculpture, or other art forms prevalent in northern Europe from the 12th through the 15th century. 5. Of or relating to a style of fiction that emphasizes the grotesque, mysterious, and desolate. 6. Barbarous; crude Source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Gothic
<ul><li>The Goths were nomadic tribes (Visigoths / Ostrogoths) who migrated from the Baltic Sea area in Northern Europe to the Black Sea during the 2nd century A.D - the time of the Roman Empire. </li></ul>THE GOTHS
THE GOTHS Image source: http://www.genreonline.net/Genre_files/Barbarians%20024.jpg
THE GOTHS During the 5th century, faced by aggression from the Huns coming from the east, the Goths made incursions into Roman territory in search of food and land.
Image source: http://www.genreonline.net/Genre_files/Barbarians%20024.jpg THE GOTHS
The Romans responded by sending an army to crush them. Emperor Valens expected a quick and easy victory but it was the Roman army that was destroyed! THE GOTHS
THE GOTHS Image source: http://www.genreonline.net/Genre_files/Barbarians%20026.jpg
The Romans made a treaty with the Goths and employed them as barbarian fighters. THE GOTHS Image source: http://wavada.org/Images/Tricks/Ch02/Goth.jpg
<ul><li>Some 13 years later, under the leadership of Aleric the Goths rebelled against the Romans . They were fed up with the Roman scheming and cruel treatment. The Goths marched to Rome and lay siege to the city for two years before destroying it completely. </li></ul>THE GOTHS
Image source: http://www.memo.fr/Media/Alaric_Rome.jpg THE GOTHS
<ul><li>The fall of Rome in 410AD preceded the collapse of the Roman Empire in Western Europe. The Goths have been attributed with the downfall , although there were many causes. </li></ul>THE GOTHS
THE GOTHS Image source: http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/08romfal/mapEWRomanEmpire.jpg The Roman Empire
destroyers… uncouth …. illiterate … lacking culture …. violent…. barbaric… wild…. chaotic…. Other myths developed around the Goths which led to them being seen as ... THE GOTHS
The word Gothic has also been used from the 15 th century onwards as a term to describe architecture and art from Northern Europe dating from the 12-15 th centuries . THE GOTHS
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/scottgunn/327285387/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Notre Dame Cathedral Paris – an example of Gothic architecture
<ul><li>For Western Europe, the Dark Ages was a time of regression. Shrouded in violence and disease, the infrastructure, trade, medicine, employment and education all depleted as the Roman Empire fragmented under warring tribes . </li></ul>GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
<ul><li>In the Renaissance, medieval architecture was compared with the Classical style (Greeks and Romans) which was much admired for its well ordered structures based on symmetry and other mathematical rules and for its simple, pure lines . Medieval architecture was viewed negatively and was considered chaotic, ornate, exaggerated, crude and barbaric in style. It was called Gothic as an insult! </li></ul>GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
GOTHIC SPIRES Lichfield Cathedral Image Source: http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6018/6014596043_16b3276458.jpg Medieval architecture had soaring spires probably representing an ambition to go beyond human limitations and reach the divine .
GOTHIC SPIRES Image source: http://static.flickr.com/91/206882648_7415fc00a5_b.jpg Duomo Milan
FLYING BUTTRESSES Sources: http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4090/5053497552_57b1880343.jp Santa Barbara Czechoslavakia Flying buttresses were added to the external walls. Although not particularly attractive, they had a very important function. With them, structures could go higher (without the walls collapsing) and this allowed the interior space to be larger and more open.
VAULTED ARCHES Source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3111/2727200273_f0bc721650.jpg Salisbury cathedral The rounded arches of classic architecture were replaced by pointed ones. Again these changes were very functional, they were more effective at channelling the weight onto the columns supporting them. This allowed architects to create much higher ribbed vaults.
Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/r80o/4387087/sizes/m/in/photostream / With a greater expanse of thinner walls, windows became a more prominent feature & allowed the buildings to have more light. Many windows used stained glass to depict religious scenes in vibrant colours. STAINED GLASS WINDOWS
STAINED GLASS WINDOWS Sources: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3489/4606687412_de9f7757ba.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3479/3740497060_57daeda293.jpg
Image source: http://hercules.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/France/Notredame/Gargoyles/gargoyles17.jpg GARGOYLES Medieval churches often covered with grotesque carvings of demons, gargoyles and monsters. These sometimes served as waterspouts but generally were there to protect the building from evil forces.
<ul><li>Looking at these grotesque sculptures, it is easy to see why Renaissance writers considered these and all the other features of medieval architecture, to be tasteless and barbaric. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The besotted taste of Gothic monuments, </li></ul><ul><li>These odious monsters of ignorant centuries, </li></ul><ul><li>Which the torrents of barbary spewed forth.” </li></ul><ul><li>Molière </li></ul>GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
<ul><li>Gothic art had its origins in Gothic architecture and developed through sculpture to textile art and painting which included stained glass, fresco, illuminated manuscripts and oil paintings. Renaissance artists like Raphael and writers such as Vasari considered medieval art to be chaotic, monstrous, barbaric and superstitious and gave it the derogatory label Gothic, which stuck ! </li></ul>GOTHIC ART
Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Cenral_tympanum_Chartres.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Torun_SS_Johns_Mary_Magdalene.jpg/450px-Torun_SS_Johns_Mary_Magdalene.jpg Mary Magdalene St Johns Cathedral Torun The Western Portal Chartres Cathedral GOTHIC ART: SCULPURE
Sources: http://www.medievalscript.com/category/books-of-hours/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/dis-order-ed/5531232455/sizes/m/in/set-72157626278062722/ Illuminated manuscript :Hours of Catherine of Cleves 13 th century stained glass: Bourges Cathedral France GOTHIC ART: PAINTING
GOTHIC ART: PAINTING Image sources: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Simone_Martini_071.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Venanson_-_Chapelle_Sainte-Claire_-_Fresque_-3.jpg Oil painting: Miracle of the child attacked and rescued by Augustine Novello 1328 Simone Martini Fresco painting: Venanson - Chapelle Sainte-Claire
Much of medieval art had a religious focus , although in late 14th and 15th centuries Gothic paintings did begin to depict secular scenes such as hunting and historical events. The religious content was often created to teach specific moral and spiritual truths . A late Gothic artist from The Netherlands, Hieronymus Bosch, depicted sin and the evil of man by creating scenes with demons, half-human animals and machines. These were quite gruesome and aimed to cause fear and perhaps confusion. GOTHIC ART: PAINTING
GOTHIC ART: PAINTING BOSCH Hieronymus: ‘Hell’ The Garden of Earthly Delights (details ) Sources: http://lisag123.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/delightd.jpg http://cgfa.acropolisinc.com/bosch/bosch28.jpg
GOTHIC ART: PAINTING BOSCH Hieronymus The Seven Deadly Sins (detail)1480; Death and the Miser, approx. 1490 Sources: http://www.wga.hu/art/b/bosch/2deadly/7deadly3.jpg http://cgfa.acropolisinc.com/bosch/bosch2.jpg
In the late 18 th century, there was a Gothic revival, when the Middle Ages were no longer seen with disfavour but looked at with interest. One cause of this revival was a reaction against the Enlightenment Movement. This movement looked to reason to understand man and the world rather than religion. They explained everything scientifically and rationally according to classicistic ideals. This led some people to become interested in the opposite – the irrational – and an obvious period for ideas for this was Medieval times. GOTHIC REVIVAL
Philosopher Giving A Lecture at the Orrery (1765) Joseph Wright Image source: http://quizlet.com/5225507/test-2-new-flash-cards / GOTHIC REVIVAL
<ul><li>Another cause of the Gothic revival was the impact science was making, through the work of scientists like Newton and Darwin and new schools of scientific thought. In the 18 th century a scientific revolution began but this often came into conflict with existing religious beliefs and superstition. This created insecurity and was countered by a nostalgia for the Medieval past and its mysticism, religion, and superstition. </li></ul>GOTHIC REVIVAL
Image sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/soulmate02/4800670024/sizes/m/in/photostream / http://www.flickr.com/photos/soulmate02/4800791942/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Isaac Newton (waxwork ) Charles Darwin (waxwork ) GOTHIC REVIVAL
<ul><li>The migration of people from rural areas into towns began in the late Middle Ages. By 18 th & 19 th centuries industrialisation accelerated this process resulting in further dissipation of feudal powers. This also brought the growth of a new middle class who did not fit the old feudal model and these combined were to call into question the structure of society. In France this instability lead to revolution, in England the effect was less dramatic but aristocracy reacted to these changes by supporting medievalism which perceived medieval society as a golden age. </li></ul>GOTHIC REVIVAL
GOTHIC REVIVAL The Industrial revolution: the age of machines and factories Image source: http://apworldhistorywiki.wikispaces.com/B+-+The+Social+Impact+of+the+Industrial+Revolution
The Gothic Revival movement was initiated by landscape garden designers such as William Kent and Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown. They took the formal garden with its topiary, geometrically shaped planting and mathematical precision and changed it into an informal, asymmetric landscape which was less manipulative of nature. Their concept was a ‘gardenless garden’ to which they added follies such as artificial ruins, Gothic buildings and even Greek temples as representations of past times. GOTHIC REVIVAL
GOTHIC REVIVAL: gardens Image source: http://hercules.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/HamptonCourt/HC101.jpg A formal garden: Hampton Court , London
GOTHIC REVIVAL: gardens Image source: http://www.gardenvisit.com/assets/madge/stowe_grecian_vale/original/stowe_grecian_vale_original.jpg A Gothic revival garden: Stowe estate designed by William Kent
<ul><li>Gothic architecture was next to become in vogue. One of the leading advocates of this style was the Prime Minister’s son, Horace Walpole who remodelled his country house Strawberry Hill, Twickenham by adding arched windows and doors, towers, castellation, gargoyles and other decorative features in an attempt to imitate medieval structures. </li></ul>GOTHIC REVIVAL: houses
GOTHIC REVIVAL: houses Image source: http://www.middlebrowmagazine.co.uk/home/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Strawberry-Hill.jpg Strawberry Hill, Twickenham
Sources: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3079/2393999700_10c18f04ae.jpg ‘ Big Ben’ London GOTHIC REVIVAL: public The Gothic revival style spread to public buildings during the 19 th century, many of which have survived through to today. You might recognise some of them!
GOTHIC REVIVAL: public Sources: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/pancras/2.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3224/2750089904_805cc31c18.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/simon_a_lee/2750090534/sizes/m/in/photostream/ St Pancras Station, London 1868 Prince Albert Memorial, London 1872 approx. Courts of Justice, London 1882 approx.
GOTHIC REVIVAL: public Image source: http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1283/1020276817_66a9d57191.jpg Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) London (approx. 1870)
GOTHIC REVIVAL: public Tower Bridge, London (1894) Image source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3265/5743763864_c853d1700b.jpg
GOTHIC LITERATURE The Gothic revival in architecture was followed by the arrival of Gothic literature which is best described as a ‘ medieval revival ’ in fiction. The initiator of this was Horace Walpole whose interest in Gothic had already extended to remodelling his gardens and house. As a writer his next novel was to take a new style – far removed from the reflective, moralistic and rather dull style of the time. The Castle of Otranto, which he wrote in 1765, reflected h is fascination with the Dark Ages and made use of many ingredients from the medieval past.
The Castle of Otranto Horace Walpole GOTHIC LITERATURE Portrait of Horace Walpole, Rosalba Carriera, 1741 (Houghton Hall, Norfolk)
GOTHIC LITERATURE Walpole's Otranto was a prototype which proved tremendously popular and this led other writers to imitate it. They took his main ingredients and adopted and adapted them, in so doing creating a genre. So successfully did they do this that the gothic novel was to become the most common form of fiction for over half a century.
<ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_art Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_architecture Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mgot/hd_mgot.htm Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/239728/Gothic-art Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hieronymus-bosch.org/ Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/romantic/topic_2/welcome.htm Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>http://smarthistory.org/1700-1800-Age-of-Enlightenment.html Accessed 23.09.11 </li></ul><ul><li>Hieronymus Bosch, c.1450-1516 : between heaven and hell / Walter Bosing. Taschen (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture - a visual history / James Neal. PRC 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>The Gothic / David Punter and Glennis Byron. Blackwell. (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>A Companion to the Gothic edited by David Punter. Blackwell. (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>AQA English Literature B (A2) Adrian Beard & Pete Bunten Nelson Thornes 2008 </li></ul>GOTHIC NOVEL: BIBLIOGRAPHY