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  • 1. INSIGHTS INTO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE MARKETING CAMPAIGNS Heikki Karjaluoto, Heikki Lehto, Matti Leppäniemi, Tiina Mustonen Abstract: The paper offers insights into the development and planning of mobile marketing campaigns. In the theoretical section the study develops a model of the mobile marketing campaign development process and management. With the use of a case study method, the empirical section presents an analysis of the implementation process of three mobile marketing campaigns. The case study confirms the theoretical model, as well as adds new elements to campaign management processes that have not previously been identified in literature. The study offers fresh contributions to the existing knowledge of mobile marketing campaign management and gives suggestions for better campaign management. Keywords: mobile marketing, campaign design, case study, Finland INTRODUCTION The use of the mobile channel in the promotion of goods and services is booming due to several reasons, including technological advances that bring forth new and innovative media (Bauer, Reichardt, Barnes, & Neumann, 2005; Li & Stoller, 2007); changes in advertising philosophy toward one-to-one marketing (Barwise & Farley, 2005; Peppers, Rogers, & Dorf, 1999) and interactivity (Vargo & Lusch, 2004); and increased mobile penetration and m-service usage (Nysveen, Pedersen, & Thorbjornsen, 2005; Scharl, Dickinger, & Murphy, 2005; Sultan & Rohm, 2005). Meanwhile, academic research on mobile marketing is flourishing around the world. However, as prior literature on mobile marketing has concentrated merely on the technical aspects of the mobile channel and consumer acceptance (Bauer et al., 2005; Leppäniemi, Sinisalo, & Karjaluoto, 2006), academics have put little effort into the investigation of how mobile marketing campaigns are planned and implemented, who are the responsible parties for the planning and implementation of the campaigns, and whether the planning and implementation differ from each other in traditional and digital advertising campaign management. It has been stated that academic studies do not provide sufficient insights required for designing mobile marketing campaigns step by step. Thus, calls for further research in this area are being made (Scharl, Dickinger, & Murphy, 2005). Marketers are now in the process of realizing the importance of mobile phones as a viable sales and marketing Insights into the Implementation of Mobile Marketing Campaigns 0
  • 2. DECEMBER 2007 • VOL. 2 NO. 2 channel due to several reasons, such as the growing next phase we will integrate mobile marketing literature into penetration of mobile phones and the ability of the channel other advertising literature in order to present the phases of to target marketing communication on a one-to-one basis mobile marketing campaign process in a new light. (Balasubramanian, Peterson, & Järvenpää 2002; Barnes & Scornavacca, 2004; Barwise & Strong, 2002). Marketers, Campaign Design agencies and carriers need to know how to design mobile Before companies rush into mobile marketing, they need marketing campaigns and how to use this new marketing to understand in what ways mobile marketing differs from channel effectively. Because mobile marketing creates traditional approaches and how it should be integrated new opportunities for companies (Sultan & Rohm, 2005) within a firm’s overall marketing strategy (Sultan & Rohm, and because as a business mobile marketing is a new and 2005). All marketing communication should be designed constantly developing area (Mort & Drennan, 2002), it is with a particular target market in mind (Shimp, 1997, p. important to investigate it further. In spite of the increasing 224). In other words, in order to be successful, a marketing number of companies investing in mobile marketing campaign should target specific groups with specific needs campaigns, the nature and implications of this marketing and wants that the advertised product or service could channel are not yet fully understood (Bauer et al., 2005). satisfy. The target audience influences what to say, how to On this basis there are both theoretical and practical say it, when to say it and where to say it (Kotler, 2003, p. justifications for this study. In order to fill this gap in the 566). Mobile marketing facilitates the targeting of an ad on literature, the objective of this paper is to provide new the most precise level possible. In theory, it enables targeting insights into the implementation of mobile marketing individual consumers anywhere and anytime based on their campaigns. For the purposes of this article, the term mobile preferences and past purchases (Gopal & Tripathi, 2006; marketing is understood broadly, in accordance with the Karjaluoto & Alatalo, 2007). Moreover, mobile phones offer definition of the Mobile Marketing Association (2006), as a real chance to advertise interactively. In the future, ads “the use of wireless media (primarily cellular phones and will be more and more targeted not only to individuals PDAs) as an integrated content delivery and direct response based on their user profiles but also based on the context in vehicle within a cross-media marketing communication which they are (Facchetti et al., 2005; Merisavo et al., 2007; program.” According to this definition, mobile marketing is Turban et al., 2002, p. 184). T seen to include both push and pull type marketing in all he advertising budget is the most important decision mobile technologies ranging from SMS to mobile web. made by advertisers in the planning stage. On one The next section of the paper deals with the theoretical hand, if too little money is invested in advertising, background of the study. In this part, we review the relevant the sales volume will not usually achieve its literature on mobile marketing campaign process (Kavassalis potential. On the other hand, if the company spends too et al., 2003) and reflect this process with traditional models much money, unnecessary expenses will reduce the profits of advertising campaign management (Kotler, 2003). This (Shimp, 1997, pp. 238–239). Budgeting decisions are quite will be followed by a discussion of the case study and its similar when implementing a mobile marketing campaign. results. Finally, we present the conclusions, provide the However, in the case of new media channels, budgeting can contributions, outline the main limitations and suggest become problematic due to the lack of previous experience avenues for further research. with the channel and the lack of knowledge of the channel and its costs. The main cost in a text messaging campaign, for instance, can be the acquisition of an opt-in database. LITERATURE REVIEW However, it is a necessary cost only if the company does not To get an overview of the implementation of a mobile already have a database or if it cannot convince consumers campaign, it is essential to discuss the steps involved to opt in. On the other hand, in the European Union (EU) in developing an advertising campaign in general. An area, for example, it is not allowed to sell or buy permission advertising campaign usually follows a five-step procedure, databases without the customer’s permission. In other words, labeled the five M’s of advertising (Kotler, 2003, pp. 590-609): the subscriber should be informed of the possibility that the 1) setting the advertising objectives (Mission), 2) deciding on data might be transmitted to one or more third parties (EUR- the advertising budget (Money), 3) choosing the advertising Lex, 2002). message (Message), 4) deciding on media (Media) 5) and The message is in the key position in implementing a measuring effectiveness (Measurement). With the help of successful campaign. Once the budget is established, the the five Ms, the major decisions involved in developing an advertising message has to be chosen. Mobile marketing advertisement campaign can be made. The development messages can include text, games, ringtones, icons, of a mobile marketing campaign loosely follows the same screensavers, pictures, sound, music, and other entertainment. procedure (Kavassalis et al., 2003). Kavassalis divided The content can cost money or be free. According to Barwise mobile marketing campaign management into four phases: and Strong (2002), the content can include six types of 1) campaign design, 2) campaign development, 3) campaign advertisements: brand building, special offers, timely teasers, execution, and 4) tracking, analysis, and reporting. In the  International Journal of Mobile Marketing
  • 3. requests, competitions, and polls. Good text advertisements Campaign Development are short and compact, funny and entertaining, relevant to The second stage in the campaign implementation process, the target group, eye-catching, and informative about prizes campaign development, includes the building or acquiring and promotions (Scharl, Dickinger, & Murphy, 2005). of opt-in lists (Kavassalis et al., 2003). In permission- Marketers must be aware that the language used in based mobile marketing consumers give their permission messages is extremely important to the success or failure to marketers to send them advertisements or other kinds of of the advertising message (Mort & Drennan, 2002). In communications. It is important to respect the end users’ addition to this, the personal nature of the mobile phone privacy (Barwise & Strong, 2002; Leppäniemi & Karjaluoto, makes the content extremely critical. The marketer has to 2005), and permission-based mobile marketing is regulated decide what is being said and how to say it. Both of these in legislation in the EU area (EUR-Lex, 2002) and in the decisions affect the success of a mobile campaign. United States. Thus, consumers must have an opportunity to choose whether they accept mobile communications Special Features Of Mobile Marketing Campaigns from marketers or not. Corporate websites often serve as It is vital to identify the special features of the mobile the primary source of first contact. That is to say that it is on channel to better understand the background for campaign those websites that the companies ask for the consumers’ planning. For example, wireless devices are accessible, permission to receive mobile communications, such as text meaning that mobile phones are portable and available to messages, and participate in campaigns (Scharl, Dickinger, users at all times. The mobile channel is also immediate, & Murphy, 2005). Other media such as TV, radio and intimate and everywhere. Various studies summarize print media are also used frequently in collecting mobile time-sensitiveness, personalization and permissions (Mort & Drennan, 2002). Effective mobile location awareness as the key drivers of the development of successful mobile services (Leppäniemi & Karjaluoto, 2005; Swilley & Hofacker, 2006). “Our results suggest that mobile is not The essence of mobile services lies in the idea of reaching customers and friends an attention media, but rather a call-to- regardless of their location (Siau & Shen, 2003). In other words, the primary advantage action media…that offers challenges and of mobile marketing is mobility; users can opportunities due to its unique nature. On the get any information they want whenever they want, regardless of their location (Mort other hand, at its best, mobile marketing can & Drennan, 2002; Siau & Shen, 2003). The mobile channel is also an interactive two- be very efficient if it generates viral effects.” way communication channel. The mobile phone includes all characteristics necessary to establish a direct dialogue between the marketer and the potential customer (Bauer et al., 2005). marketing depends on the ability to acquire mobile phone In particular, the mobile channel is able to deliver a higher numbers and permissions to establish a point of contact. Only extent of interactivity from the end user’s point of view by doing so can the marketers conduct mobile campaigns that (Facchetti et al., 2005; Liu & Shrum, 2002). An additional offer real value for consumers in the long run. special feature of mobile marketing is its viral marketing element. Short messaging service (SMS) marketing can Campaign Execution include a viral element, as recipients can forward messages to their friends (Rettie, Grandcolas, & Deakins, 2005). This There are different ways to implement a campaign in type of viral marketing is very beneficial for the advertiser. the mobile channel. Although the SMS still remains the The mobile phone lends itself to enlarging the reach of a most popular mode, new services like the multimedia campaign through viral effects (Bauer et al., 2005). messaging service (MMS), mobile e-mailing and a variety of other services based on the mobile Internet are steadily On the grounds of existing literature, the special gaining popularity (Haig, 2002, p. 164). SMS advertising is features of the mobile channel can be listed as: mobility thought to be the most effective when it invites to respond and reachability, direct marketing, interactivity and two- and includes an incentive (Merisavo et al., 2007; Rettie, way communication, branding, viral-marketing, time, and Grandcolas, & Deakins, 2005). SMS is seen as an immediate, personalization. Most of these features are positive in nature, automated, reliable, personal, discreet and customized channel but, for instance, personalization and direct marketing can which efficiently allows the marketers to reach customers directly sometimes be perceived as spamming or as too disruptive. and provides mobile phone users a direct call-to-action (Barnes & Scornavacca, 2004). SMS and WAP, a proprietary format for Insights into the Implementation of Mobile Marketing Campaigns 
  • 4. DECEMBER 2007 • VOL. 2 NO. 2 web pages on small devices like mobile phones, are considered campaigns while they are still running. Traditional media the key platforms in Europe and in the United States (Barnes & can be effective as well when companies transmit messages Scornavacca, 2004). Barwise and Strong (2002) report that the to consumers, but it can hardly pass on messages in the low cost and high penetration of SMS among wireless subscribers opposite direction, from consumers to companies like the make it an attractive service not only for ad deliveries but also mobile channel is able to do (Hoffman & Novak, 1996). for most other wireless data services. According to Rettie, Grandcolas and Deakins (2005), the main disadvantage of SMS is Summary Of The Literature Review – A Conceptual its 160 character text-only format. MMS has suffered around the Model world from several technological and pricing-related problems, On the basis of the discussion of the phases of a mobile and therefore it still only plays a minor role in today’s mobile marketing campaign, Figure 1 shows the four phases and marketing campaigns. highlights the overall process. In sum, a mobile marketing Transmission process poses problems to campaign delivery. campaign includes four main phases: campaign design, For SMS, especially in global campaigns, message delivery campaign development, campaign execution and campaign can take too long, which might affect the whole campaign control. In the first stage, the target audience is designed; negatively. However, real problems also occur in the other the business objectives are set; the budget and the media formats, such as in WAP-based applications, JAVA and MMS are determined; the campaign type, either push or pull, (Salo & Tähtinen, 2005; Sultan & Rohm, 2005). Campaign is chosen; and the special features of mobile marketing execution includes also the planning of the campaign logic are taken into account. The second stage, campaign that must be built into the mobile marketing server used for development, includes collecting permissions. In this sending and receiving the messages. At minimum, a well stage, opt-in lists are either bought or created with the designed campaign logic in a mobile context includes plans help of other media, or the company uses an existing opt- for the keyword, a storage of the messages, opening up the in database. In the third stage the campaign is executed. gateways into operators, and a short code message number This stage is divided into four phases. First, the mobile (Sinisalo et al., 2007). technologies or the mobile channels are decided. Then the message is delivered and responses are received and Finally, as mobile marketing rarely works alone, it has to processed. Decisions concerning cross-media marketing be integrated with other media. In doing so we talk about and mobile customer relationship marketing are made cross-media marketing, which refers to the idea that mobile in this stage. The final stage is campaign control, which marketing needs connections to traditional media (Ranchhod, includes measuring and analyzing the campaign, producing 2007; Wang, 2007) Companies must figure out exactly how reports and collecting customer feedback. to integrate the mobile platform within their overall marketing strategies (Sultan & Rohm, 2005). The mobile marketing channel should be understood as a complementary channel to other marketing channels. In most cases a traditional advertising medium like television, press or flyers is needed in order to broadcast the invitation to participate in a mobile marketing campaign (Kavassalis et al., 2003). Campaign Control Most advertisers measure the communication effect of an ad. This refers to the ad’s potential effect on awareness, knowledge, preference or sales. The evaluation of the effectiveness of an ad must be conducted from the point of view of the campaign objectives. For example, if the objective of the campaign was to increase sales, then the growth of sales should be evaluated (Kotler, 2003, pp. 606–609). Measuring and reporting the results of the campaign helps to understand campaign successful (Narez, 2006). Since mobile campaigns allow individual targeting, as opposed to broadcasting in other media, it also helps to measure the ad effectiveness at the Figure 1: Conceptual Model individual level (Gopal & Tripathi, 2006). Mobile marketing enables interactivity and makes giving METHODOLOGY and collecting feedback very easy (Liu & Shrum, 2002). This empirical study follows a case study research Since people carry their mobile phones with them almost method (Yin, 2003). The aim of the case study was to attain all the time, mobile marketing is an extremely fast media. It as specific, comprehensive and detailed a description of is possible for marketers to get the first feedback from their the phenomena as possible. Case research is particularly  International Journal of Mobile Marketing
  • 5. welcome in new situations where only a little is known about not sent beforehand to the interviewees in order to be able the phenomenon and in situations where current theories to gather more spontaneous and unaffected answers. The seem inadequate (Eisenhardt, 1989). Most of the research interviews were recorded, verified with handwritten notes questions in the interviews conducted with practitioners and transcribed afterwards. The themes of the interviews were ‘how-questions,’ which are typical for a case study were the same for all interviewees, but each interviewee research. ‘Why-questions’ were also presented as part of talked about a specific campaign. After the interviews were the ‘how-questions,’ as cases that address why-questions held and transcribed, the material was read several times, are most appropriate when the purpose of the study is to notes were made, and themes outlined. Items that related explore a new phenomenon (Yin, 2003, pp. 5–9). to same themes were colored correspondingly. Besides the interview material, the case study included material from the Certain cases for the study were chosen because it campaigns, campaign data, company reports and meetings is believed that understanding them will lead to better as well as seminars in which the researchers were present. understanding of a larger collection of cases. The purpose of a case report is not to represent generalizable results, but to represent the specific case under study (Stake, RESULTS 2000). This research conducts a single case study method An Overview of the Three Campaigns with three example cases. The case study was carried out by interviewing four individuals who work in the mobile The first campaign was labeled “Ginger Cookie Friday,” marketing field (see Table 1). The key interviewees within a digital direct marketing campaign organized by SK- each firm were chosen because of their special knowledge Restaurants to its opt-in mobile and e-mail customers. The and experience of mobile marketing campaigns, as campaign invited night club customers to a special theme suggested by Kumar, Stern and Anderson (1993). night in December 2006. During the campaign, close to 40,000 invitations were sent in five different messaging formats (SMS, MMS, e-mail, mobile web page, accessed via Table 1: List of Interviewees a WAP-push message, and a downloadable JAVA solution) in Interview order to examine the response rates in the various message Interviewee/Company Title of the Interviewee Date delivery formats. In other words, around 7160 messages were sent in each format. The pull (response) percent for BrandSon Ltd, Digital Marketing Agency CTO, Owner March 2007 the whole campaign was around 3%, resulting in 1.055 registrations for the theme night. The most used reply mode Max Rumpus Ltd, Technology Provider CEO March 2007 was SMS with a proportion of 33% of all registrations, followed by the mobile web page opened via the WAP push SK-Restaurants Ltd, Advertiser Marketing Manager April 2007 message with 28%, and e-mail with 16%. The messaging formats and response logic are displayed in Figure 2. FS Film Ltd, Advertiser Marketing Manager April 2007 The authors felt that four interviews were enough because answers were quite similar between the interviews and the saturation point was reached after these interviews. Besides, these interviews were based on three example campaigns, and these campaigns were supposed to provide an extensive view of campaign management. The two advertisers are among the most innovative digital direct marketers in Finland. Both advertisers have large opt-in mobile marketing lists that are used on a weekly basis in various direct marketing campaigns. The agency BrandSon was chosen in the study not only due to the fact that the advertisers are its customers, but also because it is one of the agencies in Finland specializing in digital direct marketing (e-mail and mobile marketing). BrandSon designs and executes all digital marketing for these two clients. Max Rumpus either provides technological grounds for BrandSon Figure 2: Campaign Logic of “Ginger Cookie Friday” or implements campaigns itself. The length of the interviews ranged from 50 minutes to As can be seen, four out of five messaging formats offered a nearly an hour and a half, and the total time spent conducting reply (a confirmation of the invitation) in the same messaging interviews was around four hours. All interviews were format. For example, if a respondent received a text message, conducted in Finnish because it is the native language of he/she could reply to the message by SMS. The only exception all the interviewees and the interviewer. The questions were was MMS, which could only be replied by SMS. Insights into the Implementation of Mobile Marketing Campaigns 
  • 6. DECEMBER 2007 • VOL. 2 NO. 2 The second campaign was called “The Club Turku,” Overall, approximately 70,000 people participated in the a night club opening campaign organized by BrandSon competition, and 63% of them gave their permission for both and SK-Restaurants, targeted to opt-in customers of the mobile and e-mail marketing. The people who participated night club chain in the area of Turku. Each opt-in user was in the competition received an e-mail just before the approached with a mobile message, which was a recorded film’s premiere. This email encouraged respondents to go phone call where a female voice said: “Hi, here is Mirella. to the movie theatre on that specific night and watch the I had to call you. Next Friday, the 10th, Turku’s hottest night film. The e-mail was targeted to 15- to 25-year-olds and club, the Club, will be open. Would you like to come along included information on the nearest movie theater of each with us to the opening party?” This was followed by a male participant. voice: “You will soon get a text message. You can answer to the message by following instructions. The quickest Mobile Marketing Campaign Implementation respondents get an invitation to the Club’s opening.” After The interviews dealt with the management process of this the SMS message arrived with instructions. When the mobile marketing campaigns in the light of the conceptual person responded to the message by sending his/her name model developed. After the empirical data analysis, the and a friend’s mobile phone number, he/she got the SMS following revised model was constructed (see Figure 4). code needed for registering and the friend got the same recorded voice message. The general instructions for how to register in order to receive tickets to the opening night through the Internet were also available in the SMS. Finally, the formal invitation arrived by e-mail. The logic of this campaign is presented in Figure 3. Figure 3: The Club Turku Opening Campaign In the first phase 500 invitations were sent to opt-in customers. The viral effect created an eight-fold increase compared to the original amount, as the number of additional voice messages sent reached 3,900. Eventually, a total of 3,000 registrations were made and SK-Restaurants executed two openings because so many people were Figure 4: Revised Model interested in coming. The empirical model shown in Figure 4 is a more detailed The third campaign was the launch of “The Dudesons description of a mobile marketing campaign implementation Movie,” conducted in 2006 by BrandSon and FS Films in than the conceptual model. According to the empirical cooperation with four other partners (television channel data, mobile marketing campaigns can be divided into two Nelonen, IRC gallery, Suosikki magazine, and Habbo categories which are a) campaigns where the opportunity Hotel). In this campaign the mobile channel was a part for mobile marketing is created (pull campaigns to build of the promotion mix. The websites of the partnering opt-in lists), and b) campaigns aimed at opt-in lists (push organizations were used for attracting people to participate campaigns). Besides these, there are various occasional in a lottery with changing prizes. 5 International Journal of Mobile Marketing
  • 7. pull campaigns that do not aim at collecting marketing It also became obvious that according to the interviewees, permissions, but even in those cases the campaign logic mobile marketing does not operate alone. The mobile usually follows the same procedure as in other pull channel is usually utilized to support overall marketing. campaigns. The stages outlined in the conceptual model Mobile marketing is a relatively cost-effective form of were also found in the empirical material, although in a marketing, and therefore companies generally want to much more detailed form. include it in their overall marketing mix. “Mobile marketing does not operate alone. I have not Planning Phase seen any digital media or campaign having operated alone. The main decisions to be considered in the planning If I have understood correct, SK-Restaurants has used only phase include the elements from the conceptual model text messaging and e-mail advertising in their marketing. with more emphasis on the analysis of the target group and But that is an exception because restaurants themselves its receptiveness to mobile marketing, such as information are already one type of media. But otherwise it does not about target group’s handsets and attitudes to personalized operate alone.” (Interviewee 4) marketing as expressed by the interviewees. In the planning “This regular customer system, the 180,000 names phase, the interviewees agreed that the objectives of mobile we have collected during four to five years, has made it marketing are similar to those of general marketing. possible to carry out multiple marketing operations. Plus, “… We try to respect people’s free time and privacy, so what is essential from our part is that our marketing costs we do not send messages during weekends if it is not a have halved, including all the investments we have done for necessity.” (Interviewee 3) this system.” (Interviewee 3) “I would like to say that… in the future we will do it It also appeared that mobile marketing was considered, so that we send a message on Friday at six o’clock in the alongside e-mail marketing, to be an essential part of evening. ‘What are you going to do today? Go to a movie.’ companies’ marketing mix. As one interviewee said, mobile That is… the effectiveness of mobile marketing is highest in marketing often goes hand in hand with e-mail marketing. these kinds of cases because it is not possible to control any “We might send an invitation to a party beforehand by other media as efficiently within a day.” (Interviewee 4) e-mail and there is a registration link in the e-mail message “Well, it depends on the customer. As is the way with and this way we invite people to register and…when the marketing in general, the advertiser has its own needs to occasion is coming up, possibly one or two days before, we advertise…” (Interviewee 2) then send a text message to remind customers of the party “Mobile marketing is, in the first place, niche marketing. in the lines of ‘Hi, do you remember…’.” (Interviewee 3) Because people have registered to our regular customer Message Execution, Technical Infrastructure and Testing database and they have shown themselves to be interested in our services and products, it depends on us how we According to the interview data, it would appear that the can make a 160-character message so informative and planning process is followed by message implementation interesting that it appeals to them and activates them…” relating to content development, which was not considered (Interviewee 3) as demanding in SMS than in other formats that often require graphics. In the execution phase the needed technical The findings also revealed that in many cases the objective infrastructure, such as a server for message delivery and of a mobile campaign is to increase sales by creating instant response mechanisms, is typically already established. call-to-action. The empirical material supported the view that all “...It is an integral quality of mobile marketing that we mobile campaigns should be tested beforehand, at least typically strive to increase sales in very straightforward ways in the technical sense. Minimum functionality, different compared to other forms of marketing.” (Interviewee 1) terminal devices and their capability to show messages and In the planning phase it is important to utilize the special graphics in the right format are always tested. Testing the features of mobile marketing, especially personalization, as functionality means testing that messages go through the highlighted by the advertiser: telecommunication networks and that they are received by “If somebody watches my television, I do not flinch. mobile phones. If somebody uses my PC, I will become irritated. But if “…Certainly we have interest groups with whom we might somebody reads my text messages, I will become furious.” discuss that we have this kind of idea, what do you think? (Interviewee 4) They, you know, consult us…they are our interest groups Other important features mentioned during the interviews and we know they have good comments.” (Interviewee 3) were accessibility, time criticality, allocation, exactness, After the campaign is tested it will be implemented. If and cost savings. Relevant target group selection, which can a campaign is push-based, then the customers’ mobile create a viral effect, was also stressed by the interviewees. phone numbers are needed. After the numbers have been Insights into the Implementation of Mobile Marketing Campaigns 6
  • 8. DECEMBER 2007 • VOL. 2 NO. 2 entered into the system and the message is ready to go, the content and message sending play the most important part. execution of the campaign is done. In the latter case, it is common that the campaign is lead by the web and the mobile either redirects to the web or there “In digital marketing almost always, especially when is some supplementary service marketed on the web but we are talking about text-based advertising, everything executed via mobile. In this case the main implementation becomes concrete after pressing a button, and at the same concentrates on the development of the web page. time everything comes true and, typically, after a few seconds nothing is reversible and the whole advertising is actually over already after a few hours, and damages are CONCLUSION in the know. That is one thing that distinguishes mobile This research was born out of a need to better understand marketing and digital marketing as a whole from other ways the implementation process of mobile marketing campaigns. of marketing. When you think about publication advertising The research presented here provides a theoretically and or print advertising, you probably send some kind of paper empirically grounded exploration of the subject. The main somewhere and after a couple of weeks it is published findings of the research indicate that mobile marketing somewhere. But in digital and mobile marketing specifically, campaign implementation follows six main stages: there is no concrete moment when the marketing is actualized.” (Interviewee 1) 1. Planning 2. Execution of the message The last stage of the implementation process is the 3. Technical infrastructure (systems for sending and measuring and analyzing of the campaign. It was mentioned receiving messaging) that one of the biggest advantages of mobile marketing is 4. Testing (both technical testing and content testing) that it allows the company to monitor very closely how 5. Execution of the campaign things are evolving. 6. Follow-up and evaluation “After all, marketing is not worth doing without monitoring In the campaign planning stage the target group is selected what happens.” (Interviewee 2) and their terminal devices are mapped, if possible. This will “Results are directly measurable. And that is clearly what be followed by the decisions of the campaign objectives and we want. And evaluation takes place afterwards. Indeed, the budget. The planning stage also includes the designing we check how much money and time and efforts have of the content of the messages. Moreover, if more than one been spent and what kinds of results we have attained.” mobile technology or mobile channel is to be used, the (Interviewee 3) content has to be planned individually for each of those technologies. The next step is, then, to decide the campaign Participants in the Campaign Implementation type, which can be either push or pull. If the campaign is push-based, the time when the messages will be sent will Based on the empirical material it would appear that be decided. Because mobile marketing rarely works alone, there are only few partners participating in the planning connections to other media are planned. and implementation of a mobile marketing campaign. An advertiser/marketer is usually one participant. However, its After the campaign is planned, the message is executed. role varies depending on its background and knowledge This includes planning and executing the keywords and of mobile campaigns. Usually they are the customers of the content made separately for each technology. First, the an agency. Agencies and technology providers are often message or the text is drafted, entered into the application involved in some part of campaign development and platform and sent. For MMS messages content providing is implementation. Carriers are involved in message delivery, similar to SMS, but it is possible to include pictures and but their role is often just to provide the pipeline. Both videos in a message. Other possible ways to create MMS advertisers that participated in this research have outsourced messages are to use SMIL, a description language in which the technology side of mobile marketing. MMS messages are constructed, and the mobile Internet, which requires webpage production. Then, for example, a “They have earlier coded some SMS gateways and WAP push message is sent to customers as an SMS message. application platforms and then they have made some user This way the customers access web pages where they can interfaces through which others can use them, and in this use various functions. Different kinds of applications, like way they are purely technological providers who have given Java-applications, can also be used for marketing. their product to the use of others and they do not directly take part either in the implementation or the planning.” Technological infrastructures refer to the required (Interviewee 1) technological systems. Systems which relate to the execution of the campaign, such as systems for content providing In the case when a mobile marketing agency implements as well as systems for message receiving, are created or the whole campaign there seems to be two alternatives. First, handled some other way in this stage. In the fourth stage the the campaign can be implemented alongside an existing campaign is tested. The idea behind technical testing is to campaign. Second, the campaign can be planned for the find out whether messages are received by mobile phones. mobile environment from the start. In the first case, the 7 International Journal of Mobile Marketing
  • 9. Technical testing also includes device-specific testing, such learn how to use electronic channels like mobile efficiently, as checking that messages appear on screen as they ought customers and the company will benefit. to and that everything functions as it should. Meanwhile, According to the case study, Finnish advertisers utilize content testing includes checking spelling mistakes and mobile marketing in varying ways. Some companies use evaluating the content in general. This kind of testing is not mobile as a part of a campaign out of a desire to try it, very common, but it is good to be done. In the fifth stage whereas others utilize mobile as a communication channel the campaign is executed. Finally, there is the follow-up in CRM. Regardless of the role, it is essential to use some and evaluation phase. other media simultaneously, and by doing so integrate mobile marketing into other marketing channels. Thus, Theoretical Contributions organizations should not consider implementing mobile Previous research on the implementation of mobile applications without a deep consideration of its role and campaigns is scarce. Thus, while considering the position in the overall marketing and promotion mix. O contributions of this research, the handful of studies used ur results suggest that mobile is not an attention in building the conceptual model will be used as the main media, but rather a call-to-action media. source in outlining the contributions of the study. The Mobile is a medium that offers challenges and theoretical framework was formed based on the mobile opportunities due to its unique nature. One marketing campaign process, traditional advertising of the most important things to remember is that sending campaign development and other literature concerning too many messages to customers might create a message mobile marketing. By comparing the empirical model to blizzard. In addition to these points, being different and the theoretical framework, only minor modifications are standing out among others is crucial. On the other hand, at needed. In line with the theoretical framework, the empirical its best, mobile marketing can be very efficient if it generates study shows that a mobile marketing campaign includes viral effects. defining the target audience, deciding the budget and objectives, and designing the message. As the theoretical From the point of view of a marketer, the final framework framework already proposed, permission marketing is key gives marketers and advertisers advice on how to implement to mobile marketing (Barwise & Strong, 2002; Leppäniemi a mobile marketing campaign. The implementation differs & Karjaluoto, 2005). from traditional marketing and advertising campaigns because mobile campaigns include special features that The main difference between the theoretical and empirical other campaigns do not. Finally, the importance of the models relates to the planning process. Based on the case timing of the campaign has to be stressed. If marketing study, planning includes much more than the theoretical messages arrive at 7:00 a.m. on a Sunday, for instance, they framework expected. For example, this stage also includes will most likely annoy people and the marketing campaign planning the campaign content and the content for each will not be successful. mobile channel and the technology involved. Special features of mobile devices are observed in tandem with Limitations and Further Research content planning. Based on the interviews, there are more channels than those that were disclosed in the theory (Barnes Since the present study is among the first to offer insights into & Scornavacca, 2004; Scharl, Dickinger & Murphy, 2005). the area of campaign implementation, more conceptual and Different kinds of applications, as well as voice calls, are empirical work is needed in order to validate and generalize used in campaigns. The results of the case study confirmed the results. We observe three main limitations of the study. that the mobile channel should be integrated with other Firstly, as mobile marketing evolves, the campaigns and their channels, and that the integration should be planned in implementation processes might be very different in the future the campaign planning phase (Ranchhod, 2007; Scharl, than they are now. Secondly, the theoretical framework needs Dickinger & Murphy, 2005; Wang, 2007). Although prior further work, as the model was constructed mainly based on literature did not emphasize the delivery time of messages one similar study. The third limitation relates to the empirical in the campaign, our results emphasize the importance case. The case study offers insights into only three campaigns of timing in the implementation process. Moreover, our and their implementation, which might affect the reliability results are the first to discuss the importance of testing the and validity of the results. campaigns beforehand. The conclusions as well as the limitations of this study bring forth some fruitful and interesting possible avenues Managerial Implications for future research. We suggest further research tackle the This research provides several specific managerial implementation of campaigns using different technologies insights. Currently, electronic channels like mobile, the (e.g. MMS, mobile web); outline success factors of successful Internet and e-mail are used increasingly frequently, and for or unsuccessful campaigns; review channel combinations and some companies they act as the most important marketing cross-media integration; and investigate the timing decisions channels, as occurred in the case study. When marketers of campaigns. Insights into the Implementation of Mobile Marketing Campaigns 8
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