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Draft data-documentation Draft data-documentation Document Transcript

  • DRAFT National Survey on Household Income and Expenditure Data – Documentation Study sponsored by: National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER)Reference Year2004-2005
  • CONTENTSAbout the study.......................................................................................................... 1 1. Background .....................................................................................................................1 2. Lesson Learned from International Experiences ...........................................................3 3. Survey ..............................................................................................................................4 3.1 Approach .....................................................................................................................4 3.2 Coverage .....................................................................................................................5 3.3 Sample Design.............................................................................................................5 3.3.1 Selection of Rural Sample.................................................................................6 3.3.2 Selection of Urban Sample................................................................................8 4. Primary Data Collection .................................................................................................11 4.1 Data Processing ...........................................................................................................13 4.2 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................14Appendix I: Concept and Definitions ....................................................................... 16Variable list for the data ............................................................................................. 28
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) 0
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) A Note about Data 1
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) 2
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)1. BackgroundEconomic analysts and policy makers identify three main purposes for compiling information onincome distribution. The first is driven by a desire to understand how the pattern of incomedistribution can be related to patterns of economic activity and the returns to labour, capital and land,and to the way in which societies are organised – i.e. to theoretical and institutional considerations.The second reflects the concern of policy makers to determine the need for both universal and sociallytargeted actions on different socio-economic groups and to assess their impact. The third is an interestin how different patterns of income distribution influence household well being and people’s ability toacquire the goods and services they require to satisfy their needs.Unfortunately, there is great dearth of reliable longitudinal data on household income in India. TheNSSO has made efforts in the past for collecting information on household income along with theconsumer expenditure following interview method of data collection in its 9th round (May 1955-September 1955) and 14th round (July 1958-June 1959). Later, it undertook collection of data onreceipts and disbursements as a part of the Integrated Household Survey (IHS) in its 19th round (July1964-June 1965), and 24th round (July 1969-June 1970) with the aim of obtaining a complete pictureof transactions of the household income.In 1983-84, the NSSO attempted once again a pilot enquiry on household income by following twoapproaches viz. collection of household income directly from sources of earnings from one set ofhousehold and the collection of data on household consumption and saving from second set of samplehouseholds and data on income, consumption and saving from the third set of households. Theobjective was to explore the possibility of evolving an operationally feasible and sound technicalmethodology for collection of data on household income by interview method by examining theeffectiveness of direct income survey against the alternative approach of consumption and savingenquiry.Experience showed that there were difficulties in collection of reliable income data in the field due toambiguities in choice of unit of sampling, sampling frame, reference period of data collection, andeven items of information. Seasonality effect, lack of availability of accounts from employer 1
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)households, significant amount of purchases through credit, hidden income generated through wagespaid in kind, etc. are other factors coming in the way of proper data collection. For these reasons, theNational Sample Survey Organisation has perhaps reframed from collection of data on householdincome. Greater emphasis was, therefore, placed on household expenditure surveys.However, since the mid 1980s there is another large scale survey, the Market Information Survey ofHouseholds (MISH) of NCAER, which is less well known than the NSS. The MISH survey wasinitiated in 1985-86 to estimate market size, penetration for a variety of consumer goods and mostimportantly to provide a profile of consuming households in terms of income, occupation and location.These surveys are one of the few consistent sources providing comparable household income data on aregular basis. The main concept of income that has been used in the MISH is the concept of“perceived monetary income”, which includes all income received by the household as a whole, and byeach of its members, during the reference year. However, as a corollary, the MISH surveys havegenerated valuable demographic data, particularly on income. It has been suggested that these datacould throw light on broader social trends in the economy.One major concern about MISH surveys was the adequacy of a single income question ‘What is yourannual household income from all sources? In the most recent publication ‘The Great Indian PovertyDebate’ it has been emphasized that there is need for better survey data, improvements in the data andbroadening the indicators by which relevant policy issues may be objectively addressed. Also, NationalStatistical Commission recommended to examine the feasibility of reintroducing the receipts anddisbursement block with last 365 days as a reference period as was the case with the 19th to 25thRounds of NSS adopting integrated household schedule. But still it has not happened.In light of the above, the Council undertook the current study “National Survey of Household Incomeand Expenditure” to generate more robust and reliable estimate of household income by followinginternational practices.This survey is also important in view of the fact that NSS 61st round (2004-05) data on householdconsumer expenditure will be available shortly which provides an opportunity to attempt a meaningfulcomparative analysis through these two data sets. It is hoped that the resultant data sets will be useful 2
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)to different sets of users such as core researchers, policy makers and corporates without diluting itsstrength i.e., time series continuity.2. Lesson Learned from International ExperiencesNCAER research team studied the experience of several developing countries in organising household 1income and expenditure surveys , as was reviewed in-depth and presented in the Report of theCanberra City Group of UN Statistical Commission, called Expert Group on Household IncomeStatistics. Over 70 participants from 26 national organisations and 7 international organisations wereinvolved in the work of the Canberra Group with objective to enhance national household incomestatistics by developing standards on conceptual and practical issues related to the production ofincome distribution statistics. It carried out a meta-survey (survey about surveys) of 106 incomecomponents that are actually collected in 30 household income surveys in 25 countries from allcontinents.Based on experiences gained through reviewing these studies, desirable survey procedures such asapproach, concepts and definitions, sample design and sample size, content of questionnaire,estimation were adopted in the current study to fill the data gap on household income. For instance,§ The accounting period used for income distribution analysis is one year as per recommendation, and similarly, household has been adopted as the basic statistical unit.§ A hierarchy of components of income is built up which provides definitions of total disposable household income.1 The major sources reviewed includes Situation Assessment Survey of Farmers (NSS); Integrated Household Survey(NSS); Employment and Unemployment Survey (NSS); All India Rural Household: Survey on Saving, Income andInvestment (NCAER 1962); Survey on Urban Income and Saving (NCAER 1962); Market Information Survey ofHouseholds (NCAER); Micro-Impact of Macro and Adjustment Policies (MIMAP); Rural Economic and DemographicSurvey (NCAER); Expert Group on Household Income Statistics, Household Income and Expenditure Statistics (ILO);Chinese Household Income Project (1995) and Household Income and Expenditure Survey (Sri Lanka). 3
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)§ The recommended practical definition of income has been adopted for use in making international comparisons of income and major components covered are as given (for details refer Appendixes I and II). - Cash wages and salaries - Bonuses - Profit/loss from self-employment - Rental income - Interest and dividends received - Employer based pensions - Government social benefits - Other regular payments from outside the household3. Survey Description and Methodology3.1 ApproachThis survey was primarily aimed to generate more robust and reliable estimate of household incomebesides other sets of information such as demographic profile of households (religion, caste, education,occupation, etc), estimates of market size and penetration of manufactured consumer goods(consumables and durables) and ownership patterns. The target population of the survey was the totalpopulation in the country, with states and urban/rural categories as sub-populations or target groups,for whom representative estimates were also sought.The survey methodology and sampling design adopted is similar to that used by the National SampleSurvey Organisation (NSSO) in its Household Budget Surveys (HBS). This is a household survey anda list of households (sampling frame) is a prerequisite to selecting the representative sample fromwhich to collect the desired information. The sampling frame needs to be up-to-date and free fromerrors of omission and duplication (which is particularly problematic). In developing countries likeIndia, such a sampling frame is neither readily available nor can it be easily prepared since developingnew frames is an expensive proposition. A three-stage stratified sample design was adopted in which aready-made frame was used at least for the first two stages, and a sampling frame i.e., list ofhouseholds, was developed in the last stage. 4
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)NCAERs experience with socio-economic surveys in India has been that, more than the total samplesize, it is the geographical spread over the country that is more important from the point of view ofstatistical efficiency of estimates. This applies perhaps even more so to income and expenditure, whosedistribution across the population is likely to show a large degree of heterogeneity. Consequently, anotable feature of the survey design is that the sample of households was selected from a wide cross-section of households in the country, covering both rural and urban areas, with the objective ofenhancing the precision of the estimates. The rural sample for the survey was selected from a rep-resentative number of districts across the country, while the urban sample covered a range from bigcities to small towns with populations below 5,000.While the first two stages of stratification in the survey used pre-existing sampling frames, the surveydeveloped a sampling frame of households at the third and last stage. In the absence of a definitive listof households, households in the selected villages and urban blocks were randomly selected byadopting systematic random sampling. In the case of large villages/urban blocks, a fraction ofhouseholds were listed in view of time and cost constraints. These households were randomly chosen.3.2 CoveragePrimary survey of households was undertaken in 24 major States/Union Territories of India coveringboth rural and urban areas of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa,Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,Meghalaya, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, andWest Bengal. Territories excluding Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland,Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveliand Lakshadweep. Remaining states were left out due to operational difficulty and accounts for only 3to 4 per cent of the countrys total population.3.3 Sample DesignA three-stage stratified sample design has been adopted for the survey to generate representativesamples. Sample districts, villages and households formed the first, second and third stage sampleunits respectively for selection of the rural sample, while cities/towns, urban wards and householdswere the three stages of selection for the urban sample. Sampling was done independently within each 5
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)state/UT and estimates were generated at state/UT level. Estimate for all-India was basically theaggregation of estimates for all states/uts. The sample sizes at first, second and third stages in rural andurban areas were determined on the basis of available resources and the derived level of precision forkey estimates from the survey, taking into account the experience of NCAER in conducting the earliersurveys such as MISH, etc.Within a state there are variations in respect of social and economic characteristics. The bigger a state,the larger is the variation. In the National Sample Survey (NSS), within a state, regions are formedconsidering the homogeneity of crop pattern, vegetation, climate, physical features, rainfall pattern,etc. An NSS region is a group of districts within a state similar to each other in respect of agro-climatic features. In the present survey within a state, NSS regions formed the strata for both ruraland urban sampling.3.3.1 Selection of Rural SampleIn the rural sample design, a sample size of 250 districts was allocated to the 64 NSS regions withinthe 24 covered States/UTs in proportion to the total number of districts in an NSS region. From eachof the NSS regions, the allocated number of districts were selected, as the first-stage sample units,with probability proportional to size and replacement, where rural population of each district as per2001 Population Census was used as size measure.Villages formed the second stage of selection procedure. District-wise lists of villages are availablefrom census records (Census 2001) along with population. A total sample of 1976 villages (second-stage sampling units) was allocated to the selected 250 districts approximately in proportion to ruralpopulation of each selected district. The allocated number of sample villages in a selected district werechosen with equal probability sampling approach.In each of the selected villages, approximately 100 households were selected following equalprobability sampling approach for listing purpose and preliminary survey. During this preliminarysurvey, information on land possessed and principal source of income of the listed household wascollected for use in stratifying the listed households into 8 strata as follows: 6
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)• Stratum 1: Principal source of income was self-employment in agriculture and land possessed was 0-2 acres;• Stratum 2: Principal source of income was self-employment in agriculture and land possessed was 2-10 acres;• Stratum 3: Principal source of income was self-employment in agriculture and land possessed was above 10 acres;• Stratum 4: Principal source of income was labour (agricultural/other casual);• Stratum 5: Principal source of income was self-employment in non-agriculture and land possessed was 0-2 acres;• Stratum 6: Principal source of income was self-employment in non-agriculture and land possessed was above 2 acres;• Stratum 7: Principal source of income was regular salary/wages and other sources and land possessed was 0-2 acres; and• Stratum 8: Principal source of income was regular salary/wages and other sources and land possessed was above 2 acres.From each of the above 8 strata, 2 households were selected by following equal probability samplingapproach. In case, any of the strata was found to be missing (no household), then households fromprevious stratum, where additional households were available, were selected so as to get 16 samplehouseholds in a selected village.Following the above sampling design in rural areas, the realised sample of 31,446 households out ofpreliminary listed sample of 211,979 households was spread over 1976 villages in 250 districts and 64NSS regions covering the 24 States/UTs. 7
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) Table 1: Profile of Rural Sample State Number of Stage I Stage II Stage III NSS Total Sample Total Sample Listed Sample Regions districts districts villages villages households households Himachal Pradesh 1 12 6 17,495 32 2,736 512 Punjab 2 17 8 12,278 48 4,983 768 Chandigarh 1 1 1 23 5 500 78 Uttaranchal 1 13 6 15,761 30 3,044 480 Haryana 2 19 9 6,764 47 4,862 752 Delhi 1 9 1 158 6 668 88 Rajasthan 4 32 16 39,753 118 12,036 1,888 Uttar Pradesh 4 70 29 97,942 274 30,356 4,384 Bihar 2 37 18 39,018 196 21,721 3,136 Meghalaya 1 7 5 - 10 991 160 Assam 3 23 11 25,124 67 6,419 1,072 West Bengal 4 17 9 37,955 123 12,438 1,968 Jharkhand 1 18 9 29,354 59 5,930 944 Orissa 3 30 14 47,529 86 9,958 1,376 Chhattisgarh 1 15 7 19,744 49 4,924 784 Madhya Pradesh 6 45 22 52,117 132 14,092 2,112 Gujarat 5 25 12 18,066 90 10,659 1,440 Maharashtra 6 33 16 41,095 157 18,057 2,512 Andhra Pradesh 4 22 12 26,614 160 16,619 2,560 Karnataka 4 27 14 27,481 103 11,969 1,648 Goa 1 2 2 347 10 1,166 160 Kerala 2 14 7 1,364 63 6,368 848 Tamil Nadu 4 30 14 15,400 101 10,443 1,616 Pondicherry 1 4 2 92 10 1,040 160 ALL INDIA 64 522 250 571,474 1,976 211,979 31,4463.3.2 Selection of Urban SampleAccording to the 2001 census, there are about 4,850 cities/towns in the states/UTs (excluding Jammu& Kashmir). The population of cities/towns in India varies from less than 5,000 to over a crore. In theurban sample design, within the 24 covered States/UTs, the 64 NSS regions were again treated asstrata. In each NSS region, towns were categorised into five groups based on their population, namelybig towns and small towns. There are 170 cities with a population exceeding 2 lakh. All the citieswere selected with a probability of one. The remaining cities/towns were grouped into four strata onthe basis of their population size and from each stratum a sample of towns was selected independently. 8
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)A progressively increasing sampling fraction with increasing town population class was used for de-termining the number of towns to be selected from each stratum. From each NSS region, the allocatednumber of small towns were selected by following an equal probability sampling procedure. Thesampling fraction was used at the state level. (Table 1). Table 2: Sampling fraction for city/town groups Town Town population Total Sample Sampling class (000) towns towns fraction I > 10000 3 3 1.00 II 5000-10000 3 3 1.00 III 1000-5000 29 29 1.00 IV 500-1000 37 37 1.00 V 200-500 98 98 1.00 VI 100-200 219 56 0.26 VII 50-100 396 44 0.11 VIII 20-50 1,135 28 0.02 IX < 20 2,270 44 0.02 Total 4,190 342 0.08A total sample size of 2255 urban wards was allocated among the selected small/big towns inproportion to the number of wards in the respective towns. The allocated number of wards wereselected from each sample town following equal probability sampling approach. Thus, towns andwards formed the first and second-stage sample units in the urban sample design.Like in the rural sample design, within a selected ward, a sample of about 100 households was selectedfor listing and preliminary survey, following equal probability sampling approach. In the preliminarysurvey, at the time of listing of the sample households, information on household size, householdconsumption expenditure for last month ((MPCE), and principal source of household income werecollected for use in stratifying the listed households into 7 strata as follows:• Stratum 1: Principal source of income was regular salary/wage earnings and sources like remittances, pension, etc. and MPCE of Rs. less than 800;• Stratum 2: Principal source of income same as in stratum 1 but MPCE Rs. 801-2500;• Stratum 3: Principal source of income same as stratum 1 but MPCE above Rs. 2500;• Stratum 4: Principal source of income was self-employment and MPCE less than Rs. 800; 9
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)• Stratum 5: Principal source of income was self-employment and MPCE Rs. 801-2500;• Stratum 6: Principal source of income was self-employment and MPCE above Rs. 2500;• Stratum 7: Principal source of income was casual labour (agricultural or non-agricultural).From each of the above strata, 2 households were selected at random with equal probability ofselection. If there was no household in any of the strata, the shortfall was compensated from theprevious stratum, where additional households were available, so as to get 14 sample households fromeach selected ward in urban sector for detailed survey. Table 3: Profile of Urban Sample State Number of Stage I Stage II Stage III NSS Total Sample Total Sample Listed Sample Regions towns towns blocks blocks households households Himachal Pradesh 1 56 2 22 5 502 70 Punjab 2 157 12 472 74 7,596 1,036 Chandigarh 1 1 1 21 10 1,000 140 Uttaranchal 1 76 3 129 18 1,881 252 Haryana 2 97 13 596 74 7,543 1,036 Delhi 1 4 1 289 60 7,197 840 Rajasthan 4 216 19 851 114 11,568 1,596 Uttar Pradesh 4 670 51 2,036 316 31,975 4,424 Bihar 2 120 14 444 75 7,973 1,050 Meghalaya 1 10 1 6 6 600 84 Assam 3 110 5 100 20 1,940 280 West Bengal 4 239 18 - 142 14,620 1,988 Jharkhand 1 95 10 860 68 6,896 952 Orissa 3 132 8 322 45 4,501 630 Chhattisgarh 1 84 8 473 44 4,412 616 Madhya Pradesh 6 368 19 799 114 11,516 1,596 Gujarat 5 190 19 572 146 14,615 2,044 Maharashtra 6 347 35 2,220 273 31,553 3,822 Andhra Pradesh 4 173 27 1,172 195 20,426 2,730 Karnataka 4 237 22 905 153 18,819 2,142 Goa 1 38 2 12 4 440 56 Kerala 2 98 13 1,019 79 8,030 1,106 Tamil Nadu 4 68 37 2,272 207 21,937 2,898 Pondicherry 1 4 2 23 13 1,273 182 ALL INDIA 64 4,190 342 15,615 2,255 238,813 31,570 10
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Following the above sampling design in urban areas, the realised sample of 31,570 households, out ofpreliminary listed sample of 238,813 households, was spread over 2,255 urban wards in 342 towns and64 NSS regions covering the 24 States/UTs. Table 4: Number of Persons Surveyed by Location State Rural Urban All India Himachal Pradesh 2,744 322 3,066 Punjab 4,044 5,285 9,329 Chandigarh 434 661 1,095 Uttaranchal 2,506 1,257 3,763 Haryana 4,612 5,453 10,065 Delhi 475 3,960 4,435 Rajasthan 10,744 8,635 19,379 Uttar Pradesh 28,819 23,462 52,281 Bihar 15,607 5,272 20,879 Meghalaya 866 308 1,174 Assam 4,803 1,107 5,910 West Bengal 10,185 8,885 19,070 Jharkhand 4,999 4,823 9,822 Orissa 7,046 3,040 10,086 Chattisgarh 3,998 2,948 6,946 Madhya Pradesh 11,609 8,090 19,699 Gujarat 6,760 9,700 16,460 Maharashtra 13,091 18,158 31,249 Andhra Pradesh 11,314 11,245 22,559 Karnataka 8,134 9,608 17,742 Goa 772 281 1,053 Kerala 3,635 4,539 8,174 Tamil Nadu 7,033 12,163 19,196 Pondicherry 740 777 1,517 Total 164,970 149,979 314,9494. Primary Data CollectionData collection work of this survey was entrusted to 12 state level Net Working Agencies (NWAs).The criteria adopted to select the NWAs were: (a) they have been registered under the Societies Act,(b) they have been empanelled in the NCAER and (c) they have necessary infrastructure to carry outthe data collection work in the respective state(s), with experience of such work in a related area and(d) they have a cost-effective financial plan for undertaking the data collection work. The selectedNWAs worked in close liason with the NCAER. They engaged in all 250 interviewers and 50 11
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)supervisors to complete data collection work in all the 24 states/uts during the period 15 October 2005- 7 January 2006. The selection of the NWAs was done by 27 September 2005. The interviewers andsupervisors having a minimum educational qualification of graduate degree and having knowledge ofregional language(s) were recruited by the NWAs, keeping in view the duration of the field work andworkload allotted to them for timely completion of the data collection work. The survey core team ofNCAER consisted of 2 Advisors (part-time), 1 Senior Fellow, 2 Associate Fellows, 1 ResearchAnalyst and 5 Research Associates. Also, 14 professional researchers of NCAER were designated asstates-in-charge for overall supervisors of data collection work.The ultimate success of a large-scale survey such as the present one depends upon proper training tothe interviewers and supervisors in addition to an efficient sample design and well designed surveyschedules (questionnaires). Training was done in two phases. In the first phase, the training wasimparted to trainers who were the heads of the selected NWAs and NCAER states-in-charge. Thismeeting-cum-training was conducted from 20 September to 23 September 2005 at the headquartersof NCAER, New Delhi. One day was devoted exclusively for pre-testing of the schedules in a nearbysample village of Haryana state. In the second phase of training, the interviewers and supervisors weretrained before actual start of data collection work. This training was imparted by both the heads ofselected NWAs as well as NCAER staff during the month of October 2005 for a period of 3-6 daysincluding one day for pre-testing of the schedules. The arrangement for this training programme wasdone by the concerned NWA. The topics for the training included a detailed discussion andexplanation of aims and objectives of the present survey, period of data collection work, referenceperiod, concepts, definitions and classifications such as the ones relevant for principal industry andoccupation, which were used in the schedules; sample design, listing schedule, stratification methodsfor rural and urban listed households and detailed structure and contents of the household scheduleand the schedules used for the two other modules, sponsored by Max New York Life Insurance Ltd.and Maruti Udyog Ltd. The participation and presence of NCAER staff during the course of thisphase of training at each centre was found very useful. In fact, NCAER staff supervised one or twosample places work completed during their stay and brought the filled-in schedules to NCAERheadquarters for test scrutiny. Each of the NCAER staff who visited the training centres in October2005 submitted a feedback report along with suggestions for improvement. Themistakes/inconsistencies found in the scrutiny of the schedules brought by them to NCAER 12
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)headquarters as well as their feedback reports were used to communicate immediately with theconcerned NWA to ensure the rectification of such errors in the further data collection work. Besidesa general feedback, covering common types of mistakes and suggestions for rectification were alsocirculated to all the NWAs. This system of issuance of feedback communications based on test-scrutiny of the schedules at NCAER headquarters in the very beginning of data collection workhelped a lot in reduction of non-sampling errors and improvement of data quality in the survey.The sample lists both for rural and urban areas were supplied to each NWA in respect of the states/utsallotted to them during the course of the training at NCAER headquarters in September 2005. Aletter was issued by NCAER addressed to the Chief Secretary of the concerned state/ut governmentenclosing therewith the names of the districts/towns selected for the survey and also the name ofNWA appointed by NCAER for primary survey data collection and requesting them to inform theconcerned officer(s) in the state/ut about NCAER effort for conducting the survey and issue necessaryinstructions to extend cooperation. This letter helped the field staff of NWA in canvassing theschedules in the selected places in rural and urban areas.Supervisors of the fieldwork played a very important role in reducing non-sampling errors. Thesupervisors engaged by the NWAs did the supervisors work as well as the scrutiny of the schedulesfilled-in by the interviewers on cent percent basis in accordance with the scrutiny programme suppliedto them. Though there were detailed instructions for the interviewers to conduct the data collectionwork, it was necessary to provide a scrutiny programme with a list of checkpoints for scrutinising theconsistency and accuracy of the responses recorded by the interviewers. Accordingly, field scrutinyprogramme was prepared by the NCAER covering detailed points of scrutiny in general and schedulewise and it was circulated to each NWA, which helped their supervisors in scrutinising the schedulesto make them error free, as far as possible. NCAER staff also undertook field visits in the secondphase in problematic areas to ensure quality of data.4.1 Data ProcessingThe NWAs sent in filled-in schedules in two lots through courier services. Although completedschedules were edited once at the field level, these were again later subjected to manual editing andcoding at NCAER headquarters by a team of editors under the supervisors of the NCAER seniorstaff. Then only a completed schedule was considered as ready for data entry. Detailed steps involved 13
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)in the editing process at headquarters were listed out schedule wise and block-wise within a scheduleand these were strictly adhered to in the editing process.The data entry procedure used was the centralised data entry workshop. The objective of theoperation was to convert the raw data on the paper schedules into an intermediate product (machine-readable files) that needed to be further refined by means of editing programmes and clerical processesin order to obtain clean data base as a final product. For this survey, data entry was done at NCAERheadquarters by a group of data entry operators working under supervisors. A special software wasprepared and used to segregate the information contained in the schedule into different parts known asdecks containing information on specific blocks of the schedules.For data validation, data consistency checking software was prepared and used to ferret out both dataentry errors and apparent enumeration mistakes or inconsistencies. Five kinds of checks, namely rangechecks, checks against reference data, skip checks, logical checks and typographic checks were used.Data were saved at different stages before making any further changes and named as stage 0, stage 1,stage 2 and so on files. Stage 0 consisted of original data and the data after cleaning at any step ofconsistency check was saved as latter versions and the final version was stage 5 consisting of thecorrected data of all the states/uts after the final data cleaning.4.2 Data AnalysisEstimates for various parameters were produced directly from the cleaned data files by weighting eachsample observation with the inverse of the probability of selection of the sample household taking intoaccount the sampling design.Cross-validation of estimates for some key parameters such as household size, sex ratio, distribution ofhouseholds according to SC, ST, & others, religion, type of dwelling, etc., was done using the resultsfrom external sources such as Census 2001 and National Sample Survey of 2003. Sampling errors forkey estimates from the survey were also produced.Data analysis for the two additional modules, namely the survey on automobile owners and theprotection index study was undertaken first, as these were sponsors studies and preliminary results 14
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)were presented to the sponsors for discussion and feedback of there comments. Analysis of the surveydata on household income and expenditure has been in progress. Key results from this survey areexpected to be released in October 2006. In due course of time, there are plans to prepare the microdata file with data at household level (after suppression of identification particulars) for release undercertain conditions for public use. 15
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) Appendix I: Concept and DefinitionsHousehold: A group of persons normally living together and taking food from a common kitchenconstitute a household. The members of a household may or may not be related by blood or marriageto one another. Servants, permanent labourers and unrelated members are treated as members of thehousehold in case they take their meals regularly from the same kitchen. If a person is out for morethan six months during the reference period (2004-05), he/she was not treated as a member of thehousehold.Household size: The number of normally resident members of a household is its size. It includestemporary stay-away but exclude temporary visitors and guests. Even though the determination of theactual composition of a household is left to the judgment of the head of the household, the followingprocedures was adopted as guidelines:• In deciding the composition of a household, more emphasis is to be placed on normally living together than on ordinarily taking food from a common kitchen. In case the place of residence of a person is different from the place of boarding, he or she was treated as a member of the household with whom he or she resides.• A resident employee, or domestic servant, or a paying guest (but not just a tenant in the household) was considered as a member of the household with whom he or she resides even though he or she is not a member of the same family.• When a person sleeps in one place (say, in a shop or in a room in another house because of space shortage) but usually takes food with his or her family, he or she should be treated not as a single member household but as a member of the household in which other members of his or her family stay.• If a member of a household (say, a son or a daughter of the head of the household) stays elsewhere (say, in hostel for studies or for any other reason), he/she was not considered as a member of his/her parents household. However, he/she was listed as a single member household if the hostel is listed.Head of the household: The head is the main decision-maker in the family and the person bestinformed about the family’s finances. Usually he is chief earner or the oldest member in the household.The household members are expected to tell the interviewer whom they regard as Head. 16
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Rural and Urban Areas: The rural and urban areas of the country are taken as adopted in Census 2001for which the required information is available with the Survey Design and Research Division of theNSSO. The lists of Census villages as published in the Primary Census Abstracts (PCA) constitutethe rural areas, and the lists of cities, towns, cantonments, non-municipal urban areas and notifiedareas constitute urban areas.The definition of urban areas adopted for this study is the same as used in the 2001 Census.Accordingly, urban areas include:• All places with a municipality/corporation, cantonment board or a notified town area committee;• All other places satisfying the following criteria: - minimum population of 5,000 - at least 75 per cent of the male workforce is engaged in non-agricultural pursuits - a population density of over 400 per sq km (1,000 per sq mile).NSS Region: An NSS region is a group of districts within a state similar to each other in respect toagro-climate features. The regions are formed considering the homogeneity of crop pattern,vegetation, climate, physical features, rainfall pattern etc. There are 78 NSS regions over thegeographical territories of India.Block: A census block is a specific area, which is clearly demarcated with an eye on the ultimate normof workload i.e. the population and/or households to be covered. For the House listing operations2001, a norm of 120-140 household and a population of 600-700 was fixed for rural blocks. Urbanenumeration block consists a population of about 600-700 or 120-140 houses. Formation of CensusEnumeration Blocks (CEBs) is done once in ten years.UFS Block: All the urban areas are divided into UFS blocks with a population content ranging from600 to 800 or 120 to 160 households. UFS is being conducted by NSSO on a regular basis in all theurban areas with a provision to update the blocks once in every five years.Ward: Ward is the smallest administrative division of a town or a city. An election to municipalcouncil is done ward wise. Wards are non-overlapping and mutually exclusive; that is, if a particulararea has been included in one ward it cannot form a part of another ward. Wards are easilyidentifiable and there is no room for ambiguity. The population content of the wards could vary. Insmall towns, a ward may be of 500 population and in bigger towns a ward may be of 50,000 17
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)population. There is no provision for higher or lower limit in the Municipal Act. Even within thesame town population contents of different wards differs markedly. For instance, in Patiala Town,one ward has a population of 3000 and another ward has a population of 10,000. Wards boundariesare well defined. The population content at a particular point of time is known: The census operationswhile forming CEBs base their operations on wards.National Industrial Classification: Industry is the sector of economic activity in which a person works.The National Industrial Classification - 1998 is being used for classifying the industry of a person orenterprise or household. NIC-1998 groups together economic activities, which are akin in terms ofprocess type, raw materials, used and finished goods produced. The classification does not make anydistinction according to type ownership, type of legal organisation, type of technology and scale/modeof operation or type of economic organisation and except in some cases the classification does notdistinguish between large scale and small scale. Total number of sections in NIC-1998 are 17 but inthe present survey section Fishing has been merged with Agriculture and section other communitysocial and personal service activities, merged with others. Hence the total number of sections for thepresent survey is 15.Principal Industry: When a person is pursuing only one type of economic activity, the sector of sucheconomic activity will be his/her principal industry. When two or more economic activities are pursuedby a person, the economic activity in which more labour time is spent will be his/her principal activityand the related industry will be his/her principal industry.National Classification of Occupation: The nature of work performed by a person is called his/heroccupation. For classification of occupation of a person the National Classification of Occupation(NCO - 1968) is used. In an occupation classification, the groups of occupation have to be based onthe fundamental criterion of type of work performed. All the workers engaged in same type of workare grouped together irrespective of the Industrial Classification of establishments where they areengaged. For example, all clerical workers have been classified in one occupational group whether theyare engaged in a factory, mine, government office or a shop. Factors like materials handled, tools ormachines used, standard of performance required, level of responsibility involved, physical and socialenvironments, industrial affiliations, etc. have not affected the classification of occupations. Butfactors like types of operations involved in the performance of a job, type of qualifications, vocationaland professional training, status (e.g. own account worker, employer), levels of skill, etc., are 18
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)considered in classifying a person as belonging to particular occupation. Job definitions or descriptionsrepresent only the average national picture of the various occupations.Principal Occupation: The nature of economic activity performed i.e., the type of function performedby a person is his/her primary occupation, if he/she is engaged in one and only one type of economicactivity. If he/she is pursuing two or more economic activities, principal occupation will be of theeconomic activity in which he or she spends more labour time. For classifying the occupation of aperson the National Classification of Occupation (NCO 1968) is used.Activity Status: Any activity resulting in production of goods and services that adds value to nationalproduct is considered as economic activity. Such activities include (I) production of all goods andservices for market i.e. production for pay or profit and (ii) the production of primary commodities forown consumption and (iii) own account production of fixed assets, among the non-market activities.• Employers: The self-employed persons who work on their own account and by and large run their own enterprise by hiring labour are called employer.• Own account worker: Self-employed persons who operate their own farm or non-farm enterprises without hiring any labour are called own account workers.• Self-employed in agriculture: Persons/households who are engaged in their own farm are defined as self-employed in agriculture.• Self-employed in non-agriculture: Persons/households who are engaged in their own non-farm enterprises are defined as self-employed in non-agriculture.• Agricultural labour: A person is treated as agricultural labour if he/she follows one or more of the following agricultural operations in the capacity of labourer or hire or in exchange, whether paid wholly in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind: - Farming including cultivation and tillage of the soil, etc. - Dairy farming, - Production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any horticultural commodity, - Raising of livestock, bee keeping or poultry farming etc. It may be noted that manual work in fisheries is excluded from the coverage of agricultural labour.• Casual wage labour: A person casually engaged in other’s non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return wages according to the terms of daily or periodic work contract is treated as casual wage labour. 19
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)• Other Casual Labour: A person casually engaged in other’s non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return wages according to the terms of daily or periodic work contract is treated as other (casual) labour.Household Income: In broad terms, income refers to regular receipts such as wages and salaries,income from self-employment; interest and dividends from invested funds, pensions or other benefitsfrom social insurance and other current transfers receivable. Income presents a partial view ofeconomic well being and represents the regular or recurring receipts side of household economicaccounts. It provides a measure of resources available to the household for consumption and saving.• Regular salaries and wages: The regular salaries and wages are the earnings, which a person working in other’s farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) gets in return on a regular basis (and not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract). The following components of salary and wages for all earning members were collected. - Average salary received per month (Rs.) - Employer’s contribution to provident fund per month (Rs.) - Own contribution to provident fund per month (Rs.) - Bonus and allowances received during April 2004-March 2005 - Other receipt from employer during April 2004-March 2005 - Income tax paid for accounting year April 2004-March 2005• Bonus: Bonus includes profit sharing bonus, festival bonus, year-end and other bonus and ex- gratia payments paid at less frequent intervals (i.e. other than bonus paid more or less regularly for each pay period).• Self-employed in non-agriculture: Persons/households who are engaged in their own non-farm enterprises are defined as self-employed in non-agriculture (Craft/Business /Professionals, etc). The following components of self-employed in non-agriculture were collected. - Receipts § Value (sale) of products & services § Value of products retained for own consumption - Operating expenses (Rs.) § Raw material purchased § Labour charges § Rent 20
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) § Other expenses (Fuels, transport and marketing, hire charges for equipment, storage, etc.) § Tax on business income• Agricultural labour: A person is treated as agricultural labour if he/she follows one or more of the following agricultural operations in the capacity of labourer or hire or in exchange, whether paid wholly in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind: - Farming including cultivation and tillage of the soil, etc. - Dairy farming, - Production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any horticultural commodity, - Raising of livestock, bee keeping or poultry farming etc. It may be noted that manual work in fisheries is excluded from the coverage of agricultural labour. The following components of agricultural labour for each wage labourer were collected. - Periodicity of payment (1=Annual, 2=Monthly, 3=Weekly, 4=Daily) - Period of employment during April 2004-March 2005 (Months) - Mode of payment (1=Cash, 2=Kind, 3= Cash & kind) - Average payment received per month (Rs.) - Other receipts from employer during April 2004-March 2005• Casual wage labour: A person casually engaged in other’s non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return wages according to the terms of daily or periodic work contract is treated as casual wage labour. The following components of casual wage labour for each wage earner were collected. - Periodicity of payment (1=Annual, 2=Monthly, 3=Weekly, 4=Daily) - Period of employment during April 2004-March 2005 (Months) - Mode of payment (1=Cash, 2=Kind, 3= Cash & kind) - Average payment received per month (Rs.) - Other receipts from employer during April 2004-March 2005• Self-employed in agriculture: Persons/households who are engaged in their own farm are defined as self-employed in agriculture. The following components of self-employed in agriculture were collected. - Value of output and its disposal § Value produced 21
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) § Value of output sold o Cash o Exchange o Total § Value of output for domestic use - Operating expenses (Rs.) § Seed (Home produced and purchased) § Manures, fertilizers and chemicals § Irrigation charges § Labour charges § Other expenses (land rent, hire charges for equipment, storage, etc.)• Income from other sources: - Rent from lending land - Rent from providing accommodation and capital for production - Net Interest received (Income from bonds, deposits and savings) - Dividend (Income received from stock holdings and mutual fund shares) - Employer based private pension (Payments received from companies/government after retirement) - Government social insurance and social assistance benefits (Pay supplements to dependent family members of military, unemployment, cash income from subsidies in any form, etc.) - Others (Specify___________) Dividend: Dividend represents the return to someone who has invested in an enterprise but does not work in it themselves. For incorporated enterprises, they are simply called dividends. Social insurance benefits: Social insurance benefits are paid in return for contributions paid by, or on behalf of, the recipient or their beneficiaries. With unfunded employment related benefit schemes, the contributions may be notional but the main criterion is that there is an obligation to pay an employment related benefit. It includes: 22
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) - Employment related pensions and other insurance benefits paid from private employers’ schemes and government schemes run entirely for benefit of government employees - Pensions and other benefits from overseas governments - Military pensions - Unemployment, sickness, disability, medical, etc. benefits paid from private insurance schemes that qualify as social insurance - Payments for education of employees’ families that are part of the remuneration package. It excludes: - Lump sum retirement payouts, Benefits from private insurance schemes where contributions to the scheme are not mandated by government or by an employer, that is, participation in the scheme is entirely at the discretion of the contributor Payments from government schemes run entirely for benefit of government employees. - Some social insurance schemes allow (or force) a participant to take some retirement benefits in the form of a lump sum payment, often at the date of retirement. In such cases, subsequent regular payments are lower than they are otherwise would have been if no lump sum had been paid. The SNA prescribes that all retirement benefits be treated as social insurance benefits. This avoids the need to obtain information on the amount of lump sum and regular payments separately, and keeps all contributions and benefits in the same account.Social assistance benefits in cash from government It includes: - Age, widows, unemployment, sickness, disability, etc pensions and allowances that are not employment related or dependent on direct contributions to an insurance scheme by the beneficiary - Maternity, family and child benefits - Scholarships and other educational assistance from government - Reduction in interest on student loans where not means-tested It excludes: 23
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) - Rental allowances (housing subsidies), Medical expenses reimbursed other social benefits in kind.Consumption Expenditure: Household consumption included the value of all goods and servicesprovided in kind from employers or as a result of home production (including the value of imputedrent for owner-occupied dwellings), which were already included in total income.Consumption Expenditure is classified into 8 groups given below: • Food: While recording consumption, care should be taken to include consumption on ceremonials, parties, etc. The household made any transfer payment in terms of commodities like cereals, beverages, fruits, vegetables pulses, etc., the quantity of commodity so paid should not be shown under domestic consumption of the payer household. The portion out of that receipt consumed by the recipient household during the reference period was shown against the consumption of the recipient household. • Housing: Information was collected on the expenditure for purchase of rent/taxes/maintenance/ other household services/ water bills etc. items during the reference period. The actual expenditure incurred towards purchase of these items, used for non- productive purposes, was considered as the consumer expenditure of the household. Expenditure both in cash and kind was taken into account. The consumption was recorded in terms of average per month. • Health Expenses (fee to medical facilities/medical labs/medicines): These items include expenditure on medicines of different types and on medical goods; also, payments made to doctor, nurse, etc., on account of professional fees and those made to hospital, nursing home, etc. for medical treatment. Medical expenses included IUD (intra-uterine device), oral pills condoms, diaphragm, spermicide (jelly, cream, foam tablet), etc. Expenditure incurred for clinical tests, X-ray, etc. were also accounted. For Central government employees receiving medicines and medical services from CGHS dispensaries, only the monthly contribution made was considered. If, however, some medicine or service was purchased from outside during the reference period, the expenditure, even if reimbursed, was to be included. The distinction between institutional and non-institutional medical expenses lies in whether the expenses were incurred on medical treatment as in-patient of a medical institution or otherwise. 24
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)• Transport (road/air/fuel/repair/insurance/license): Expenditure incurred on account of journeys undertaken and/or transportation of goods made by airways, railways, bus, tram, steamer, motor car (or taxi), motor-cycle, auto-rickshaw, bicycle, rickshaw (hand-drawn and cycle) horse-cab, bullock cart, hand-cart, porter or any other means of conveyance was recorded against this item. The expenditure was taken as the actual fare paid. The expenditure incurred on journeys undertaken under LTC, etc., even if reimbursed, was to be included. In case of owned conveyance, the cost of fuel (petrol, mobile oil, diesel, etc.) for power driven transport and animal feed for animal-drawn carriage were also accounted. For railway fare, season tickets valid for more than a month were treated differently from other railway fare expenditure. Value of season tickets valid for more than a month held during the reference period by a household member was divided by the number of months covered by the ticket to get the amount to be recorded. For all other railway fare expenditure, the amount actually paid during the reference period was recorded. The expenditure incurred on any conveyance used during the reference period partly for household enterprise and partly for domestic purposes was apportioned on the basis of the number of kilometers it travelled for each type of use. In case the information on distance travelled was not available, the apportionment was done on the basis of duration of use, say, number of hours or days used for enterprise and domestic purpose. It included bicycle, motorcycle, scooter, motorcar, jeep, tyres and tubes, other transport equipment etc. Tyre and tubes referred to all those tyres and tubes, which were purchased for replacement in vehicles. Livestock animals like horses, bullocks, etc., and conveyance such as horse cab, bullock cart, etc., when used exclusively for non-productive domestic purposes, were included in other transport equipment.• Education: This was meant for recording expenses incurred in connection with education like purchase of books/stationeries/school fee/boarding/school transportation etc. It included expenditure on goods purchased for the purpose of education, viz., books and journals, newspapers, paper, pen, pencil, etc. It also included fees paid to educational institutions (e.g. schools, colleges, universities, etc.) on account of tuition (inclusive of minor items like game fees, library fees, fan fees, etc.) and payment to private tutor. Occasional payments to the school fund made on account of charities provided for indigent students and donations 25
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) generally were not included here as these were regarded as transfer payments. It was noted that all kinds of books, magazines, journals, etc. including novels and other fiction were covered under this item. • Clothing and footwear: Information on value of consumption of all items of clothing and footwear were collected in whole number of rupees. • Consumer durable goods: Information on expenditure incurred for purchase and cost of raw materials and services for construction and repairs of durable goods for domestic use were collected against this item. Expenditure included both cash and kind. Expenditure incurred on purchase of durable goods for giving gifts was also included. Expenditure on any durable in this item was recorded in whole number of rupees. The following points were kept in mind while filling this item. - If the sample household incurred some expenditure on purchase of an asset during the reference period but did not received it, till the date of survey, the expenditure incurred was accounted in this block. - A sample household purchased an asset (durable goods) during the reference period and the asset was under possession but no payment was made during the reference period. Such purchases were excluded. - An asset purchased during the reference period for domestic use and the same asset sold out during the reference period. Such purchase was also accounted for. It will include electric bulb, tube light, earthenware, glassware, bucket, washing soap, agarbatti, plant with pot, brushed, utensil cleaners, steel wool, and other petty articles. Hiring charges for consumer goods like furniture, electric fans, crockery, utensils and charges for decoration on ceremonial occasions were also accounted here.Land possessed: The area of land possessed included land ‘owned’, ‘leased in’ and ‘neither owned norleased-in’ but excluded land ‘leased-out’ by the household as on the date of survey. Total land areapossessed was ascertained and recorded under this column. A piece of land was considered to beowned by the household if permanent heritable possession, with or without the right to transfer thetitle, was vested in a member or members of the household. Land held in owner-like possession underlong-term lease for 30 years or more or assignment was also considered, as land owned. As regards 26
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)lease, land given to others on rent or free by owner of the land without surrendering the right ofpermanent heritable title was defined as leased out. Land leased-in was defined as land taken by ahousehold on rent or free without any right of permanent or heritable possession. The lease contractmay be written or oral. If the household had possession of land for which it lacked title of ownershipand also does not had any lease agreement for the case of the land transacted either verbally or inwriting, such land was considered as neither owned nor leased-in. (The total area of land possessed bythe household was worked out as owned + leased-in + neither owned nor leased in – leased out).Period of survey: Three months duration from 1st October 2005 to 31st December 2005.Reference Period: The information was collected primarily for the year April 2004 – March 2005. Forthe questions where the reference period was mentioned as “Last Month” was defined as thirty dayspreceding the date of enquiry. 27
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable List for the Data 28
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05) Variable List for Data FileInformation Provided Household Characteristics Demographic and Other Particulars of Household Members Household Income Household Consumption Expenditure Miscellaneous InformationData File NSHIE_All_India-selected_indicators-26July2008Number or Variables 197Number of Records 630015Questionnaire National Survey on Household Income and Expenditure-(Household Schedule) Notes: 1. Data has been provided in SPSS data format. 2. Data file contains only numeric values. 28
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthstat State Codes 1-2 2 0 Code Value 2 Himachal Pradesh 3 Punjab 4 Chandigarh 5 Uttaranchal 6 Haryana 7 Delhi 8 Rajasthan 9 Uttar Pradesh 10 Bihar 17 Meghalaya 18 Assam 19 West Bengal 20 Jharkhand 21 Orissa 22 Chattisgarh 23 Madhya Pradesh 24 Gujarat 27 Maharashtra 28 Andhra Pradesh 29 Karnataka 30 Goa 32 Kerala 33 Tamil Nadu 34 Pondicherrybloc_vill Block/Village 3-5 3 0rura_urba Rural/Urban 6-6 1 0 Code Value 1 Rural 2 Urban 29
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthintr_numb Interview Number 7-11 5 0hous_size Household Size 12-13 2 0bpl_card_owne BPL Card Ownership 14-14 1 0 Code Value 0 No response 1 Yes 2 Noowne_dwel_unit Ownership of Dwelling Unit 15-15 1 0 Code Value 1 Owned 2 Hired 3 Othersstru_dwel_unit Structure of the Dwelling unit 16-16 1 0 Code Value 1 Kutcha 2 Semi-pucca 3 Puccais_rent Is Part of the Dwelling Rented 17-17 1 0 Code Value 1 Yes 2 Norent_hous Rent of the Household 18-22 5 0dura_stay Duration of Stay 22-24 2 0numb_room Number of Rooms 25-26 2 0avail_safe_wate Availability of Safe Drinking Water 27-27 1 0 Code Value 0 No response 1 Yes 2 No 30
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthavail_kitc Availability of Seperate Kitchen 28-28 1 0 Code Value 0 No response 1 Yes 2 Noavail_elec Availability of Electricity 29-29 1 0 Code Value 0 No response 1 Yes 2 Noavail_latr Availability of Latrine 30-30 1 0 Code Value 0 No response 1 Yes 2 Nofreq_elec Frequency of Electricity 31-31 1 0dura_elec Duration of Electricity 32-33 2 0land_owne Land Owned (Acres) 34-39 6 2land_poss Land Possessed (Acres) 40-45 6 2bank_acco Do any Member of the Household have any 46-46 1 0 Code Value Account in the Financial Institution 1 Yes 2 Noouts_loan Loan Outstanding 47-47 1 0 Code Value 1 Yes 2 No 31
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem1_id Member-1 Identification No. 48-49 2 0mem1_sex Member-1 Sex 50-50 1 0 Code Value 1 Male 2 Femalemem1_age Member-1 Age 51-52 2 0mem1_marit Member-1 Marital Status 53-53 1 0 Code Value 1 Married 2 Unmarried 3 Divorced 4 Widowedmem1_educ Member-1 Educational Qualification 54-54 1 0 Code Value 1 Illiterate 2 Up to primary 3 Middle ( 8th) 4 Matric(10 th) 5 Higher secondary 6 Graduate 7 Post graduate 8 diploma/ vocational 9 Others 32
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem1_actv Member-1 Activity status 55-56 2 0 Code Value 1 Own account worker 2 Employer 3 Unpaid family worker 4 Regular salary/wage employer 5 Casual employer 6 Unemployed 7 Pensioner/remittance 8 Student 9 Housewife 10 Unfit for work 11 Others 12 Not applicablemem2_id Member-2 Identification No. 57-58 2 0mem2_sex Member-2 Sex 59-59 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem2_age Member-2 Age 60-61 2 0mem2_marit Member-2 Marital Status 62-62 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem2_educ Member-2 Educational Qualification 63-63 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem2_actv Member-2 Activity status 64-65 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem3_id Member-3 Identification No. 66-67 2 0mem3_sex Member-3 Sex 68-68 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem3_age Member-3 Age 69-70 2 0 33
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem3_marit Member-3 Marital Status 71-71 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem3_educ Member-3 Educational Qualification 72-72 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem3_actv Member-3 Activity status 73-74 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem4_id Member-4 Identification No. 75-76 2 0mem4_sex Member-4 Sex 77-77 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem4_age Member-4 Age 78-79 2 0mem4_marit Member-4 Marital Status 80-80 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem4_educ Member-4 Educational Qualification 81-81 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem4_actv Member-4 Activity status 82-83 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem5_id Member-5 Identification No. 84-85 2 0mem5_sex Member-5 Sex 86-86 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem5_age Member-5 Age 87-88 2 0mem5_marit Member-5 Marital Status 89-89 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem5_educ Member-5 Educational Qualification 90-90 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem5_actv Member-5 Activity status 91-92 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem6_id Member-6 Identification No. 93-94 2 0 34
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem6_sex Member-6 Sex 95-95 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem6_age Member-6 Age 96-97 2 0mem6_marit Member-6 Marital Status 98-98 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem6_educ Member-6 Educational Qualification 99-99 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem6_actv Member-6 Activity status 100-101 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem7_id Member-7 Identification No. 102-103 2 0mem7_sex Member-7 Sex 104-104 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem7_age Member-7 Age 105-106 2 0mem7_marit Member-7 Marital Status 107-107 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem7_educ Member-7 Educational Qualification 108-108 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem7_actv Member-7 Activity status 109-110 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem8_id Member-8 Identification No. 111-112 2 0mem8_sex Member-8 Sex 113-113 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem8_age Member-8 Age 114-115 2 0mem8_marit Member-8 Marital Status 116-116 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem8_educ Member-8 Educational Qualification 117-117 1 0 Same as for Member 1 35
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem8_actv Member-8 Activity status 118-119 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem9_id Member-9 Identification No. 120-121 2 0mem9_sex Member-9 Sex 122-122 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem9_age Member-9 Age 123-124 2 0mem9_marit Member-9 Marital Status 125-125 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem9_educ Member-9 Educational Qualification 126-126 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem9_actv Member-9 Activity status 127-128 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem10_id Member-10 Identification No. 129-130 2 0mem10_sex Member-10 Sex 131-131 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem10_age Member-10 Age 132-133 2 0mem10_marit Member-10 Marital Status 134-134 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem10_educ Member-10 Educational Qualification 135-135 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem10_actv Member-10 Activity status 136-137 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem11_id Member-11 Identification No. 138-139 2 0mem11_sex Member-11 Sex 140-140 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem11_age Member-11 Age 141-142 2 0 36
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem11_marit Member-11 Marital Status 143-143 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem11_educ Member-11 Educational Qualification 144-144 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem11_actv Member-11 Activity status 145-146 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem12_id Member-12 Identification No. 147-148 2 0mem12_sex Member-12 Sex 149-149 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem12_age Member-12 Age 150-151 2 0mem12_marit Member-12 Marital Status 152-152 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem12_educ Member-12 Educational Qualification 153-153 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem12_actv Member-12 Activity status 154-155 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem13_id Member-13 Identification No. 156-157 2 0mem13_sex Member-13 Sex 158-158 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem13_age Member-13 Age 159-160 2 0mem13_marit Member-13 Marital Status 161-161 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem13_educ Member-13 Educational Qualification 162-162 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem13_actv Member-13 Activity status 163-164 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem14_id Member-14 Identification No. 165-166 2 0 37
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem14_sex Member-14 Sex 167-167 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem14_age Member-14 Age 168-169 2 0mem14_marit Member-14 Marital Status 170-170 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem14_educ Member-14 Educational Qualification 171-171 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem14_actv Member-14 Activity status 172-173 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem15_id Member-15 Identification No. 174-175 2 0mem15_sex Member-15 Sex 176-176 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem15_age Member-15 Age 177-178 2 0mem15_marit Member-15 Marital Status 179-179 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem15_educ Member-15 Educational Qualification 180-180 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem15_actv Member-15 Activity status 181-182 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem16_id Member-16 Identification No. 183-184 2 0mem16_sex Member-16 Sex 185-185 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem16_age Member-16 Age 186-187 2 0mem16_marit Member-16 Marital Status 188-188 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem16_educ Member-16 Educational Qualification 189-189 1 0 Same as for Member 1 38
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem16_actv Member-16 Activity status 190-191 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem17_id Member-17 Identification No. 192-193 2 0mem17_sex Member-17 Sex 194-194 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem17_age Member-17 Age 195-196 2 0mem17_marit Member-17 Marital Status 197-197 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem17_educ Member-17 Educational Qualification 198-198 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem17_actv Member-17 Activity status 199-200 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem18_id Member-18 Identification No. 201-202 2 0mem18_sex Member-18 Sex 203-203 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem18_age Member-18 Age 204-205 2 0mem18_marit Member-18 Marital Status 206-206 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem18_educ Member-18 Educational Qualification 207-207 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem18_actv Member-18 Activity status 208-209 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem19_id Member-19 Identification No. 210-211 2 0mem19_sex Member-19 Sex 212-212 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem19_age Member-19 Age 213-214 2 0 39
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem19_marit Member-19 Marital Status 215-215 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem19_educ Member-19 Educational Qualification 216-216 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem19_actv Member-19 Activity status 217-218 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem20_id Member-20 Identification No. 219-220 2 0mem20_sex Member-20 Sex 221-221 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem20_age Member-20 Age 222-223 2 0mem20_marit Member-20 Marital Status 224-224 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem20_educ Member-20 Educational Qualification 225-225 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem20_actv Member-20 Activity status 226-227 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem21_id Member-21 Identification No. 228-229 2 0mem21_sex Member-21 Sex 230-230 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem21_age Member-21 Age 231-232 2 0mem21_marit Member-21 Marital Status 233-233 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem21_educ Member-21 Educational Qualification 234-234 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem21_actv Member-21 Activity status 235-236 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem22_id Member-22 Identification No. 237-238 2 0 40
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem22_sex Member-22 Sex 239-239 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem22_age Member-22 Age 240-241 2 0mem22_marit Member-22 Marital Status 242-242 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem22_educ Member-22 Educational Qualification 243-243 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem22_actv Member-22 Activity status 244-245 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem23_id Member-23 Identification No. 246-247 2 0mem23_sex Member-23 Sex 248-248 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem23_age Member-23 Age 249-250 2 0mem23_marit Member-23 Marital Status 251-251 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem23_educ Member-23 Educational Qualification 252-252 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem23_actv Member-23 Activity status 253-254 2 0 Same as for Member 1mem24_id Member-24 Identification No. 255-256 2 0mem24_sex Member-24 Sex 257-257 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem24_age Member-24 Age 258-259 2 0mem24_marit Member-24 Marital Status 260-260 1 0 Same as for Member 1mem24_educ Member-24 Educational Qualification 261-261 1 0 Same as for Member 1 41
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmem24_actv Member-24 Activity status 262-263 2 0 Same as for Member 1nic_1998 Principal Industry Code (NIC 98) 264-265 2 0 Code Value 1 Agriculture, Livestock, fishing, hunting and forestry 2 Mining & quarrying 3 Manufacturing 4 Electricity, gas and water supply 5 Construction 6 Hotel and restaurants 7 Transport, storage and communication 8 Public administration and defence 9 Financial intermediation 10 Education 11 Health and social work 12 Real estate, renting and business activities 13 Wholesale/ retail trade , repair household goods 14 Private households 15 Othersnco_1968 Principal Occupation Code (NCO 68) 266-266 1 0 Code Value 1 Professional, technical and related workers 2 Administrative, executive and managerial workers 3 Clerical and related workers 4 Sales workers 5 Service workers 6 Farmers, fishermen, hunters, loggers and related workers 7 Production and related workers, transport equipment 8 Workers not classified by occupation 42
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthprim_sour_inco Primary Source of Income 267-268 2 0 Code Value 1 Regular salary/wages 2 Self employed in non-agriculture 3 Agricultural labour 4 Casual labour 5 Self employed in agriculture 6 Rental 7 Interest /remittance/dividend/royalty 8 Pension/Bonus 9 Social insurance/ assistance 10 Othersinco_sala Annual Income from Salary 269-279 11 2inco_non_agri Annual Income from Self-employment in 280-290 11 2 Non-agricultureinco_labo Annual Income from Labour 291-300 10 2inco_agri Annual Income from Self-employment in 301-311 11 2 Agricultureinco_othe Annual Income from Other Sources 312-322 11 2inco_tota Total Income 323-333 11 2expe_food Annual Expenditure on Food 334-342 9 2expe_hous Annual Expenditure on Housing 343-351 9 2expe_educ Annual Expenditure on Education 352-360 9 2 43
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthexpe_cloth Annual Expenditure on Clothing and 361-369 9 2 Footwearexpe_dura Annual Expenditure on Durable Goods 370-378 9 2expe_health Annual Expenditure on Health 379-387 9 2expe_tran Annual Expenditure on Transport 373-380 9 2expe_othe Annual Expenditure on Other Items 388-396 9 2expe_tota Annual Household Routine Expenditure 397-405 9 2day_to_day_deci Day to Day Decision 406-406 1 0 Code Value 1 Parents 2 Chief earner 3 Highest qualified member 4 Grownup children 5 Ladies 6 All adults 7 Friends/relatives 8 Othersdeci_high_educ Higher Education 407-407 1 0 Code Value 1 Parents 2 Chief earner 3 Highest qualified member 4 Grownup children 5 Ladies 6 All adults 7 Friends/relatives 8 Others 44
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthdeci_dura_purc Durable Purchase 408-408 1 0 Code Value 1 Parents 2 Chief earner 3 Highest qualified member 4 Grownup children 5 Ladies 6 All adults 7 Friends/relatives 8 Othersdeci_marr_son Marriage of Son 409-409 1 0 Code Value 1 Parents 2 Chief earner 3 Highest qualified member 4 Grownup children 5 Ladies 6 All adults 7 Friends/relatives 8 Othersdeci_purc_prop Purchase/Ownership of Property 410-410 1 0 Code Value 1 Parents 2 Chief earner 3 Highest qualified member 4 Grownup children 5 Ladies 6 All adults 7 Friends/relatives 8 Others 45
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmajo_sour_wate Major Source of Drinking Water 411-411 1 0 Code Value 1 Hand pump 2 Well 3 Pond 4 River 5 Pipe water 6 Tap 7 Othersmajo_sour_cook Major Source of Cooking 412-412 1 0 Code Value 1 Fire wood 2 Dung cake 3 Gobar gas 4 Kerosesne 5 LPG 6 Electricity 7 Solar energy 8 Othersmajo_sour_light Major Source of Lighting 413-413 1 0 Code Value 1 Fire wood 2 Dung cake 3 Gobar gas 4 Kerosesne 5 LPG 6 Electricity 7 Solar energy 8 Others 46
  • National Household Survey of Income and Expenditure (2004-05)Variable Description/Label Fields/ Width/ Decimals Code Sepcification Columns Lengthmajo_sour_fina Major Source of Finance 414-414 1 0 Code Value 1 Post office 2 Commercial bank 3 Regional Rural bank 4 Co-operatives 5 Money lender 6 Othersmajo_sour_info Major Source of Information 415-415 1 0 Code Value 1 Television 2 Radio/transistor 3 Newspaper 4 Local people 5 Othershous_weig Household Weight 416-424 9 2popu_weig Population Weight 425-433 9 2 47