Sugarcane industry waste utilization


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Sugarcane industry waste utilization

  2. 2.  The manufacture of sugar generates large quantities of biomass waste such as rice husk, bamboo dust, bagasse, coconut coir, jute and sticks.This waste is ideal for use as fuel to generate power.  Press mud, which is discarded as a solid waste from sugar mills and used as a manure or as a landfill, is found to be an useful substrate for biogas production.  The waste water from sugar treatment plants is normally subjected to extended aeration in ponds and is ultimately made to undergo intensive biological oxidation.
  3. 3.  Sugar cane straw wastes can be recycled as active additions once calcined in the temperature range of 800 or 1000 C.  Chromatographic methods are also used in sugar production processes (e.g.: green syrup and molasses) to reduce the non sugars and to increase the quantity of crystallisable sugar.  As the world’s largest sugar producer, Brazil has the potential to be a market for bagasse-based power generation worth $24B, yet less than 10% of this opportunity is currently being fulfilled.
  4. 4. Indian Sugar Industry in India characterized by  High cost of production and 80% of the cost production goes towards raw material alone  Old ,out dated and obsolete technologies,  Small factories i.e. less than 2500TCD  Relatively concentrating on Sugar only Hence the need of the hour….  Sugar production alone is not profitable.  Electricity generation, production of Alcohol and Ethanol are important to ensure sustainability and financial viability and survival in the competitive environment.
  5. 5.  According to the International Sugar Organization (ISO), Sugarcane is a highly efficient converter of solar energy, and has the highest energy-to-volume ratio among energy crops. Indeed, it gives the highest annual yield of biomass of all species.  Roughly, 1 ton of Sugarcane biomass-based on Bagasse, foliage and ethanol output – has an energy content equivalent to one barrel of crude oil.
  6. 6.  Sugarcane produces mainly two types of biomass, CaneTrash and Bagasse.  CaneTrash is the field residue remaining after harvesting the Cane stalk  Bagasse is the milling by-product which remains after extracting sugar from the stalk.  The potential energy value of these residues has traditionally been ignored by policy-makers and masses in developing countries. However, with rising fossil fuel prices and dwindling firewood supplies, this material is increasingly viewed as a valuable renewable energy resource.
  7. 7.  Around the world, a portion of the CaneTrash is collected for sale to feed mills, while freshly cut green tops are sometimes collected for farm animals.  In most cases, however, the residues are burned or left in the fields to decompose.  CaneTrash, consisting of sugarcane tops and leaves can potentially be converted into around 1kWh/kg, but is mostly burned in the field due to its bulkiness and its related high cost for collection/transportation.
  8. 8.  Bagasse is the fibrous residue left over after milling of the Cane, with 45-50% moisture content and consisting of a mixture of hard fibre, with soft and smooth parenchymatous (pith) tissue with high hygroscopic property.  Bagasse contains mainly cellulose, hemi cellulose, pentosans, lignin, sugars, wax, and minerals.  The quantity obtained varies from 22 to 36% on Cane and is mainly due to the fibre portion in Cane and the cleanliness of Cane supplied, which, in turn, depends on harvesting practices.
  9. 9. 1. Bagasse is usually combusted in furnaces to produce steam for power generation. 2. Bagasse is also emerging as an attractive feedstock for bioethanol production. 3. It is also utilized as the raw material for production of paper and as feedstock for cattle.
  10. 10.  Bagasse is often used as a primary fuel source for Sugar mills; when burned in quantity, it produces sufficient heat and electrical energy to supply all the needs of a typical Sugar mill, with energy to spare.  The resulting CO2 emissions are equal to the amount of CO2 that the Sugarcane plant absorbed from the atmosphere during its growing phase, which makes the process of cogeneration greenhouse gas-neutral.
  11. 11.  Bagasse is used for our biodegradable takeaway boxes and containers, our range of disposable plates and bowls and our ice cream cups. They are:  Reasonably priced: Comparative to paper and foil products  Heat resistant up to 100˚C  Water resistant  Oil proof  Microwave safe  Freezer friendly  Breathable –Your food won’t sweat.
  12. 12. Bagasse paper  Bagasse makes a great alternative to wood pulp for paper. Eco friendly toilet paper, serviettes and bowl lids are made from a minimum of 60 % bagasse and 40% wood pulp from a certified sustainable source. They are: Recycled raw material – sugarcane waste fibres Elemental Chlorine free – Bleached using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF) process  Locally manufactured  FSC Certified  Recyclable
  13. 13.  Cogeneration of Bagasse is one of the most attractive and successful energy projects that have already been demonstrated in many Sugarcane producing countries such as Mauritius, Reunion Island, India and Brazil.  Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat.
  14. 14.  Renewable energy option that promotes sustainable development  Takes advantage of domestic resources  Increase profitability and competitiveness in the industry,  It cost-effectively address climate mitigation and other environmental goals.
  16. 16.  The power produced substitutes the conventional thermal alternative and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.  In India, interest in high-efficiency bagasse based cogeneration started in the 1980s when electricity supply started falling short of demand.  High-efficiency bagasse cogeneration was perceived as an attractive technology both in terms of its potential to produce carbon neutral electricity as well as its economic benefits to the sugar sector.  In the present scenario, where fossil fuel prices are shooting up and there is a shortage and non-availability of coal, co-generation appears to be a promising development.The thrust on distributed generation and increasing awareness for cutting greenhouse gas emissions increases the need for cogeneration. Also it helps in controlling pollution from fossil fuels.
  17. 17.  According to a Government policy regulating cooperative sugar factories, the State Government provides 5% of the capital expenditure on the cogeneration project while the factory concerned puts in an equal amount.  The Sugar Development Fund of the Union Government provides 30% funding of capital investment and the remaining is secured through institutional funding. An investment of around Rs 4.50 crore per MW is needed to start a cogeneration plant in a cooperative factory.
  18. 18. Stage of process in waste water treatment plant of PT. Gunung Madu Plantations was designed as follows: 1. oil-solid separation 2. equalization 3. anaerobic digestion 4. facultative decomposition with added degrading bacteria 5. aerobic decomposition 6. stabilization
  19. 19.  Before discharge the waste water to river (Way Putak), the treated waste water should be through monitor pond with has fish as a bio-indicator. If the treated wastewater has concentration lower than effluent standard and has no problems with fish in monitor pond, the treated wastewater can discharge to the river.
  20. 20.  Distillery Division The Distillery Division at Bhavani, Erode District,Tamilnadu produces over 60,000 litres of IndustrialAlcohol and Extra Neutral Spirit per day from sugarcane molasses. Alcohol produced in this distillery in the year 2012-13 is 139.04 Lakh Litres.  The distillery has set up a bio-gas plant with the help of technical know-how from France, to provide an alternate source of energy.
  21. 21.  Bio-Compost Fertilizer Unit Bio compost is prepared in Sugar Unit I and II of Bannari Amman Sugars Limited, by mixing the nutrient rich Pressmud from sugar mills with Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium rich Spent wash obtained from Distilleries.  Co-Generation Unit The Co-Generation Plant for generating 20 MW power at the Sugar Unit-I exports the surplus power to theTamilnadu State Electricity Board.The Plant has generated 772.27 Lakh Units of power in the year 2012- 13.The Two Co-Generation Plants at the Sugar Unit II withTurbo Alternators of capacities 16 and 20 MW, export the surplus power to the Karnataka State Electricity Board's Grid.These two plants have generated 1839.68 Lakh Units of power in the year 2012-13.  The Co-Generation Plant of 28.8MW capacity at our Sugar Unit-IV has generated 1588.82 Lakh Units in the year 2012-13.  TheTotal Power Generation capacity of the four plants is now84.8MW.  The Four Co-Generation Plants have generated 4200.77 Lakh Units of power and exported 2863.39 Lakh Units in the year 2012-13.
  22. 22.  Wind Mill The Alternate non-conventional renewable source of energy is the ultimate answer for the future. Seven nos. of 1250 KWWTG from Suzlon have been installed in Karunkulam, Radhapuram, Irukkandurai villages . The power generated from the wind energy generators is fed to the Tamilnadu State Electricity Board'sGrid and adjusted in the power consumption of various industries, established by the group.These Wind Turbines have generated 167.57 Lakh Units in the year 2012-13.  BIO-DIESEL The Company's Bio Diesel Plant at Sathyamangalam,has commenced production of 3000 litres of Bio Diesel per Day,from multi feed stock viz Jatropha, Pungan seeds etc.  The company is now promoting aforestation by providing Pungam seedlings to needy farmers, Panchayats and Schools etc for greening their wastelands and provides an assured income to them by harvesting Pungam seeds under buy back arrangement.
  23. 23.  The Sugar Unit is a new addition into the Bannari Group. It is a new Integrated Sugar Complex comprising of 3600TCD Sugar and 25MW Co-generation Plants.  The new 25MW Co-generation power plant has been synchronized withTamilnadu Electricity Board Grid .  The Unit has crushed 10.43 LakhsTonnes of Cane during the FinancialYear 2012-13.The Co- Generation plant has produced 1372.10 Lakhs Units of power and exported 1016.42 Lakhs Units to the state Grid.