Knowledge management Group 1: Abby – 9721717A Mango – 9721711A Jason – 9821902A Biligin – 9721706A Leo Chung- 9721703A
Outline the type of work that knowledge workers do
Describe the five phases of knowledge development
Review the key elements of knowledge management infrastructure and evaluate their effectiveness in supporting a knowledge environment
Discuss the effectiveness of organizational knowledge transference methods
Describe the key features of effective communities of practice
Apply the five Ps of knowledge management to different work contexts
Identify key issues which should be considered when integrating strategic knowledge management into work practices.
[L01] Knowledge workers [L02] Phases of knowledge development Reporter : Leo Chung – 9721703A
Knowledge workers As chapter 1 illustrated, the nature of work has rapidly towards service and knowledge-related contexts, which has led to the emergence of knowledge workers. These employees draw heavily on their individual knowledge to work on problems or situations. Their roles include the ongoing acquisition of new information to reshape their existing knowledge, and they regularly combine and process information to generate new outputs. Knowledge workers ‘use their heads more than their hands to produce value’. KM Viewpoint 2.1 illustrates the range of knowledge capabilities that knowledge workers may apply in their complex work environments.
KM VIEWPOINT 2.1 Knowledge workers and their forms of organizational knowledge Knowledge workers may possess many forms of organisational knowledge: -know what: knowledge of the characteristics, features and usefulness of the various sources, systems and/ or processes which may be found in the organization. -know who: knowledge of the identity of different people, groups and organizational units which can act as knowledge sources, and methods of linking with them. -know how: the application of knowledge to carry out complex tasks requiring analytical and reflective strategies, such as researching, testing, developing and innovating. -know why: the ability to evaluate and review options to identify an appropriate solution. -know where: the capacity to identify, evaluate and access appropriate knowledge sources. -know when: the application of strategies to balance activities, competing demands, dynamic requirements and multiple projects. Know if: the capacity to anticipate future possibilities and plan for them, and to envisage scenarios and test them before going to a full-scale implementation process.
Phases of knowledge development
Knowledge is an unusual element of the business world, in that the more it is used, the better it becomes. The ability to distribute and duplicate knowledge across a range of people is the key to its value and versatility in organizations. It can reduce the time taken to learn new competencies and insights, and save significant costs in lost opportunities.
The process of knowledge development is dynamic and responsive, drawing cues and feedback from a range of sources throughout the various stages. This feedback may influence subsequent knowledge construction as it provides further cues and information which are considered and evaluated. We now look at each phase in detail.
The identification of a knowledge gap between what is know and what needs to be know is often the stimulus for starting the knowledge creation process. In response to the identification of a knowledge gap, the organization commonly reviews existing sources of guidance held by individuals or other organizational resources.
Knowledge sourcing is an important stage of knowledge creation. The richness and accessibility of the available and know sources greatly influence the outcomes. For example, if an organization wanted to introduce a new customer marketing scheme, appropriate sources of guidance might include:
+data relating to previous schemes and their success
+evidence from schemes undertaken by other competitors
+contributions from staff with experience in developing successful schemes.
Knowledge abstraction helps to frame the insights gained from knowledge sourcing and to extrapolate new knowledge from the basic guidelines and issues that have emerged.
The process of abstraction can take a long time particularly if the knowledge involved is politically sensitive, complex or involves working through group consensus (such as a committee).
Knowledge workers need to recognize the importance of reflection and consideration in the knowledge creation process.
From abstract foundations, knowledge converts into various forms of useful applications that can be tested and shared with others. Knowledge conversion describes the phase during which the various ideas and principles are refined into a specific outcome. Knowledge can be either codified or embodied.
Knowledge diffusion is the spread of knowledge once it is codified or embodied. In organizational setting s, diffusion can occur through communication media, modeling of new practices, and demonstrations or coaching in specialized procedures.
The success of knowledge diffusion depends on the level of previous knowledge held by the audience and the effectiveness of the channels available to share the knowledge . diffusion occurs best when the recipients can understand and integrate the insights into their own mental constructs.
Embodied knowledge, which draws on significant expertise, learning and experience, may be harder to transfer to others.
Knowledge development and refinement
Knowledge is regularly reshaped and further tested through additional experience and feedback. This evolutionary process of knowledge development and refinement is one of the key features of knowledge management, ensuring the knowledge management, ensuring the knowledge remains current and useful.
However, this also places more challenges on organizations that seek to capture and hold knowledge for use by others; such organizations need to ensure that the created knowledge is constantly reviewed and updated to reflect any new understanding that has been acquired
[Lo3] The knowledge management infrastructure Reporter: Abby – 9721717A
The knowledge management infrastructure
The creation of organizational knowledge relies on many systems and processes that make up the organizational infrastructure.
Three types of infrastructure operate in most organizations:
- Library and information services
- Records management
- Understanding the knowledge community
- Employees and the knowledge environment
- Other stakeholders
The influence of managerial infrastructure on knowledge creation often goes unrecognized .
However, managerial support for knowledge workers and the formal management processes in the organization significantly affect knowledge management outcomes.
Ideally, the managerial infrastructure provides a supportive framework for resourcing, decision making and innovative practices, so that knowledge activities can be successfully pursued.
The different points between leadership and management base on the relationship with knowledge workers.
A frame of reference.
Emphasizing what is important and valued
Provides the resources and support.
Goals are achieved.
Resources are used effectively
In knowledge – intensive communities, the manager generally operates with knowledge workers as both a facilitator and a partner, rather than as a controller of tasks and activities.
Knowledge workers expect significant autonomy and trust from their managers, who should operate as supportive agents, providing guidance, feedback and resources to achieve the necessary out-comes.
Clearly, good management also works closely
with good leadership.
Successful knowledge management requires an open management style which encourages sharing
across the organization.
Managerial infrastructure HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Provides the mechanism by which people can share and transfer information and knowledge .
The systems enable the recording, transmission and extraction data from different purpose
The complementary data relating to human resource financial and customer information might each provide important insights into a customer support issue.
Relies on flexible and responsive systems so that the changing knowledge may be captured and maintained.
A key ingredient of a successful knowledge management strategy or a major impediment,
depending on the organizational approach and
Library and information services
key elements of their knowledge strategy.
focus on individual support to users, enabling ready access to resources that support knowledge creation and abstraction.
be connected with their users, monitoring their changing needs, profiles and work priorities.
Highlight knowledge which has been gained by external experts, and help to build capable and informed knowledge users.
Increase the versatility and value of libraries to those seeking knowledge.
Information services try to match the institution’s increasing focus on knowledge management.
Core organization data drawn from these sources need to be identified catalogued and store so that they may be retrieved at need.
Complements knowledge management organization records are important sources of learning. Many aspect of knowledge creation also become elements of future records.
Need to see knowledge management as an integrated system which needs to be accepted across the organizational community.
Helps process of capturing and sharing knowledge by guiding and encouraging the social and profession interactions of organization members with colleagues, clients and other stakeholders.
Organization which emphasizes relationship building, long – term outcomes, collaboration and cooperation and a focus on the corporate good will be more capable of effectively managing knowledge.
3 main ideas:
Understanding the knowledge community
Employees and the knowledge environment
Understanding the knowledge community
Base on the needs of the various stakeholders: the staff, clients, shareholders and wider business community in which the knowledge community operates.
Central of this is the encouragement of relationship building and the value placed on sharing what is known.
Knowledge management relies on the development of peer relationships, cooperation, supportive technologies, rewards for sharing, and recognition that there is corporate value in helping others as well as oneself through interchange of knowledge, that is, social capital.
KM viewpoint 2.2 illustrates the complex sociological structures which need to be incorporated into the knowledge community.
Employees and the knowledge environment
Employees influence and are influences by their knowledge environment.
In some case, the employee will be reluctant to risk exposure of error and the learning focus will be ignored in favor of meeting company standards and requirements.
Trust and relationship building underlie the knowledge processes and heavily influence the level to which effective knowledge management develops.
Personalized knowledge is suited for flexible work environment.
With established expertise and knowledge of the broader
work context provide support for organization.
Be strongly influenced by the type of employees and the kind
A knowledge intensive community includes a numbers of other stakeholders who contribute to the knowledge process.
Often forgotten stakeholder is customer.
The focus on financial outcomes also may affect the degree to which knowledge management is integrated into work setting.
An effective relationship needs to be built with these stakeholders, so that they recognize the value of the knowledge strategy as a long-term, significant economic and social intellectual capital can be one way of generating this support and commitment.
[Lo4] Harnessing organizational knowledge Reporter : Jason - 9821902A
Organizations face two major challenges in effectively using organizational knowledge:
knowing what is known
facilitating its capture and sharing.
The knowledge core is the accumulated mass of strategic knowledge which is identified, publicly valued, captured and disseminated by the organization.
The strategic knowledge core needs to integrate long-term and short-term priorities.
Knowledge can be transferred within an organization using a variety of strategies. Knowledge chains are hierarchical in nature (manager and subordinate), and are based on managers acting as knowledge controllers. Managers control the flow of knowledge. Creative and flexible responses within this strategy are limited.
A knowledge hub works by centralizing the coordination, and act as links between people, objects and information avenues. Knowledge hubs work well in situations were the aim it to avoid duplication and wasting resources. Library services and information technology services often work as knowledge hubs.
The most dynamic strategy is the knowledge web. Individuals within the knowledge web act as both recipients and disseminators of knowledge. The knowledge web creates a network, with the network being individualized from each person’s perspective. The connections made within the knowledge web are less formal, and may not be formally recognized. On the downside, the knowledge web relies on people locating the expertise in order to be able to access it,
Because knowledge chains, hubs and webs offer different benefits to organizations, they are considered as complementary strategies.
Explicit knowledge artefacts or knowledge objects, which are often stored electronically on the intranet, are used to share knowledge with others. Some problems encountered when knowledge searching:
• unwieldy repository structures
• out-of-date items, duplicated or contradictory sources
• inaccessible confidential materials
• lost or withheld items
• an inconsistent approach to naming and codifying objects
• ownership of intellectual capital
[L05] Communities of practice [L06] The five Ps of strategic knowledge management Reporter: Biligin – 9721706A
Communities of practice
Communities of practice (Cop) are group of people with common interests who meet to share their insights in order to develop better solutions to problems or challenges
They encourage innovation ,collaboration and the sharing of good practices
Communities of practice
Cops can help reduce the barriers
by organizational structures, political silos
distance or employer
Cops require commitment
generosity and the development of
a collectivist mentality
they are self-managed groups which are
Not organizationally driven or managed
The 5 Ps of strategic knowledge management
Knowledge management is a complex process of social change and systemic development. It relies on the alignment of 5 key systems to achieve full integration into the organizational setting .
The five Ps pp vvv Effective knowledge management Participant commitment Sharing culture leadership values defined knowledge needs System and process Long-term perspective Measurement structure S trategic Principles Process Practices messages Capture Management Distribution Core knowledge Long term Short term Efficiency Core business Skills utilized Core competencies people plan processes P per
The 5 Ps of strategic knowledge management
Planning should clarify the knowledge goals and establish effective values and processes to support those directions
Long and short term goals need to be clearly defined
Planning processes take time and perseverance, requiring careful consideration of the whole knowledge context
Manage the systems and processes
Their commitment to the strategic knowledge process is important to its overall success
A sharing culture which encourages knowledge diffusion can be developed through effective knowledge hubs, networks ,Cops and other social community strategies
By the leadership provided at all levels of the organization
knowledge management principles need to be put into practice via effective workplace practice
the alignment of strategic , principle ,processes and practice needs to be carefully managed to ensure that knowledge management principles do not fracture when implemented
it need to be recognized that messages about what is important may be perceived differently across the organization
each organization builds its own knowledge outputs or product
these may be provided to clients or exist as internally shared knowledge objects
a focus on core knowledge helps to identify the range of knowledge products which should be cultivated, encouraging their definition, capture, management and distribution
The goal is to ensure that all valuable
Knowledge is preserved and accessed
And long and short-term requirement
Knowledge management needs to be regularly reviewed to ensure that the financial and social investment is positively influencing the intellectual and social capital of the organization
Any organization must ensure it balances long and short-term priorities to enable effective financial management and development future .
Most companies continually battle to find the best solution for achieving efficient and cost effective but innovative approaches to their business challenges.
[L07] Building knowledge management into the strategic framework Summary Reporter : Mango – 9721711A
Building knowledge management into the strategic framework
Knowledge management is a strategic activity. A close link between knowledge management and the strategic plans of the organization ensures that knowledge activities contribute to profitability and strategic advantage.
Change is a core element of any work environment. Each employee enters the workplace with a set of skills, knowledge and attributes which have been shaped by experiences and education.
Knowledge sharing as a core competency
When discussing knowledge management, many authors list a range of core competencies that may be developed in workers.
One core competency is knowledge sharing. Many employees will have experienced contradictory messages about the need to share, particularly when rewards are to the individual rather than the group.
Work settings may pay lip-service to sharing, but give limited opportunity or encouragement to really do so.
Knowledge-intensive communities should encourage sharing and collaboration. People need to actively share, discuss their practice, and see leaders modelling and sharing their knowledge.
Developing a strategic knowledge community
Knowledge management focuses on building a strategic knowledge community. It emphasizes the communal sharing of knowledge, and the building of better practice through community interaction.
A key element to this process is the encouragement of knowledge diffusion.
Many managers are territorial, seeking to maintain control over intellectual content, access and distribution.
The knowledge environment needs to be user-focused, not system-dictated, so that any stakeholder can identify and access knowledge sources and objects with a minimum of effort.
The final principle is that knowledge management should add value.
Knowledge management has the potential to be a significant organization influence which adds major value in the long term.
However, it also requires major shifts in the way the organization views its people, it systems, and the way they interact.
Any activity associated with knowledge management must be carefully scrutinized to ensure that it does add value.
This chapter has explored a number of issues relating to the development of a strategic knowledge management system.
However, system and services may not always enhance knowledge management.
The way the organization structurally operates may also influence the level of knowledge sharing in the organization. This is particularity so when encouraging communities of practice.
Overall, the chapter emphasizes the need to develop a strong and cohesive strategic knowledge framework which encourages collaboration, value adding, and knowledge diffusion through a range of formal and informal mechanisms.