Stress• Mental and physical condition that occurs any time we must adjust or adapt to the environment• Stressor – a condition or event in the environment that challenges or threatens a person; often unpredictable events• Examples
Pressure• Occurs when pace and volume of unexpected and unpredictable events increases• If long-lasting and intense, can lead to burnout – emotional exhaustion
Burnout• Fatigue, tension, apathy “I don’t care anymore”• Depersonalization – treat others as objects• Reduced accomplishment – poor work, helpless, hopeless, angry• Often caused by disconnect between the work and the reward• Often occurs in careers where person lacks control of daily routine.
How we assess events as stressful?• Primary appraisal – decision of situation being relevant or not, positive or threatening (Am I Ok or in trouble?)• Secondary appraisal – Assess your resources and choose a way to meet the threat or challenge (What can I control in this situation)• More control = less stress• Example
Coping• Problem-focused coping – managing or altering the distressing situation itself• Emotion-focused coping – control emotional reactions to the situation• Often work together
Causes of Stress (Frustration and Conflict)• External frustrations – based on conditions outside of the individual that impede progress towards a goal• Based on delays, failure, rejection, loss, others blocking your motives• Personal frustrations – based on personal characteristics
Reactions to Frustration• Persistence, vigorous effort and varied responses• Variability, circumvention• Direct aggression – removal or destruction of the barrier• Displaced aggression – redirected to unrelated object or person; scapegoating – blaming something or someone for conditions not of their making• Withdrawal, escape – leaving a source of frustration
Conflict• When person must choose between incompatible or contradictory needs, desires, motives, wishes, or external demands
Approach-Approach Conflicts• Easiest to resolve; both options are positive, desirable
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts• Choice between two negative alternatives• Often indecisive because we are searching for a desirable option, usually choose the best of bad alternatives• Freezing is a common reaction, also “leaving the field” to escape decision is common
Approach-Avoidance Conflicts• Person is caught being attracted to and repelled by the same goal or activity• Ambivalence – mixed emotions
Multiple Conflicts• Most of life’s conflicts that cause stress contain multiple alternatives, each with positive and negative features• People often vacillate – waver between the choices• People will say they chose based on a gut feeling, but consciously and subconsciously they have effectively analyzed the choices and made a decision
• Conflict Worksheet Label the type of conflict that each scenario represents.• Approach/Approach Avoidance/Avoidance Approach/Avoidance Multiple Approach/Avoidance conflict• 1. You have been accepted by two colleges; they are both equally ranked. One is close to your home so you would not have to move, but it is extremely expensive. The other is far from your home but it is affordable.• 2. There are two dresses that you want to buy, but you only have money for one.• 3. Tim is going to school and he hates living with his parents, but, if he leaves home, he will have to get a job to pay for his school and rent.• 4. A 16- year-old girl is pregnant, although she knows she is not able to care for the baby, she is completely against abortion, but her parents tell her that if she does have the baby she will be thrown out of the house.• 5. You have just managed to rent your dream apartment, but your work has offered you a high paying job that will move you to another country for six months. If you take the job, you will have to give up the apartment.• 6. Mary and John have been friends for a while, and John wants the relationship to move to a more serious level, but hes not sure how Mary feels and hes afraid of losing her friendship.• 7. Cole plays both baseball and basketball. His last basketball game of the season is on the same day and time of his opening day game of his baseball season.• 8. Your room mate is driving you nuts. You like the apartment that you live in currently, but hate your room mate. If you move out, you will loose your deposit. You could rent an apartment by yourself, but you would have to live in a shabby place.• 9. There are two classes that Mary wants to take; they are offered at 11:00 am on Mondays and Wednesdays.• 10. Mary does not want to take Mr. Hughes for English, but there are no other times slots open this semester, so if she does not take his class now, she will have to postpone graduation.• 11. You were issued a ticket that you want to fight in court, but you would have to take off from work and lose a days pay in order to do so.• 12. You have the money to buy a new car, but the one that you want has high insurance rates.