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Community Assessment and Planning: A Page from the Cookbook for Health Equity: Healthy Communities Conference June 21, 2011
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Community Assessment and Planning: A Page from the Cookbook for Health Equity: Healthy Communities Conference June 21, 2011

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Community Assessment and Planning: A Page from the Cookbook for Health Equity …

Community Assessment and Planning: A Page from the Cookbook for Health Equity

Learning Objectives
* Describe how health equity principles are interwoven throughout a community-based assessment and strategic planning process.
* Identify models that place health disparities central in the assessment and planning process.
* Apply assessment and planning tools that engage community members in the process.
* Describe the planning activities (data collection and small group projects) deployed by a neighborhood coalition.


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  • 1. Community Assessment and Planning: A Page from theCookbook for Health Equity Tami Gouveia, Massachusetts Healthy Communities System Aleya Martin, Greater Boston Center for Healthy Communities Pat Milano, East Boston Neighborhood Against Substance Abuse Presented June 21, 2011 Healthy Communities Conference
  • 2. Objectives• Describe how health equity principles are interwoven throughout a community-based assessment and strategic planning process.• Identify models that place health disparities central in the assessment and planning process.• Apply assessment and planning tools that engage community members in the process.• Describe the planning activities (data collection and small group projects) deployed by a neighborhood coalition.
  • 3. Health Equity• Human right to health – achieve one’s life plans• Goes beyond health care and health access• Address systemic economic, social, and political inequities• Goes beyond addressing health inequality in one area, but looking at the system as a whole• Within and across nations World Health Organization http://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/equity/en
  • 4. Health EquityPreliminary data for 2008. See Arialdi, M. Miniño, Xu Jiaquan and Kochanek,Kenneth D. “Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2008”. National Vital Statistics Reports,Vol. 59, No. 2, Dec. 9, 2010, i + 71 pp.
  • 5. Life Expectancy At Birth 80 70 60Life Expectancy (Age) 50 40 Black Man 30 White Man 20 10 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 1900-2000: Changes in Life Expectancy in the United States. http://elderweb.com/node/2838
  • 6. What is Strategic Planning? 6
  • 7. What is Strategic Planning 7
  • 8. Why Plan?Strategic Prevention Framework: SAMHSA
  • 9. Why Plan?• Ensures that your efforts meet needs of the community and build on strengths• Helps allocate resources effectively and efficiently• Helps group stay focused on efforts to achieve success (avoid getting sidetracked) 9
  • 10. Why Plan?• Helps group articulate its work• Helps group engage new partners• Supports group in evaluating its efforts• Supports group in obtaining funding 10
  • 11. Why Plan?
  • 12. Structure of Strategic Planning• Plan out your strategic planning process• Identify chair/co-chairs to lead 8-12 people who will lead the process• Include multiple stakeholders from diverse perspectives, linguistic/cultural groups, socio- demographics, etc. 12
  • 13. Components of Strategic Planning• VMOSA – Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategies, Activities• Theory of Change/Logic model• Strategic plan• Action plan• Evaluation Plan 13
  • 14. VMOSA-E• Vision – The dream• Mission – The what & why• Objectives – How much of what accomplished and by when – SMART: Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Realistic, Timebound 14
  • 15. VMOSA-E• Strategies/Strategic Plan – The how• Action plan – What change will happen; – Who will do what by when to make it happen 15
  • 16. Why Action Planning?“A picture of importantdestinations [that] guidesyou on what to look foron the journey to ensure you are on the rightpathway” - Annie E. Casey Foundation 16
  • 17. Theory of Change/Logic Model“If you dontknow where youare going, anyroad will takeyou there."But how will you know if you gotthere? 17
  • 18. VMOSA-E• Evaluation plan – Monitor process – Monitor outcomes – Share findings 18
  • 19. KIS Principle 19
  • 20. Needs Assessment DefinitionA systematic process of gathering informationabout the current conditions of a targetedarea that underlie the “need” for anintervention. - Getting to Outcomes, RAND, 2004 20
  • 21. AssessmentNeeds:• What is absent or problematic in a community• Shortcomings• Things that if you had, would allow you to make better use of your resources• Short of a source of supply, support, or resource 21
  • 22. Spin definition on its headAssets:• Improve quality of the community• Positive experiences and qualities needed for health• A person, place, entity• Synergistic
  • 23. Data Triangle Archival DataQuantitative Data Qualitative Data 23
  • 24. Assessment Types1. Quantitative - Survey data2. Qualitative - Focus groups, Open Space Technology, key informant interviews, observations3. Archival - Police, hospital, school data 24
  • 25. Assessment Levels• Levels – Establish baseline• Trends – Over time• Patterns – By age, gender, race/ethnicity 25
  • 26. Prioritize Data into a Statement• Take into account all data sources• Take into account perspectives of all stakeholders• Determine resources available to address needs 26
  • 27. Health Impact Assessment • Ensure that health and health disparities are considered in decision- making using an objective and scientific approach, and engage stakeholders in the process. • Used to determine intended and unintended consequences of a policy, procedure, or program.
  • 28. Health Impact Assessment• Screening• Scoping• Assessment• Recommendations• Reporting• Monitoring
  • 29. Bibliography• Annie E. Casey Foundation – www.aecf.org/upload/publicationfiles/cc2977k440.pdf• Community Toolbox – ctb.ku.edu• Alliance for Nonprofit Management – www.allianceonline.org/FAQ/strategic_planning• University of Wisconsin – Extension – www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodel.html• World Health Organization – www.worldhealth.int 30
  • 30. Bibliography• Health Equity. www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/equity/en/• Krueger, Richard A. Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Sage Publications, 2000.• Simon, Judith Sharken. Conducting Successful Focus Groups. Amherst H Wilder Foundation, 1999.• Straus, David. How to Make Collaboration work. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002.• Conducting Needs Assessment Surveys. Community Tool Box, 2002. www.ctb.lsi.ukans.edu/tools/en/sub_section_main_1042.htm• Preliminary data for 2008. See Arialdi, M. Miniño, Xu Jiaquan and Kochanek, Kenneth D. “Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2008”. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 59, No. 2, Dec. 9, 2010, i + 71 pp.• 1900-2000: Changes in Life Expectancy in the United States. http://elderweb.com/node/2838 31