Developing effective safety training تطوير التدريب في مجال السلامة

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تطوير التدريب في مجال السلامة الفعالة …

تطوير التدريب في مجال السلامة الفعالة
Developing effective safety training

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  • 1. Developing Effective Safety Training An introduction to the 8-Step Course Development and Presentation Process OR-OSHA 105 0206 Presented by the Public Education and Conferences Section Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA) 1
  • 2. Goals Help the student to improve their knowledge, skills and ability to: 1. Prepare and safety training lesson plan. 2. Present a safety training class; 3. Evaluate training outcomes. 2
  • 3. Form Teams • Introduce yourselves • Select a team leader • Appoint spokesperson • Every team member is a recorder 3
  • 4. What is “education?” • That which leads out of ignorance • Anything that affects our knowledge, skills, and attitudes • The “why” in safety educates about the natural and system consequences of behavior • Primarily increases knowledge and attitudes • A process through which learners gain new understanding, acquire new skills, or change their attitudes or behaviors. 4
  • 5. What is “training?” • One method of education • The “how” in safety • Primarily increases knowledge and skills • A specialized form of education that focuses on developing or improving skills - the focus on performance. What are the natural and system consequences? What is the outcome when safety training does not include effective education? 5
  • 6. Step 1: ASSESS LEARNER NEEDS Determine learner needs Needs assessments will identify gaps, weaknesses, and limitations in trainees’ skills and knowledge. How do we become aware of safety training needs? 6
  • 7. To get information about the audience: • Observe workers doing work • Interview and/or survey workers • Review employee personnel records • Determine demographics (age, gender, race) • Determine experience level • Determine learning styles • Determine aptitudes, knowledge • Determine attitudes toward subject being taught 7
  • 8. To get information about the tasks • Observe experts doing the task • Interview experts about the task • Review job descriptions, policy statements, reports To get information about the content of process or procedures • Observe the expert of developers of the process or procedure • Interview experts, policy makers, mangers • Review process plans, specifications, rules, guidelines (make sure they are current) 8
  • 9. Are training or non-training interventions the solution to poor safety performance in the workplace? Mager’s Decision Tree Improving Safety Performance Describe the Safety Performance Discrepancy (The Gap) 9
  • 10. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Conduct a needs analysis with the supervisor. Information about the audience: Information about the course topic: 10
  • 11. Step 2: SET GOALS and OBJECTIVES Goals are easy to write. They're nothing more than wishes. • Improve the hazard control program. • Eat some really great food today. • Lose some wait today. Objectives take a little more thought. Well written objectives should have the following elements present: • Starts with an action verb. (Decrease, increase, improve, etc.) • Specifies a single key result to be accomplished. • Is quantifiable. Uses numbers to measure a desired change. (i.e., 50% increase) • Specifies a target date for accomplishment. 11
  • 12. Educational objective • Tells how the student will demonstrate knowledge. “After training, the participant will be able to correctly answer 80% of all test questions.” Training objective • Tells how the student will demonstrate skill, ability. “At the end of the class, the participant will be able to correctly complete all steps of the lockout/tagout procedure required for plant ventilation equipment.” 12
  • 13. Objectives describe observable measurable performance Analyze Assess Attach Bend Build Change Choose Classify Close Combine Compare Complete Compose Compute Construct Correct Create Define Demonstrate Describe Design Develop Differentiate Distinguish Evaluate Explain Fill Out Find Handle Identify Improve Justify Label List Locate Measure Modify Move Name Open Operate Organize Perform Plan Position Predict Present Process Produce Rate Recite Recognize Report Rotate Select Show Solve Sort State Stretch Translate Turn Use Write 13
  • 14. Questions to ask after writing your objective. Does it… 1. Describe what participants will be able to do? 2. State a time limit? 3. Include an acceptable level of performance? 4. Describe a measurable level, increase or decrease in knowledge, skills, or ability? 14
  • 15. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Develop goals and objectives 15
  • 16. Step 3: DESIGN THE CURRICULUM Subject. What’s covered? Scope. How broad or specific? Sequence. In what order? Loading. How deep? 16
  • 17. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Subject. What’s going to be covered? Scope. How broad or specific? Loading. How deep? Sequence. In what order? 17
  • 18. Step 4: SELECT METHODS & MEDIA Methods: Case study Lecture Role play Modeling Demonstration Small group Games Stories Discussion Survey Brainstorm Question others? Rank order what you consider to be the top five training methods that work for you. 18
  • 19. Media: 35mm Slide Handouts Workbooks Overheads Instruments Videos Tours Flip Charts Others? 19
  • 20. Training Methods Rank order what you consider to be the top five training methods that work for you. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 1. CASE STUDY: 2. LECTURE: 3. ROLE PLAY: 4. MODELLING: L 5. SMALL GROUP: 6. GAMES: 7. STORIES: 8. EXERCISES: 9. DISCUSSION: 10.TELL YOUR NEIGHBOR: 11.THINK ABOUT AND WRITE: 20
  • 21. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Determine what methods and materials you will need for the presentation. Methods: Media: 21
  • 22. Step 5: WRITE THE COURSE OUTLINE Outline of a typical training session • Opening Segment 1. Introduce Participants and instructor Reason for the course Goals and Objectives 2. Warm-up • Each knowledge/skill group contains 3. Introduction (Motivator, attention-getter) 4. Information/Demonstration 5. Application/Practice 6. Clarification 7. Test 8. Review and Bridge • Final Segment 9. Overall Summary 10. Final Test 11. Commitment 22
  • 23. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Briefly describe below how you would accomplish each element of one module in the course you are developing. Module Subject: ___________________ 3. Introduction (Motivator, attention-getter) 4. Information/Demonstration 5. Application/Practice 6. Clarification 7. Test 8. Review and Bridge 23
  • 24. Step 6: COORDINATE LOGISTICS Determine where and when the training will occur. What will classroom set up be? Who must be contacted to coordinate training? What is generally the best time of day to train? Best day(s) of the week? What are some tips to remember about coordinating the training with others? What should you consider when setting up a room for training? 24
  • 25. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Determine the most suitable start time and day for your training course. Next, draw a sketch of the room set-up. 25
  • 26. Step 7: PRESENT THE TRAINING What presentation methods/tactics used by trainers have been effective/ineffective? (Don’t forget to evaluate the trainer presenting today) Voice Pace Position Control Dress Attitude Expertise Other? 26
  • 27. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: From the information given about the audience you will be training, what presentation considerations should you make? 27
  • 28. Step 8: DOCUMENT THE TRAINING Strong documentation includes: Slide • Trainee’s and trainer’s name. • Date of training. • Subject(s) being trained - procedures, practices, related policies, rules, etc. • Certification - trainee and trainer signatures. • Trainee statement of understanding and intent to comply. • Trainee statement that he/she was provided opportunity to perform. • Trainer statement that measurement (testing) of performance was conducted (required for level 2 training) Why is it so important to thoroughly document safety training? 28
  • 29. Document the training Sample training certification for specific tasks Trainee certification. I have received… • list procedure(s) • list practice(s) • List related policies, rules, accountabilities This training has provided me adequate opportunity to… _________________ (Trainee) _____________ (Date) Trainer certification. I have conducted… ________________ (Trainer) _____________ (Date) 29
  • 30. Step 9: EVALUATE THE RESULTS Level One: Reaction. Were the participants pleased and satisfied. Did they feel that they learned some things of interest and, more importantly, can use? Methods - Questionnaire immediately after the program. Post-program conversations. Level Two: Learning. Did the participants learn anything as a result of the training? Methods: Classroom performance. Paper-and-pencil quiz. Tests before and after the training program. Demonstration of skill(s). 30
  • 31. Level Three: Behavior. Did the training lead to improved on-the-job performance by the participants? Methods: Before and after comparisons. Questionnaires. Interviews. Level Four: Results. Has improved performance on-thejob contributed to increased effectiveness in reaching workgroup and organizational goals? Methods: Performance measures. In-depth interviews. Questionnaires. 31
  • 32. Training at GeeWiz Widgets: Which level(s) of evaluation has been requested, or will be required by the training you have developed and presented? What method(s) will you use to evaluate at that level? 32
  • 33. The Not-so-final Exam 1. What might be one of the most important questions to ask during a needs analysis? 2. What are the three criteria for an operational objective? 3. T F “Loading” refers to the amount of total information included in training session 4. List two training methods that appeal to adult learners. 5. Describe one advantage of using color in course media. 6. List the three main sections of a traditional training outline. 7. What is the message when a trainer ignores a question posed by an attendee? 8. What is one method used to evaluate level 2 learning? 9. T F Level three learning is usually evaluated immediately after training. 33