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Transcript

  • 1. 70-291: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Chapter 4: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  • 2. Objectives
    • Outline the benefits of using DHCP
    • Describe the DHCP lease and renewal process
    • Install and authorize the DHCP service
    • Configure DHCP scopes
    • Create DHCP reservations for client computers
    • Configure DHCP options
    • Understand and describe the purpose of a DHCP relay
    • Install and configure a DHCP relay
  • 3. DHCP Overview
    • Used to automatically deliver IP addressing
    • Reduces the amount of time you spend configuring computers on your network
    • Used by default unless you specify otherwise
    • The ipconfig /all command will indicate whether the configuration came from a DHCP server computer
  • 4. DHCP Overview (continued)
  • 5. DHCP Overview (continued)
  • 6. Leasing an IP Address
    • An IP address is leased during the boot process
    • The overall process is composed of four broadcast packets:
      • DHCPDISCOVER
      • DHCPOFFER
      • DHCPREQUEST
      • DHCPACK
  • 7. Leasing an IP Address (continued)
    • Any DHCP server that receives the DHCPDISCOVER packet responds with a DHCPOFFER packet
    • The DHCP client responds to the DHCPOFFER packet it receives with a DHCPREQUEST packet
    • A DHCPACK packet indicates confirmation that the client can use the lease
    • Once DHCPACK is received, the client can start using the IP address and options in the lease
  • 8. Leasing an IP Address (continued)
  • 9. Renewing an IP Address
    • The IP address can either be permanent or timed
    • A permanent address is never reused for another client
    • Timed leases expire after a certain amount of time
    • Windows clients attempt to renew their lease after 50% of the lease time has expired
    • A DHCP server may either honor or reject a renew request
  • 10. Renewing an IP Address (continued)
  • 11. Installing and Authorizing the DHCP Service
    • A DHCP service must be authorized after installation
  • 12. Installing the DHCP Service
    • DHCP is a standard service
    • It is included in Windows Server 2003
    • It is not installed as part of a default installation
  • 13. Installing the DHCP Service (continued)
  • 14. Activity 4-1: Installing DHCP
    • Objective: Install DHCP on Windows Server 2003
    • Make sure your network connection is statically configured
    • Install the service using the Add/Remove Windows Components utility
  • 15. Authorizing the DHCP Service
    • Unauthorized DHCP servers can hand out bad information
    • DHCP will not start unless authorized
    • If Active Directory is used, authorization takes place in Active Directory
    • DHCP servers are automatically authorized under certain conditions
  • 16. Authorizing the DHCP Service (continued)
  • 17. Authorizing the DHCP Service (continued)
  • 18. Activity 4-2: Starting an Authorized DHCP Server
    • Objective: View the results of starting a DHCP server that does not participate in an Active Directory domain
    • Check to make sure the service is running
    • Check out any relevant events using the System Log
  • 19. Activity 4-3: Installing the Active Directory Service
    • Objective: Install the Active Directory service on your computer and participate in an Active Directory domain
    • Use the dcpromo utility
    • Select “domain controller for a new domain”
    • Select “domain in a new forest”
    • Continue through the resulting dialogs
  • 20. Activity 4-4: Starting an Unauthorized DHCP Server
    • Objective: View the results of starting an unauthorized DHCP server
    • View the System Log to see the result of starting an unauthorized DHCP server
  • 21. Activity 4-5: Authorizing a DHCP Server
    • Objective: Authorize a DHCP server in Active Directory
    • Go to the DHCP snap-in and choose the activate option
  • 22. Configuring DHCP Scopes
    • Scope defines a range of IP addresses
    • Each scope is configured with:
      • Description
      • Starting IP address
      • Ending IP address
      • Subnet mask
      • Exclusions
      • Lease duration
    • Two strategies exist for defining the starting and ending IP addresses
      • Allow all and exempt the few static addresses
      • Use only the addresses not already in use
  • 23. Configuring DHCP Scopes (continued)
  • 24. Configuring DHCP Scopes (continued)
    • Exclusions are used to prevent some IP addresses from being handed out dynamically
    • Lease duration defines how long client computers are allowed to use an IP address
    • Default lease duration is eight days
    • A scope must be activated before the DHCP service can begin using it
  • 25. Activity 4-6: Creating a Scope
    • Objective: Create a scope to distribute IP addresses to client computers
    • Manually enter the IP configuration settings as directed by the text
    • Create a new scope using the configuration settings provided
  • 26. Activity 4-7: Activating and Testing a Scope
    • Objective: Activate a DHCP scope, and then test it with a partner
    • One person will activate the scope created in the previous activity
    • Another person will try to obtain an automatic IP address from the server
  • 27. Superscopes
    • Used to combine multiple scopes into a single logical scope
    • Allows multiple scopes to be treated as a single scope
    • If a superscope is used, then the DHCP server offers only one lease as opposed to multiple leases
  • 28. Superscopes (continued)
  • 29. Activity 4-8: Configuring a Superscope
    • Objective: Combine two scopes into a single logical unit using a superscope
    • First, create a second scope in addition to the scope already created in a previous activity
    • Create a superscope to encompass the two scopes
    • Use the DHCP snap-in for this activity
  • 30. Activity 4-9: Deleting a Superscope
    • Objective: Delete a superscope, leaving each scope independent
    • Make sure you delete the superscope without deleting the subscopes
  • 31. Multicast Scopes
    • Used to deliver multicast addresses to applications that require it
    • Multicast addresses are used to deliver packets to groups of computers
    • Start and end IP addresses define the range of addresses that can be handed out by DHCP servers
    • TTL defines the number of routers through which a multicast packet can move
  • 32. Multicast Scopes (continued)
    • Exclusions define addresses that should not be handed out
    • Lease duration defines the length of time that an application can use a multicast address
    • Default lease length is 30 days
  • 33. Activity 4-10: Creating a Multicast Scope
    • Objective: Create a multicast scope to deliver multicast addresses to applications
    • Setting up a multicast scope is very similar to setting up any other scope
    • Set the scope configuration to that specified in the text
  • 34. Activity 4-11: Deleting a Multicast Scope
    • Objective: Delete a multicast scope
    • Right click on the scope and issue the delete command
  • 35. Creating DHCP Reservations
    • Reservations are used to hand out a specific IP address to a particular client
    • Useful when delivering IP addresses to devices that would normally use static addresses
    • Can also be beneficial when firewalls are in place
    • Reservations are created based on MAC addresses
  • 36. Creating DHCP Reservations (continued)
  • 37. Activity 4-12: Creating and Testing a Reservation
    • Objective: Create a DHCP reservation, and test it with a client
    • Configure the server to reserve an IP address for a client machine
    • Test to see if the client machine picks up the reserved address
  • 38. Configuring DHCP Options
    • DHCP can hand out a variety of other IP configuration options
    • It is common that all workstations within an entire organization use the same DNS servers
    • DNS is often configured at the server level
  • 39. Configuring DHCP Options (continued)
  • 40. Configuring DHCP Options (continued)
  • 41. Activity 4-13: Setting Server Options
    • Objective: Set the DNS server option for a DHCP server
    • Check 006 DNS servers option
    • Add the IP address x.0.0.250
  • 42. Activity 4-14: Setting Scope Options
    • Objective: Set the default gateway in the scope options
    • Use the DHCP snap-in to complete this activity
  • 43. Activity 4-15: Testing Server & Scope Options
    • Objective: Activate a DHCP scope, and then test it with a partner to ensure that scope options are handed out
    • Activate a DHCP scope
    • Configure a client to access the server
    • Check the default gateway and DNS settings to find out whether or not the configurations entered in previous activities were done correctly
  • 44. Vendor and User Classes
    • Used to differentiate between clients within a scope
    • Vendor classes are based on the operating system
    • User classes are defined based on network connectivity or the administrator
    • You can use the ipconfig /setclassid command to set the DHCP user class ID
  • 45. Vendor and User Classes (continued)
  • 46. Vendor and User Classes (continued)
  • 47. Configuring a DHCP Relay
    • DHCP packets cannot travel across a router
    • A relay agent is necessary in order to have a single DHCP server handle all leases
    • Relay agents receive broadcast DHCP packets and forward them as unicast packets to a DHCP server
    • The DHCP relay cannot be installed on the same server as the DHCP service
  • 48. Configuring a DHCP Relay (continued)
  • 49. Configuring a DHCP Relay (continued)
  • 50. Activity 4-16: Configuring a DHCP Relay
    • Objective: Uninstall the DHCP service from your computer and configure it as a DHCP relay
    • Uninstall the DHCP service
    • Configure the computer as a relay by using the Routing and Remote Access tool provided in Windows
  • 51. Summary
    • DHCP dynamically assigns IP address information to clients on a network
    • The DHCP lease process is composed of four packets:
      • DHCPDISCOVER
      • DHCPOFFER
      • DHCPREQUEST
      • DHCPACK
    • A DHCP client attempts to renew its lease at 50%, 87.5%, and 100% of the lease time
    • The commands ipconfig /release and ipconfig /renew can be used to release and renew DHCP leases
  • 52. Summary (continued)
    • If the Active Directory service is present on your network, each DHCP server must be authorized in Active Directory to lease addresses to clients
    • A scope defines a range of IP addresses that are leased to clients
    • A superscope combines two scopes into a single logical unit to service network segments with two subnets
  • 53. Summary (continued)
    • An exclusion in a scope can stop a DHCP server from handing out specific addresses
    • A reservation allows you to give a specific workstation a defined IP address by tying the DHCP lease to the MAC address of the client
    • Vendor and user classes can be used to configure some client computers with different options, depending on the class to which they belong
    • A DHCP relay agent is required on each network that requires IP configuration from a DHCP server across a router

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