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Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website
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Heuristic Analysis For The Bentley Lib Website

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Heuristic Review of The Bentley University Website (circa Fall '08) focusing on basic layout and usability from the student users' perspective. (The website has been subsequently updated, …

Heuristic Review of The Bentley University Website (circa Fall '08) focusing on basic layout and usability from the student users' perspective. (The website has been subsequently updated, incorporating suggestions from this presentation)

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  • http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html

    Basic short list (quoted from above):

    Visibility of system status The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.
    Match between system and the real world The system should speak the users' language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.
    User control and freedom Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.
    Consistency and standards Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.
    Error prevention Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.
    Recognition rather than recall Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.
    Flexibility and efficiency of use Accelerators -- unseen by the novice user -- may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.
    Aesthetic and minimalist design Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.
    Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.
    Help and documentation Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.
    I originally developed the heuristics for heuristic evaluation in collaboration with Rolf Molich in 1990 [Molich and Nielsen 1990; Nielsen and Molich 1990]. I since refined the heuristics based on a factor analysis of 249 usability problems [Nielsen 1994a] to derive a set of heuristics with maximum explanatory power, resulting in this revised set of heuristics [Nielsen 1994b].

    TR: Also:
    http://www.asktog.com/basics/firstPrinciples.html#top

    Also mentioned in the Finnish study:
    “Nielsen’s (2007) frequently applied heuristics include the following areas:
    . visibility of system status;
    . match between the system and the real world;
    . user control and freedom;
    . consistency and standards;
    . error prevention;
    . recognition rather than recall;
    . flexibility and efficiency of use;
    . esthetic and minimalist design;
    . help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors; and
    . help and documentation.”


    Also
    (1) Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time
    they encounter the design?
    (2) Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform
    tasks?
    (3) Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how
    easily can they re-establish proficiency?
    (4) Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how
    easily can they recover from the errors?
    (5) Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?
  • I’ve been affiliated with Bentley since January of 2007
    Discovered things because I systematically clicked through all links, and kept being surprised on a regular basis
    Wiki
    Most times, I go with a specific goal in mind and can just as easily switch to Google Scholar (1 click!!)
    I will persist, knowing I have more access to databases here, but not if I am frustrated
    Libraries are complicated and VERY REWARDING,
    given there is a learning curve
    Shouldn’t have a learning curve on the website itself
  • Most people in the audience might have the library as their homepage or bookmarked.
    Note: Controversy over Library’s low visibility on Home Page, frustrating political issue is additionally a major usability point. On the Library pages, clear roadsigns should be posted, instead of information overload.

    How would you get to the Bentley Library Website from this page?
    At least 3 ways: Is there a button? No
    Search box-should be last resort
    Drop down? Which one?
  • Under Teaching
  • Can people say “Academics->Academic Facilities ->Library”, or find it easily on this page?
  • Note the Quick Links are smaller, more text-heavy and arranged according to someone else’s priorities.
    Also Blackboard and “Check Email” are already taking up prime real estate under the Logins section
    There is a Library link here as well, although I had never found it (until I looked specifically for it) and have never linked to it from this page.
  • Plusses: Cohesive, well organized sections, visually interesting yet simple


    Minuses: Light blue text over busy background-at the one spot on the page that changes regularly!
    News/Events RSS (large, prominent) and at bottom ‘Subscribe to Bentley News” RSS-are they different? HOW?
    Multiple ways to navigate to the same thing on one page
    “Course Reserves” button
    “Course Reserves & eReserves” under Lib Services
    “Place item on Reserve” under Additional Faculty Services-almost the same page, but role based
    “Additional Faculty Services”
    “Borrowing Cards: Harvard” etc, seen by general audience, can students get cards for Brandeis?

  • COMPLETELY DIFFERENT LOOK-library theme and color goes away, “Am I on the same site?”
    Note Login-Prompt “Aren’t I logged in already?”, “Should I login here, or will I just have to login again later?”, ‘What info can I just click on w/out signing in?”

    NOWHERE DOES IT SAY “WIKI” except the url!!
    Mouse over the icon, “Main Page”-of what? Bentley, Library, Wiki or something else??

    Navigation area: stay on the Wiki, except for “Bentley Library” and “Get Research Help” both back to Library website page

    Not updated since Sept 2007
  • Scroll down, b/c content is below the fold, might not scroll all the way back up
  • ‘Create Account”? For Bentley or for the Wiki
  • How can I create a new account? Shortname, or can I not do it because I am a student?
    “Email password”, how can you email a password if you don’t have my email?
    No directions, indications
  • Long page, lots of info, 96 databases!!! PLUS See Also
    Icons odd (home means yes for off campus access?)
    How come no pop-up for a database when it isn’t working
    Link to Google Scholar?

    Why does Central search appear here and not homepage
    Chat appears here, doesn’t appear on homepage and not Database pages
  • Increase subjects/topics
    At least 1 per area of study!!
    More than 15
  • Here they are all listed
    “General”

    How can I make informed decisions, unless they are
  • Several things

    1) These windows won’t close unless you hit “Close”, which is in the OPPOSITE corner. Can’t X it out, can’t click off it, can’t even hit the back button. NOT FORGIVING OF MISTAKES

    2) This appears as a big block of text, lots of relevant info-but what is most relevant to the task/user at this point?

    Quote of boxes:
    ABI Inform Global
    Scope: ABI Inform Global, via ProQuest Direct, indexes more than 1,300 periodicals, with more than 750 in full-text. As the premier business and management database, ABI covers the subject areas of advertising, marketing, economics, human resources, finance, taxation, information technology, and management. For a list of titles indexed in ABI Inform Global visit the ProQuest Direct Title Lists page.  Updated: Daily  Indexing: Abstracts, Full-text HTML, Full-text HTML with graphics, and PDF formats.

    Academic Search Premier:
    One of the largest academic multi-disciplinary database, Academic Search Premier provides full text for nearly 4,000 scholarly publications, including full text for nearly 3,100 peer-reviewed journals. Coverage spans virtually every area of academic study and offers information dating as far back as 1975. This database is updated on a daily basis via EBSCO host.

    Business Source Premier
    Business Source Premier provides full text for nearly 3,300 scholarly business journals, including full text for more than 1000 peer-reviewed business publications. Coverage includes virtually all subject areas related to business. This database provides full text (PDF) for more than 300 of the top scholarly journals dating as far back as 1922. This database is updated on a daily basis.

    Expanded Academic ASAP
    Expanded Academic ASAP (1980-present), indexes more than 1,500 periodicals, with more than 500 being full-text. Subjects covered include astronomy, religion, law, history, psychology, humanities, current events, sociology, communications, and the general sciences.
  • Underlying design to this, specification?
  • “Results 1-26 of 95 returned for keywords, (6763 total with 35 duplicates)” Relevant info?

    “More full text options” or button ??
  • Partially redundant info, with new options thrown in, unless both are up at the same time, one can’t tell.
    Why is the info on 2 screens instead of just one?
  • The key piece of information is wrong.
    The Call Number does not start with A, there is no
  • System does not recognize that I am the one who just requested this book.
    No message repeating the original confirm page
  • Blue buttons on left: Note the staggered, redundant and oddly placed
  • Sign in to get content (off campus)
    WSJ
    NYT
    Boston Globe
    Guardian
    Globe and Mail
    Businessweek
    Newsweek
    Time
  • http://www.webcredible.co.uk/user-friendly-resources/web-accessibility/learning-difficulties.shtml
    Some advice
    Webcredible's analysis of usability testing sessions involving participants with learning difficulties has led to our suggesting these guidelines when designing for these users:
    Your website should behave as consistently as possible, and have a consistent appearance/look-and-feel (e.g. all links and buttons should look and behave in the same way)
    Avoid using words in their non-literal sense (e.g. “it's raining cats and dogs”)
    Avoid using abstractions (e.g. provide a link to a telephone number rather than to ‘Contact us’ )
    Provide clearly signposted, simplified summaries of pages' content at the top of the page
    Provide an audio version of a site's content
    Break information into small, simple chunks and illustrate them visually wherever possible
    Always provide an obvious way for users to get back to simpler content if they find themselves on a page above their reading level
    Increase the spacing between lines of text
    Increase the spacing between paragraphs
    Increase the distance between the text and the underline in links (you can use the CSS border-bottom property to underline links and achieve this)
    Increase the target area of navigation links (again, you can do this with CSS)
  • http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezp.bentley.edu/Insight/viewPDF.jsp?Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0721090102.pdf

    New Library World
    Vol. 109 No. 1/2, 2008
    pp. 25-45
    q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
    0307-4803
    DOI 10.1108/03074800810845985

    Heuristic evaluation applied to
    library web services
    Marjo-Riitta Aitta
    Department of Finnish, Information Studies and Logopedics,
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Saana Kaleva
    Nokia, Oulu, Finland
    Terttu Kortelainen
    Department of Finnish, Information Studies and Logopedics,
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland



    Nielsen (1993, p. 25) divides usability into five factors:
    (1) Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time
    they encounter the design?
    (2) Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform
    tasks?
    (3) Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how
    easily can they re-establish proficiency?
    (4) Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how
    easily can they recover from the errors?
    (5) Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?

    Nielsen’s (2007) frequently applied heuristics include the following areas:
    . visibility of system status;
    . match between the system and the real world;
    . user control and freedom;
    . consistency and standards;
    . error prevention;
    . recognition rather than recall;
    . flexibility and efficiency of use;
    . esthetic and minimalist design;
    . help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors; and
    . help and documentation.

    (1) No. 1. Use language familiar to the user, not library jargon, and a logical and
    natural sequence of information[1]:
    . The terminology of the system should be based on terms that are familiar to
    the actual user. Symbols and icons should also be clear to him. Dialogs
    should be in the user’s native language, if possible[2].
    . The users of internet-based systems may have very different backgrounds,
    and therefore finding a common language may be problematic. The terms
    used on the site should be based on the user’s expressions of the task, not on
    the structure of the system or its technical realization. The information on
    the site should be situated in a natural and logical sequence so that adjacent
    matters would be close to each other or in the order of their use[2].
    Heuristic
    evaluation
    31
    . If the use of library terminology is unavoidable, provide clarification of the
    terms[3].
    (2) No. 2. Support the user’s feeling of freedom, free movement and control[2] by
    using explicit and understandable navigation mechanisms[3]. Provide
    accelerators (shortcuts) to enable efficient use of the system[2]:
    . A good navigation system indicates the location of the user in relation to
    both the whole Worldwide web and the structure of a single site. It does not
    require the user to have any knowledge of the library field.
    . Experienced users should be provided with a possibility to perform routine
    tasks quickly, e.g. with accelerators (shortcuts) on the keyboard or the
    mouse, abbreviations, automatic complementing of a command and function
    buttons.
    . The user should be constantly aware of what the system is doing and how it
    has interpreted his commands or input. The user must also be aware of his or
    her location. Response times should be as fast as possible. Navigation bars
    and location indication should facilitate moving in and identification of the
    site on the internet.
    . The user should be provided with an easy escape from different situations.
    This can be realized through, e.g. interrupt or back commands (which lead to
    the previous situation), a cancel command for long operations, an end
    program command (escape from all situations), and defaults for returning to
    the original situation.
    . The user must feel in control of navigation on the site and he or she should
    feel free to choose the functions he wants on the site. The user should not be
    forced to use certain fonts, colors, frames, browser windows or browser
    versions.
    (3) No. 3. Consistency: obey the conventions of Web design and make the pages of
    the site uniform[1]:
    . Effects should be consistent, so that the same commands, words and
    functions effect in the same way in similar situations, allowing the user to
    predict effects. The same information and control should be in the same
    place on each screen and in each choice. The terms used on the site should be
    used consistently, both in text, links and buttons[2].
    . Conventions contribute to the intuitiveness of the site. Uniformity is gained
    through e.g. uniform layout identifying single pages to a particular site.
    (4) No. 4. Make the text easy to scan and read and take into account the special
    requirements of reading from a screen[3]:
    . Note that users don’t read in the Worldwide web – they scan the text. Follow
    the general rules of good web writing: use subtitles, lists and highlighting.
    The credibility of the site is affected by misspelling and factual errors: edit
    the text and check the pages to see that they don’t contain obsolete or
    inaccurate information.
    (5) No. 5. Clearly distinguish normal texts from links, visited links from not visited
    links, and make it easy to conclude, where a link leads to[3]:
    NLW
    109,1/2
    32
    . Link texts should contain the most important words that clearly indicate
    where the link leads to and they should differ from other links on the same
    page. They should be understandable even when separated from their
    context. Check the links on a site at regular intervals.
    (6) No. 6. Esthetic nature and simplicity of the user interface[1] and minimizing the
    need to remember[2]:
    . The user should not be forced to remember things when moving from one
    dialog to another. Instead of, e.g. exact commands, it would be better to offer the
    user an opportunity to recognize the needed matter from different alternatives.
    . Objects, functions and alternatives should be visible in the user interface.
    Good titles and links describing their target facilitate identification, and
    consequently the risk of getting lost in the site decreases. Instructions for
    using the application should be easily reached, and different functions and
    objects should be readily visible.
    . The Worldwide web is a very visual media, and this may cause problems for
    the visually impaired. When designing web sites that contain graphics or
    animation, also note the users that are unable to see them by providing
    alternative ways of presenting the same information, e.g. writing alt texts for
    all graphics. Also pay attention to the graphic design of a web site, use of
    colors, etc.
    . It would be ideal to show the user only the information he/she needs at one
    time. The principle “less is more” crystallizes the first heuristic: every
    additional character means more to learn for the user[2].
    . It is worth condensing the information on the page, and information
    irrelevant to the user should be removed or hidden behind links[2].
    (7) No. 7. Prevention, identification and processing of errors[2]:
    . Error messages should be given in natural language, because otherwise their
    content is not clear to the user. The messages should not place blame.
    Instead, they should reveal what happened and why. The system should
    help the user to recover from an error.
    . Attention must be paid to preventing errors already in the planning phase of
    the system. For example, too similar commands are known to expose the
    user to errors.
    (8) No. 8. Take special groups into account[3]:
    . Pay attention to the needs of special groups, e.g. children, the elderly and
    people with disabilities, when designing the whole site, and take into account
    the needs of special groups in the pages or sub-sites directed to them. This is
    highly connected to the accessibility of the site, which should also be checked.
    (9) No. 9. Instructions and documentation[2]:
    . Use of the system should be so easy that instructions for use are not needed.
    In practice, user instructions generally are necessary. All instructions
    contained in the system should be easy to find and connected to tasks that
    the user performs with the application. The instructions should contain
    directions and steps towards a certain goal, but they should not be too long.
  • Should each link in this category go to parallel formatted screens, or indicate which go to policy pages and which to more active ones like the Wiki?
    Are these the top requests for help? Could they change periodically or cycle out?
  • http://www.humanfactors.com/downloads/10tips.asp

    10 Usability Principles to guide you through the  Web Design Maze
    Print this page | Email this page
    Motivate  Design your site to meet specific user needs and goals. Use motivators to draw different user "personae" into specific parts of your site.
    User task flow  Who are your users? What are their tasks and online environment? For a site to be usable, page flow must match workflow.
    Architecture – it's 80% of usability  Build an efficient navigational structure. Remember – if they can't find it in 3 clicks, they're gone.
    Affordance means obvious  Make controls understandable. Avoid confusion between emblems, banners, and buttons.
    Replicate  Why reinvent the wheel? Use ergonomically designed templates for the most common 8-12 pages.
    Usability test along the way  Test early in design using low-fidelity prototypes. Don't wait until the end when it's too late. Know the technology limitations Identify and optimize for target browsers and user hardware. Test HTML, JavaScript, etc. for compatibility.
    Know the technology limitations Identify and optimize for target browsers and user hardware.Test HTML, JavaScript, etc for compatibility.
    Know user tolerances  Users are impatient. Design for a 2-10 second maximum download. Reuse header graphics so they can load from cache. Avoid excessive scrolling.
    Multimedia – be discriminating  Good animation attracts attention to specific information, then stops. Too much movement distracts, slowing reading and comprehension.
    Use a stats package  Monitor traffic through your site. Which pages pique user interest? Which pages make users leave? Adjust your site accordingly.
  • Transcript

    • 1. HEURISTIC ANALYSIS FOR THE BENTLEY LIBRARY WEBSITE Prepared by Tamara Rose
    • 2. JAKOB NIELSEN  Learnability  Efficiency  Recognition rather than recall  Error recovery and user control  Visibility of system status  Match between system and real world  Consistency and standards
    • 3. MAIN GOALS OF USABILITY  Task success/failure  Severity of problems  Frequency  Priorities  Expectation-Naming links properly  “Consistent Mental Model”
    • 4. EXAMPLE: FINDING THE LIBRARY ONLINE
    • 5. DROP DOWN
    • 6. ANOTHER DROPDOWN: WHERE?
    • 7. ANOTHER DROPDOWN: THERE
    • 8. CURRENT STUDENTS PAGE
    • 9. HOMEPAGE
    • 10. COURSE RESERVES
    • 11. WIKI
    • 12. WIKI-FALSE TOP
    • 13. WIKI LOGIN
    • 14. “NO USER BY THIS NAME, CHECK SPELLING OR CREATE NEW ACC””
    • 15. ARTICLE SEARCH  Databases A-Z  Find Articles by Subject  Find Journal/Magazine  Search for Books/DVDs
    • 16. DATABASES A TO Z
    • 17. FIND ARTICLES/DATABASES BY SUBJECT
    • 18. TRY THESE GENERAL DATABASES
    • 19. GENERAL DATABASES WITH MORE INFO
    • 20. RESULTS SUMMARY DISPLAY
    • 21. RESULTS OF SEARCH OF DATABASES
    • 22. BOOK ENTRY PAGE
    • 23. BOOK SEARCH RESULTS
    • 24. WARNING FROM CHROME WHEN ”REQUESTING” BOOK
    • 25. “WEBSITE” DISPLAY #1
    • 26. “WEBSITE” DISPLAY #2
    • 27. OTHER RESOURCES FOR BOOK ENTRY
    • 28. TEXTING CALL NUMBERS Text on screen: library@bentley.edu “Subject : Call# loc:AReference Stacks call#:AHQ1061 .C315 2005 title: The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing/edited by Malc ”
    • 29. REQUESTING MATERIALS:2X
    • 30. PERSONAL RECORD PAGE: REQUESTS
    • 31. LINK TO OTHER CONTENT: “TODAY’S NEWSPAPERS”
    • 32. LEARNING DISABILITIES  Consistent as possible  Clearly identified signposts  Break info into small, simple chunks and use visual illustration  Clear navigation to get back to simpler or earlier content
    • 33. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS  Contextual help  Explain obscure terms  Provide sequence of long tasks  Subheadings to break up text  Error messages explained  Why didn’t something work?  Off campus
    • 34. SUMMARY OF ISSUES/ TO PRIORITIZE  Database Search Simplified  Subject Search-more categories (?)  Texting Call Numbers  Librarian Chat  Follow through all pages  Chat logs
    • 35. THANKS!
    • 36. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UTEST  Have users start @ bentley.edu  Tasks should include  Find an article  Find a book  Find an article thru a publication  Seek out help features  Wiki?  Task should end only at the pdf of the article!  Collect info of databases, even if NOT analyzed In this round  Provide benchmark  Which is actually a pain point for users? Lib or DB?  Include accessibility centered UTs (separate tests or separate participant set?)  Poor vision  Learning disabled
    • 37. NOTES ON: HEURISTIC EVAL TO LIB WEB SERVICES ARTICLE  Nielsen (1993, p. 25) divides usability into five factors:  (1) Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time  they encounter the design?  (2) Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform  tasks?  (3) Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how  easily can they re-establish proficiency?  (4) Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how  easily can they recover from the errors?  (5) Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?
    • 38. PROQUEST PAGE
    • 39. CURRENT “HAVE YOUR SAY” BLOG  Organized by chronology  Not topic + comments  Each person was not encouraged to reinforce other’s thoughts, rather to come up with issues on their own
    • 40. DIFFERENT STYLE PAGES
    • 41. OTHER GENERAL REFERENCE: HUMAN FACTORS INTERNATIONAL  Motivate  User Task Flow  Architecture is 80% of Usability  Affordance means obvious  Replicate  UT along the way  Know the technological limitations  Know user tolerances  Multimedia-be discriminating  Track Web Metrics

    ×