LITERATURE REVIEWTEEN PREGNANCY According to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report(2011), the rates of teen pregnancy have increased within the last the last 2 years. It was reported in 2009, that 410,000 teens have gotten pregnant . ("Vital sign: teen," 2011) That shows a tremendous increase within the last 10 years.
LITERATURE REVIEW TEEN PREGNANCYAfrican-American females from ages 15 to 19 leads the packby becoming teenage mothers. This population makes up for63% of all reported cases.(Oberlander, Agostini, Houston&, Black,2010)
LITERATURE REVIEWTEEN PREGNANCY Why has African American teens lead the cases for teen pregnancy? What have we done to contribute to this problem? How does the family unit contribute to this issue?
LITERATURE REVIEWFAMILY DYNAMICS Amato and Gilbreth (1990) found strong benefits of children mainly when their father practices strong parenting skills that are nurturing, sensitive parenting combined with setting limits and engagement in everyday life. It was also apparent that week- end dads who indulge their children don’t contribute to the Childs emotional well being.
LITERATURE REVIEWFAMILY DYNAMICS In 2010, Oberlander, Agostini, Houston and Black, performed investigations to gather information about marital expectations of young African American mothers. It was discovered that if the mother wasn’t married , then the daughter had less that 50% expectation to get married also.
LITERATURE REVIEWFAMILY DYNAMICS The impact that the extended family has on adolescent mothers’ adjustment and acquisition of parenting skills may differ depending on how good the relationship is between the mother and grandmother. (Sellars, Black, Boris, Oberlander, & Meyers, 2011)
LITERATURE REVIEWFAMILY DYNAMICS It has been identified in some cases that young grandmothers are parenting at the same time as their own children. This factor can add stress to an already stressful situation. (Sellers, K., Black, M., Boris, N., Oberlander, S., Me yers, L., 2011)
LITERATURE REVIEWFAMILY DYNAMICS In 2008, Evans, Boxhill, &Pinkava, stated that the stability of an adolescent may be broken down by stressors like poverty and break down in parental relationships. Increasing the odds of the adolescent having disruptive behaviors , including pregnancy.
LITERATURE REVIEWMETHODOLOGY This research is a qualitative research. There was three forms of receiving information. There was interviews, statistical data, observation.
LITERATURE REVIEWMETHODOLOGY-CONTD Research Design This research design uses two forms which was able to control variables with interviews with parent , mothers, fathers and research of statistical data. The individuals were recruited from hospitals and schools that offered teenage mother programs. Permission was received and forms were signed by parents to speak with children. In order to receive adequate and correct information, the participant that were chosen where young African-American female mothers reside in a low socioeconomic status that has just given birth within the last year. The grandmothers and grandfathers of those babies were also interviewed. The interviews allowed data from the individuals affected by childbirth. These interviews were conducted in the community ie. church and in their homes
LITERATURE REVIEWCONCLUSION In conclusion, this research is conducted to identify issues and encourage families to be proactive in decreasing teen pregnancy. Not only immediate families but extended families and communities need to become involved with adolescent children. Mothers and fathers alike need to realize the importance of two family homes and communication with their children. They can also realize the importance of marriage and co parenting. Together we can educate and eliminate the problem of teenage pregnancy.
LITERATURE REVIEWREFERENCES Evans, G.W., Boxhill,L.,& Pinkava, M. (2008) Poverty and Maternal Responsiveness: The role of maternal stress .International Journal of Behavioral Development,32 ,232-237 Han,W.J., Miller,D.P., Waldfogel,J.(2002)Parental work schedules, family, process, and early adolescent’ risky behaviors. Children and Youth ServicesReview,29,1249-1266 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vital Signs Teen Pregnancy-United States,1991-2009,60(13) Oberlander, S, Agostini, W., Houston, A. & Black,M.(2010). A Seven Year Investigation of Martial Expectations and Marriage among Urban, Low -Income, African American adolescent mothers. 24(1), 31-40
LITERATURE REVIEWREFERENCES Sellers,K., Black,M., Bori,N.W., Oberlander,S., Myer s.(2011)Adolescent Mothers’ Relationships With Their Own Mothers: Impact on Parenting Outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology.25, 117- 126 Teen Mom talks pregnancy crisis ,retrieved from ,wmctv.com, June 23,2011