The Roman art was the style most important in Europe in the centuries XI, XII and XIII.
The roman art is the Christian art, in different parts of Middle Age (Roman, Preromanic, Byzantine, Germanic and Arab).
They used specific terms form name the art Romanic.
It was expanded in Italy, France, Germany and Spain. In each country had different characteristics.
The term Romanesque, as a concept that defines an artistic style, was first used in 1820 by Charles de Gerville, considering this term with all art that is performed prior to the Gothic style since the fall of the Roman Empire. Subsequently, the meaning of Romanesque art was restricting and went on to describe the art developed in the West between the 11th and 12th centuries
The monastery Cluný, made in the year 930, is the great centre of the diffuser major reform, and achieving that through their art Romanesque monasteries spread for all the Christian world in Europe.
Before the order Cluný be extended, this Romanesque, had already been developed in Italy in the region of Como, and in Spain, Cataluña (Lérida, Gerona and Barcelona) and Aragon (especially in the province of Huesca) , Which is called the first Romanesque.
Stone squared but not polished
Headers semitambor adorned with arches and bands willing rhythmically
The temples are filled with gritty barrel vaults and oven
The ships are larger and higher, at least in comparison with old buildings preromanic
Used as the pillars sustaining
There is no figuration sculptural
Sculpture in facades
During the second half of the 12th century and first half of the 13th century, as architectural solutions will reinforce and improve the tardorrománico arises. One of its expressions is called Cistercian art
Examples San Martín de Lines-Cantabria/San Martín de Fromista-España/ Catalonia-Campanar catedral de Vic-Osona
It developed in the West since the invasion of the barbarians until mid-13th century that began in the Gothic.
Distinction of various styles
The imitation of Byzantine, which in Italy was called Italo-Byzantine
The Carolingian, developed mainly in France
The Visigoth and Mozarabic in Spain
The Irish and their related North
The imitation of Byzantine
Has the noble qualities and faults radicals.
It was developed mainly in Italy where artists Byzantine flowed in large numbers fleeing persecution and iconoclastic where found more imitators than elsewhere Byzantine mosaic
Distinguished by the frequent use of funds purpúreo applications and gold and silver in the drawings and by adopting magnificent architectural reasons to decorate
The Visigoth and Mozarabic
Is characterized by its vivid colors and even garish yellow especially intense; figures for their barbaric and child drawing and sometimes calligraphic style, for their fantastic animals, their letters of adornment made with human figures, their motives architectural horseshoe arches in their capricious and intertwined and other decorative geometric drawings, works by mimicking Irish and Charlemagne.
It is characterized by the Romanesque painting little study of nature that reveal their figures, by the seriousness and consistency of the faces in the human form, by the symmetrical folding of the cloth, for the violent attitudes that give the characters to represent a scene and rigid hieratic attitude when the figures have failed to express actions, by their contours too strong or accented and finally, by the lack of perspective offered by the membership as a whole.
The Irish and their related North
It is characterized by exaggeration of the human figure in proportions and in moving and by the strange monstrous figures in fantasy. He also characterized the parsimony or shortages that can be seen strokes in the picture, tending to be schematic.