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The term Romanesque, as a concept that defines an artistic style, was first used in 1820 by Charles de Gerville, considering this term with all art that is performed prior to the Gothic style since the fall of the Roman Empire. Subsequently, the meaning of Romanesque art was restricting and went on to describe the art developed in the West between the 11th and 12th centuries
The monastery Cluný, made in the year 930, is the great centre of the diffuser major reform, and achieving that through their art Romanesque monasteries spread for all the Christian world in Europe.
Before the order Cluný be extended, this Romanesque, had already been developed in Italy in the region of Como, and in Spain, Cataluña (Lérida, Gerona and Barcelona) and Aragon (especially in the province of Huesca) , Which is called the first Romanesque.
During the second half of the 12th century and first half of the 13th century, as architectural solutions will reinforce and improve the tardorrománico arises. One of its expressions is called Cistercian art
Examples San Martín de Lines-Cantabria/San Martín de Fromista-España/ Catalonia-Campanar catedral de Vic-Osona
Is characterized by its vivid colors and even garish yellow especially intense; figures for their barbaric and child drawing and sometimes calligraphic style, for their fantastic animals, their letters of adornment made with human figures, their motives architectural horseshoe arches in their capricious and intertwined and other decorative geometric drawings, works by mimicking Irish and Charlemagne.
It is characterized by the Romanesque painting little study of nature that reveal their figures, by the seriousness and consistency of the faces in the human form, by the symmetrical folding of the cloth, for the violent attitudes that give the characters to represent a scene and rigid hieratic attitude when the figures have failed to express actions, by their contours too strong or accented and finally, by the lack of perspective offered by the membership as a whole.
It is characterized by exaggeration of the human figure in proportions and in moving and by the strange monstrous figures in fantasy. He also characterized the parsimony or shortages that can be seen strokes in the picture, tending to be schematic.