Spreading Activation (Associative Network Theory), General Aggression Model
Tropeano (2006) suggests that watching a violent rap music video provokes individuals to provide violent answers to questions about fictitious scenarios.
Anderson et al. (2003) show that exposure to violent lyrics primes individuals to adopt aggressive thoughts and feelings.
Wingood et al. (2003) conducted a 2.5 year longitudinal study of lower-socioeconomic-status African American female teens and found that those with the most exposure to rap music were the most likely to engage in violent acts and other unhealthy behaviors.
H1: Exposure to violent rap music will increase an individual’s level of aggression.
H2: Exposure to Christian rap music will increase an individual’s level of aggression.
H3: Exposure to pop music following exposure to violent rap music will attenuate the effects of the violent rap music.
H4: Viewing the music video for a song from the above genres will result in comparatively higher levels of aggression than exposure to just the song alone.
Procedure Pre/Post Test Design Six test groups: 1) Exposure to violent rap (VR), song only 2) Exposure to Christian rap (CR), song only 3) Exposure to violent rap followed by pop music (VR+PM), song only 4) Exposure to violent rap, music video 5) Exposure to Christian rap, music video 6) Exposure to violent rap followed by pop music, music video Aggression Scale: Buss & Perry (1992)Verbal aggression (VA), Physical aggression (PA), Anger (A), Hostility (H)
Philadelphia Flash Mobs Some commentators have suggested that the recent flash mobs in Philadelphia have been in part inspired by violent music.
Results No hypotheses supported! ANOVA (3 X 5) Conditions (VR, CR, VR+PM) X Anger LevelsPA:F(2, 107) = .67, p = .516VA:F(2, 107) = .80, p = .451A:F(2, 107) = .52, p = .594H:F(2, 107) = .45, p = .642Flash Mob: F(2, 107) = 2.24, p = .112
ANOVA (2 X 5) Conditions (VR, VR+PM) X Anger LevelsPA: F(1, 67) = .84, p = .362VA:F(1, 67) = .81, p = .372A:F(1, 67) = .37, p = .543H: F(1, 67) = .76, p = .386Flash MobF(1, 67) = .01, p = .961
Results (cont.) No hypotheses supported! ANOVA (2 X 5) Exposure (Song, Video) X Anger LevelsPA:F(1, 67) = 2.04, p = .158VA:F(1, 67) = .16, p = .691A:F(1, 67) = 1.01, p = .319H:F(1, 67) = .05, p = .822Flash Mob: F(1, 67) = .01, p = .961
Implications Our lack of significant results is significant in itself. This suggests the following: