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  • 1. Music, Aggression, and Flash Mobs
    Tamara Ibezim
  • 2. Background Literature
    • Spreading Activation (Associative Network Theory), General Aggression Model
    • 3. Tropeano (2006) suggests that watching a violent rap music video provokes individuals to provide violent answers to questions about fictitious scenarios.
    • 4. Anderson et al. (2003) show that exposure to violent lyrics primes individuals to adopt aggressive thoughts and feelings.
    • 5. Wingood et al. (2003) conducted a 2.5 year longitudinal study of lower-socioeconomic-status African American female teens and found that those with the most exposure to rap music were the most likely to engage in violent acts and other unhealthy behaviors.
  • Hypotheses
    • H1: Exposure to violent rap music will increase an individual’s level of aggression.
    • 6. H2: Exposure to Christian rap music will increase an individual’s level of aggression.
    • 7. H3: Exposure to pop music following exposure to violent rap music will attenuate the effects of the violent rap music.
    • 8. H4: Viewing the music video for a song from the above genres will result in comparatively higher levels of aggression than exposure to just the song alone.
  • Procedure
    Pre/Post Test Design
    Six test groups:
    1) Exposure to violent rap (VR), song only
    2) Exposure to Christian rap (CR), song only
    3) Exposure to violent rap followed by pop music (VR+PM), song only
    4) Exposure to violent rap, music video
    5) Exposure to Christian rap, music video
    6) Exposure to violent rap followed by pop music, music video
    Aggression Scale: Buss & Perry (1992)Verbal aggression (VA), Physical aggression (PA), Anger (A), Hostility (H)
  • 9. Philadelphia Flash Mobs
    Some commentators have suggested that the recent flash mobs in Philadelphia have been in part inspired by violent music.
  • 10. Results
    No hypotheses supported!
    ANOVA (3 X 5) Conditions (VR, CR, VR+PM) X Anger LevelsPA:F(2, 107) = .67, p = .516VA:F(2, 107) = .80, p = .451A:F(2, 107) = .52, p = .594H:F(2, 107) = .45, p = .642Flash Mob: F(2, 107) = 2.24, p = .112
    • ANOVA (2 X 5) Conditions (VR, VR+PM) X Anger LevelsPA: F(1, 67) = .84, p = .362VA:F(1, 67) = .81, p = .372A:F(1, 67) = .37, p = .543H: F(1, 67) = .76, p = .386Flash MobF(1, 67) = .01, p = .961
  • Results (cont.)
    No hypotheses supported!
    ANOVA (2 X 5) Exposure (Song, Video) X Anger LevelsPA:F(1, 67) = 2.04, p = .158VA:F(1, 67) = .16, p = .691A:F(1, 67) = 1.01, p = .319H:F(1, 67) = .05, p = .822Flash Mob: F(1, 67) = .01, p = .961
  • 11. Implications
    Our lack of significant results is significant in itself. This suggests the following:
    • Desensitization
    • 12. Mere exposure
    • 13. Maintenance of self-concept
    • 14. Open-ended responses indicate aversion to the study itself
    • 15. Liberal-minded campus