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Stress The force per unit area acting on a solid.
Strain The change in shape or volume of a body of rock as a result of stress.
Anticline Formed by the upfolding, or arching, of rock layers.
Synclines Downfolds, or troughs, found in association with anticlines
Monoclines Large, step-like folds in otherwise horizontal sedimentary strata
Normal fault Occurs when the hanging wall block moves relative to the footwall block
Reverse fault A fault in which the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block.
Thrust fault Reverse faults with dips of less than 45 degrees
Strike-slip fault Faults in which the movement is parallel to the trend or strike, of the fault surface
What You Should Know… The factors that influence the strength of a rock and how it will deform include temperature, confining pressure, rock type, and time. Rocks deform permanently in two ways: brittle deformation and ductile formation.
More 411 On Deformation Forces that are unable to deform rock when first applied may cause rock to flow if the force is maintained over a long period of time. The three types of stresses that rocks commonly undergo are tensional stress, compressional stress, and shear stress.
Even More Information The three main types of folds are anticlines, synclines, and monoclines. The major types of faults are normal faults, reverse faults, thrust faults, and strike-slip faults.