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Earth science 6.3
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Earth science 6.3

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Transcript

  • 1. 6.3 Water Beneath the Surface
  • 2. Zone of Saturation• Zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water
  • 3. Groundwater• Water underground in the zone of saturation
  • 4. Water table• The upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater
  • 5. Porosity• The volume of open spaces in rock or soil
  • 6. Permeability• A measure of a material’s ability to transmit fluids
  • 7. Aquifer• Permeable rock layers or sediments that transmit groundwater freely
  • 8. Spring• A flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface
  • 9. Geyser• A hot spring or fountain that ejects water at the intervals
  • 10. Well• An opening bored into the zone of saturation
  • 11. Artesian well• A well in which the water naturally rises above the level of the water
  • 12. Cavern• A naturally formed underground chamber or series of chambers most commonly produced by solution activity in limestone
  • 13. travertine• A form of limestone that is deposited by hot springs or as a cave deposit
  • 14. Karst topography• An area that has a land surface or topography with numerous depressions called sinkholes
  • 15. Sinkhole• A depression produced in a region where soluble rock has been removed by groundwater
  • 16. Key Concept• Much of the water in soil seeps downward until it reaches the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is the area where water fills all of the open spaces in sediment and rock. Groundwater is the water within this zone
  • 17. Key Concept• Groundwater moves by twisting and turning through interconnected small openings. The groundwater moves more slowly when the pore spaces are smaller
  • 18. Key Concept• A spring forms whenever the water table intersects the ground surface
  • 19. Key Concept• Overuse and contamination threatens groundwater supplies in some areas.
  • 20. Key Concept• Erosion forms most caverns at or below the water table in the zone of saturation
  • 21. Key Concept• Karst areas typically have irregular terrain, with many depressions called sinkholes