Earth science 5.2

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Earth science 5.2

  1. 1. 5.2 Soil
  2. 2. Regolith• The layer of rock and mineral fragments that nearly everywhere covers Earth’s surface
  3. 3. Soil• A combination of mineral and organic matter, water, and air.
  4. 4. Soil Horizon• A layer of soil that has identifiable characteristics produced by chemical weathering and other soil-forming processes
  5. 5. Soil Profile• A vertical section through a soil showing its succession of horizons and the underlying parent material.
  6. 6. Pedalfer• Soil of humid regions characterized by the accumulation of iron oxides and aluminum- rich clays in the B horizons.
  7. 7. pedocal• Soil associated with drier regions and characterized by an accumulation of calcium carbonate in the upper horizons
  8. 8. laterite• A red, highly leached soil type found in the tropics that is rich in oxides of iron and aluminum.
  9. 9. Key Concept• Soil is the part of the regolith that supports the growth of plants
  10. 10. Key Concept• Soil has four major components: mineral matter, or broken-down rock; organic matter, or humus, which is the decayed remains of organisms; water; and air.
  11. 11. Key Concept• The most important factors in soil formation are parent material, time, climate, and slope.
  12. 12. Key Concept• Soil varies in composition, texture, structure, and color at different depths.
  13. 13. Key Concept• Three common types of soil are pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite.
  14. 14. Key Concept• However, human activities that remove natural vegetation, such as farming, logging, and construction, have greatly accelerated erosion.

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