Intrusive Igneous Rock Igneous rocks that form below Earth’s surface.
Extrusive Igneous Rock Igneous rock that has formed on Earth’s surface.
Porphyritic Texture An igneous texture consisting of large crystals embedded in a matrix of much smaller crystals.
Granitic Composition A compositional group of igneous rocks that indicate a rock is composed almost entirely of light-colored silicates, mainly quartz and feldspar.
Basaltic Composition A compositional group of igneous rocks indicating that the rock contains substantial dark silicate minerals and calcium rich plagioclase feldspar.
Andesitic Composition The composition of igneous rocks lying between felsic and mafic.
Ultramafic Igneous rock composed mainly of iron and magnesium-rich minerals.
Key Concept How are intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks alike and different? Extrusive rocks are formed when lava hardens and Intrusive rocks are formed when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface.
Key Concept How does the rate of cooling affect an igneous rock’s texture? Slow cooling results in the formation of large crystals and rapid cooling of magma or lava results in rocks with small, interconnected mineral grains.
Key Concept How are igneous rocks classified according to composition? They are classified by both texture and composition.