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Biology 7 2
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  • 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structure 7.2
  • 2. Organelle
    Specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.
  • 3. Cytoplasm
    Material inside the cell membrane not including the nucleus.
  • 4. Nuclear Envelope
    Layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of the cell.
  • 5. Chromatin
    Granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
  • 6. Chromosome
    Threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
  • 7. Nucleolus
    Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.
  • 8. Ribosome
    Small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein.
  • 9. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified.
  • 10. Golgi Apparatus
    Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • 11. Lysosome
    Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.
  • 12. Vacuole
    Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  • 13. Mitochondrion
    Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  • 14. Chloroplast
    Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
  • 15. Cytoskeleton
    Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.
  • 16. Centriole
    One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope.
  • 17. Key Concepts
    What are the functions of the major cell structures?
    The nucleus contains nearly all the cell’s DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.