Monomers Small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.
Polymers Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Carbohydrates Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body.
Monosaccharides Single sugar molecule.
Polysaccharides Large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides.
Lipids Macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes.
Nucleic acids Macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
Nucleotides Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5- carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Ribonucleic acid Single – stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose.
Deoxyribonucleic acid Nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose.
Proteins Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes.
Amino acids Compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end.
Key concepts Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals use carbohydrates for structural purposes.
Key concept Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
Key concept Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Some are used to form bones and muscles. Others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.