Photic zone<br />Well-lit upper layer of the oceans<br />
Aphotic zone<br />Permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone<br />
zonation<br />Prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat<br />
Coastal ocean<br />Marine zone that extends from the low-tide mark to the end of the continental shelf.<br />
Kelp forest<br />Coastal ocean community named for its dominant organism-kelp, a giant brown alga<br />
Coral reef<br />Diverse and productive environment named for the coral animals that make up its primary structure.<br />
benthos<br />Organisms that live attached to or near the ocean floor<br />
Key concept<br />Aquatic ecosystems are determined primarily by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of the overlying water.<br />
Key concept<br />Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into two main types: flowing-water ecosystems and standing-water ecosystems.<br />
Key Concept<br />In addition to the division between the photic and aphotic zones, marine biologists divide the ocean into zones based on the depth and distance from the shore: the intertidal zone, the coastal ocean, and the open ocean.<br />
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