Heat Heat is thermal energy transferred from one object to another.
Temperature Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance.
Conduction Conduction is the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another.
Convection Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; It can take place only in fluids.
Radiation Radiation is the transfer of energy (heat) through space by electromagnetic waves.
Reflection Reflection is the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which is encounters a surface and with the same intensity.
Scattering Scattering is the redirection (in all directions) of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere; The result is more light rays with weaker intensity.
Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect is the heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
Heat is the energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperatures.
Three mechanisms of energy transfer as heat are conduction, convection, and radiation.
Unlike conduction and convection, which need material to travel through, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space.
How the atmosphere is heated: All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects. The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well.
When radiation strikes an object, there usually are three different results. Some energy is absorbed by the object. Substances such as water and air are transparent to certain wavelengths of radiation. Some radiation may bounce off the object without being absorbed or transmitted.