Heat<br />Heat is thermal energy transferred from one object to another.<br />
Temperature<br />Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance. <br />
Conduction<br />Conduction is the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another.<br />
Convection<br />Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; It can take place only in fluids.<br />
Radiation<br />Radiation is the transfer of energy (heat) through space by electromagnetic waves. <br />
Reflection<br />Reflection is the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which is encounters a surface and with the same intensity.<br />
Scattering<br />Scattering is the redirection (in all directions) of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere; The result is more light rays with weaker intensity.<br />
Greenhouse Effect<br />Greenhouse effect is the heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide.<br />
Heat is the energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperatures. <br />
Three mechanisms of energy transfer as heat are conduction, convection, and radiation. <br />
Unlike conduction and convection, which need material to travel through, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space.<br />
How the atmosphere is heated:<br />All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy.<br />Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects.<br />The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation.<br />Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well.<br />
When radiation strikes an object, there usually are three different results.<br />Some energy is absorbed by the object.<br />Substances such as water and air are transparent to certain wavelengths of radiation.<br />Some radiation may bounce off the object without being absorbed or transmitted.<br />
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